%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140421001620+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140421001620+01'00') /Title (Steam-Powered Knowledge: William Chambers and the Business of Publishing, 1820-1860) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4188 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Steam-Powered Knowledge: William Chambers and the Business of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Publishing, 1820-1860)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the 19th century print became an industrial product. In 1800 the speed at which text could be put to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper remained governed by the rhythmic operations of the hand press, an invention very little changed since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moveable type printing appeared in Europe in the mid-fifteenth century. At the very best, two skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operators working together could print 250 single-sided sheets per hour. Book production was still a craft, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and books were luxury items. Half a century later, mid-Victorian Britain was in the midst of something like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new printing revolution. A flood of cheap publications issued from steam-driven printing presses, aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an emerging mass audience for the written word. Even the most respectable publishers were beginning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer books for only a shilling, and reading was now as likely to be a way of passing the time in a clattering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railway carriage as a peacefully contemplative activity indulged in at home. As with other more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?information revolutions?, the surge of cheap publications provoked tremendous optimism. Through mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print affordable to the middle and working classes, many hoped, ?intellectual darkness must gradually be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispersed, and the light of reason illuminate many a place of gloom.? Yet this sense of confident progress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masked a widespread uncertainty about the new technology and its products. In 1851, the pioneering Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge publisher Charles Knight recalled how, ?ten years ago, the majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of publishers, and many of their supporters in the public journals, hated cheap books?. Even among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1424)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aileen Fyfe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226276519)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iain Watts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasts for cheap publication, difficult questions remained. What kinds of reading material should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered to the new mass audience? At what price? And how to respond to the stubborn tendency of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of that audience to buy cheap novels rather than the improving works which cultural arbiters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered more appropriate? Inevitably, these problems were business questions, involving hard thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about money as well as readers? minds. And many varied and fascinating solutions to them were proposed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the giant marketplace that was Victorian Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aileen Fyfe?s )] TJ ET BT 104.000 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Steam-Powered Knowledge )] TJ ET BT 239.984 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a fresh picture of this major transformation in 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, brilliantly recapturing some of the disorientating strangeness experience by those who grappled with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new abundance of cheap print. The book is built around a detailed study of the innovative Edinburgh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing house of W. & R. Chambers, whose exceptionally well-preserved archive Fyfe uses to good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect to offer a view of this second printing revolution as seen from the inside. Under the careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of William Chambers \(on whom Fyfe especially concentrates\) and his brother Robert, the firm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined an embrace of the emerging technologies of steam printing and stereotype plates with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusually strong sense \(for a commercial enterprise\) of a mission of social improvement. From the 1830s, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications ranging from their signature weekly title, )] TJ ET BT 295.988 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chambers? Edinburgh Journal)] TJ ET BT 445.988 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to full length non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction books, Chambers were in the vanguard of efforts to harness the new printing methods to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructive and appealing ?information for the people?, from history and biography to geography and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sciences. They aimed to expand minds, elevate morals, and encourage the progress of society as a whole ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all while turning a comfortable profit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, as Fyfe carefully emphasizes, cheap mass print was by no means an entirely new phenomenon ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low-price almanacs, ballads and chapbooks had been produced and hawked in great numbers long before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of steam printing. The important change recognized by contemporaries was that cheap publications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to appear respectable, thanks to the Chambers firm and several other organizations concerned to apply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steam technology to offer a printed diet of ?improvement? for a very wide audience. But whereas groups like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge and the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organized as charitable bodies, supported by donations, Chambers, while animated by their own strong sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of philanthropic mission, were first and foremost a business. Many of the best insights offered by )] TJ ET BT 503.960 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Steam-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Powered Knowledge)] TJ ET BT 133.676 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stem from its author?s insistence on taking seriously the details of this ?business of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing?, inquiring into how apparently mundane commercial matters ? like marginal production costs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for marketing and selling, the price, speed, and reliability of shipping, business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communications, and pre-existing trade practices ? all combined to shape what kinds of printed material was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available and affordable to different sections of the reading public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as the author aptly notes, it was nonetheless apparent to all concerned that ?print was not a commodity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like any other?. As the printed word became even more affordable and part of everyday life for larger and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger sections of the population, the kinds of reading material being consumed became a subject of anxiety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and debate. The act of reading, many commentators believed, contained the power to form the mind, to build )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or corrupt character ? and even to touch the soul. That added a particular urgency to battles in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketplace between publications of the kind Chambers produced ? generally viewed favourably as part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?stream of pure and healthy literature, of useful information? ? and competing products like, on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, religiously-themed publications, and on the other, cheap sensational novels that were frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denounced as at best a frivolous waste of time, and at worst as dangerously corrosive of moral fibre. Rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy and, from mid-century, burgeoning national prosperity created a potentially vast and untapped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market, with its precise size and tastes uncertain but clearly offering rich rewards to publishers able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploit it. For some, the bottom line was purely and simply what would sell: if the people wanted lurid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction, then they would happily provide. But Chambers resolutely stuck to their mission of selling the mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience cheap, wholesome, intellectually-stimulating improvement ? and, even so, managed to prosper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financially. Fyfe clearly demonstrates the ways in which this commercial success was the product of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex intersection of contingent factors, including savvy business choices, the creative use of new steam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologies, and careful attention to the firm?s reputation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is a book that offers much more than a well-crafted history of a single important Victorian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8363 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing house. While remaining firmly grounded in the archive-based business history of the Chambers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firm, it seemingly effortlessly weaves in a series of engaging arguments about several of the Victorian era?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most iconic new technologies. Alongside the story of Chambers? incorporation of steam printing into their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprise, the book offers numerous fresh insights on the social effects of the railway, the ocean-going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steamship, and the electric telegraph. We see how all of these shaped how the Chambers firm did business ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they must have done for countless other commercial endeavours during this period. Yet the perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted explicitly avoids endowing the technologies themselves with too much intrinsic causative power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, Fyfe productively applies a point drawn from the wider discipline of the History of Technology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps most powerfully expressed in David Edgerton?s book )] TJ ET BT 335.300 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shock of the Old)] TJ ET BT 435.956 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: technologies? varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses over the longer term are much more historically important than the famous early moments of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention and first application.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.340 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.340 652.515 m 195.332 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 195.332 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Following this, Fyfe leaves aside the well-worn innovation stories of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologies she discusses, instead enquiring into how, over several decades, they were subsequently used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and incorporated into a pre-existing world and an already-established way of doing things. This approach is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handled well, and the book is full of textured historical narratives in which what people choose to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machines is just as important as what those machines can make happen. In particular, Chambers and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers had to work hard to fit the new steam technologies into pre-existing business practices in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing trade, a process shaped just as much by human agency and commercial forces as by purely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical factors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Publishers? use of steam printing provides an excellent case where this insight is put to work. Famously first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used at the )] TJ ET BT 88.340 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times)] TJ ET BT 117.008 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1814, steam printing machines were initially mostly employed for printing daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers and subsequently a few weeklies with large print runs. The adoption of mechanized printing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the publishing trade was much more gradual and highly disjointed. Even in 1833, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chambers built a machine in Edinburgh to print their weekly )] TJ ET BT 329.324 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 366.656 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in-house, they were making a bold and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculated commercial gamble rather than following an inevitable curve of technological progress. And at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first, their use of steam power to print books as well as periodicals was partly an incidental side-effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their )] TJ ET BT 59.012 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 96.344 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( project \(it did not make commercial sense to have the press standing idle\). But their gamble on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steam paid off, further demonstrating the size of the potential market for inexpensive print. George Combe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central text of Victorian Phrenology, the )] TJ ET BT 230.984 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constitution of Man)] TJ ET BT 327.668 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1828\), had been first issued priced at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already very reasonable 6 shillings. Chambers reprinted the book on their steam press, offered this ?People?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edition? at a quarter of that price \(?a miracle of cheapness?, exclaimed the )] TJ ET BT 395.240 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotsman)] TJ ET BT 441.236 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and promptly sold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2,000 copies in 10 days and 42,000 over the next two years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, for two more decades, more established publishing houses like John Murray and Longman still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scorned to enter the market for cheap steam-pressed books. This was not simple reflexive conservatism: their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businesses were doing perfectly well selling books as expensive hand-produced luxury items, and steam was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt to sacrifice quality for speed. Here, and in other places in Fyfe?s account, the failure of technologies to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be employed ? and sometimes to function properly when they are used ? is often as interesting as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful applications. Just so with the electric telegraph, which another author has rather hyperbolically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubbed a ?Victorian Internet?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.972 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.972 243.603 m 193.964 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.964 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In fact, the Chambers firm used the very expensive telegraph only rarely ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not always successfully ? for their business communications, and Fyfe prefers to downplay its direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on most people?s daily lives in favour of less astoundingly swift but cheaper alternatives like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penny Post and overnight mail trains.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Technology also provides a large scale organizing principle for the book, which divides into three parts. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first part considers Chambers? adoption of the two technologies of steam printing and stereotype plates, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their role in the rise of the firm as a recognised purveyor of ?improving? publications able to hold their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the marketplace. The second and third parts feature two other iconic steam technologies, the railway and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transatlantic steamship, showing how both of these were also deeply implicated in transformations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing during the mid-Victorian period, despite being themselves unrelated to printing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The section on the railways is particularly good in this regard. Rail transformed the Chambers firm?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business practices, allowing them to centralise their business in Edinburgh while continuing to sell in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large English market. But the railways also changed the book business in more fundamental ways, creating )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.3397 652.8295 195.3317 664.7095 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.9717 243.9175 193.9637 255.7975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8127 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new places where print could be sold and where it could be read: the station bookstall and the railway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carriage. A few intrepid souls had certainly read during bumpy carriage journeys by road, but for most this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must have been a literally sickening experience. For the comparatively smoother railway, a book or other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading material soon became an essential accessory, not only offering relief from the boredom of long hours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in small spaces but also, one guide recommended, providing an ?excellent weapon? of defence against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwanted conversational sallies from fellow passengers. Contemporaries experienced this phenomenon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading on the move as novel, strange, and characteristically modern ? it was entirely ?a modern invention?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one commentator noted, which ?belongs to the age of steam exclusively?. More established publishers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggled to come to grips with the new railway market, founded on the bookstalls that sprang up to serve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passengers at stations. In particular, they had to address its exploitation by a brilliant interloper, George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge, and his phenomenally successful ?Railway Library? composed of cheap reprints, often of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American works not covered by copyright protection in Britain. New novels by established British authors in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period were generally issued priced 31 shillings and sixpence, more than the weekly wages of the skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compositors who assembled them. Books in Routledge?s Railway Library cost a shilling. In the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chambers mostly held aloof from the battles over the railway bookstall market, though the firm certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not escape the railways? effects on the broader economics of the print trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic steamships provide a focus for the engaging transnational story told in the third part of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which chronicles the efforts of William Chambers to do business effectively in the American market. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chambers, that market?s most distinctive feature was its lack of copyright recognition for British and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-American publications; this caused some very interesting problems for the Chambers brothers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents, who worked hard to try to bring out their )] TJ ET BT 270.320 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 307.652 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and other works in America faster than the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pirates who reprinted and sold them independently. This section also convincingly portrays the 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British book trade as an enterprise very much wired into international commercial and cultural networks. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connections like these between Britain and America have perhaps been most extensively delineated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of the 18th?century British ?Atlantic World?. Fyfe?s discussion makes clear the importance of fast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reliable steamboat crossings from the 1840s in tying the two continents even closer together ? though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she emphasises, without ever fully solving some of the manifold difficulties involved in doing business at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance. Similarly, the depiction of these connections implicitly constitutes a gentle reminder that 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Britain?s cultural and commercial links with the United States were, in some spheres at least, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important as those with its overseas Empire during this period: Chambers sold to Canada, Australia, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, but his real focus was on the American market.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The portrait of the Chambers firm is so well-delineated that one occasionally wishes the book would strike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out more ambitiously. A particular question remains hovering in the background: what actual large-scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects did the flood of mass print have on society, the reading experience, and popular cultural life in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period? It would be rather unfair to criticize this book for not really addressing this vast, difficult, and rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amorphous question ? framed as a close study of the Chambers firm, many of its strengths come from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful focus on the supply-side of information, and the commercial forces that shaped what was available to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers. These are matters which are decoupled, to a certain extent at least, from what happens to a book or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magazine after it is sold. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 220.652 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Steam-Powered Knowledge )] TJ ET BT 356.636 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does very nicely cover some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates which raged among the Victorians themselves regarding the effects of mass print ? including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially-deleterious effects of railway reading and cheap novels. Moreover, there does seem to be a sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which, for all their proclamations of the new world of print they were making, Chambers and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers remained rather in the dark about the actual effects of their many publications ? a situation no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt reflected in the archives. Yet surely we are now in a better position for speculation about long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends than they were, and, especially because this book deserves an audience outside those primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the histories of publishing and reading, perhaps there might have been space to open a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider discussion of the question of the actual knock-on effects of mass print ? already addressed in studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging from Richard Altick?s 1957 classic )] TJ ET BT 245.984 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Common Reader )] TJ ET BT 390.644 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the work of Jonathan Rose on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class intellectual life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.664 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.664 86.787 m 192.656 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 192.656 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Debate remains open on the early modern printing revolution, but its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency has been seen at work in manifold ways in everything from the Protestant Reformation to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scientific Revolution. What did the surge of cheap print produced by Chambers and their competitors )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.6637 87.1015 192.6557 98.9815 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8458 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually do? Or, to invert the question, what are we to make of the fact that reading was becoming for ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater numbers of people merely a way of passing the time in railway carriages, parlours, waiting rooms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and similar places ? in other words, that it did not necessarily do very much at all? In his )] TJ ET BT 461.960 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biographia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literaria)] TJ ET BT 77.360 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Samuel Taylor Coleridge rather snobbishly objected to individuals for whom the sacred activity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading books was no more than a indolent pastime interchangeable with ?gaming, swinging, or swaying on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a chair or gate; spitting over a bridge; smoking, and snuff-taking; tte--tte quarrels after dinner between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband and wife; conning word by word all the advertisement of the )] TJ ET BT 370.628 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Advertizer)] TJ ET BT 450.284 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in a public house on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a rainy day &c. &c. &c.? Coleridge was writing in 1817, and his targets were ?the devotees of the circulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libraries?, with their customary diet of novels and romances. After the mid-Victorian printing explosion, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class of readers \(and many more\) could now buy and own large numbers of their own books. Reading ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coleridge?s rarefied ideal, an almost devotional practice involving intense engagement of the mind and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soul ? had expanded massively, but even more so than before, in the majority of instances it was taking place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as undemanding mass entertainment and relaxation. Public expressions of dismay at what, how, and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply other people choose to read have recently appeared in a new form in which the target is \(usually\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Web or maybe the e-book, but they have long and, perhaps, rather tediously-repetitive history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.932 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.932 595.491 m 500.924 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fyfe resists the temptation to make explicit any obvious comparisons between the Victorians? experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and our own on-going and much-proclaimed information revolution ? no doubt wisely, as historians? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of present technologies and open debates about them will inevitably tend to age rather badly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, there is certainly a sense in which this is a timely piece of history writing, and the parallels are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite evidently there for those who want them. As e-readers begin to tip the balance against print books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among passengers on the London Underground and commentators hasten to offer dubious neuroscientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagnoses along the lines of ?what the Internet is doing to our brains?, this book agreeably recalls the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the mass availability of books, so familiar now, used to be new and strange. There is a refreshing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of historical perspective to be gained from its story of how commercial forces, entrenched features of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, and real human choices governed the adoption and use of transformative new technologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is clearly and elegantly written, with short punchy chapters \(each accompanied by a full-page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image\) delivering a clearly-framed succession of points through the unpacking of particular episodes drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the rich resources of the Chambers archives. Those who choose to read it in its ink-and-paper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestation will have the benefit of Chicago University Press?s typically fine production values and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typography, of which, no doubt William Chambers would have been proud. It is harder to say whether he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have approved of or been slightly unnerved by the availability of a Kindle edition, which Chicago )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpfully offers as a much more portable, slightly cheaper, but perhaps less enjoyably well-crafted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative. Whatever the future of print may be, )] TJ ET BT 269.288 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Steam-Powered Knowledge)] TJ ET BT 402.272 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a valuable and lively account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the history of the Chambers firm as situated within British society and culture, and constitutes a fine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the wider histories of Victorian publishing and technology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Edgerton, )] TJ ET BT 146.336 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History since 1900)] TJ ET BT 460.976 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 206.595 m 118.004 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Standage, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century's On-Line Pioneers)] TJ ET BT 198.572 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.896 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.896 178.083 m 333.884 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Altick, )] TJ ET BT 141.008 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Common Reader; a Social History of the Mass Reading Public, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1800?1900)] TJ ET BT 118.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Chicago, IL, 1957\). Jonathan Rose, )] TJ ET BT 300.992 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes)] TJ ET BT 548.000 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.320 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.320 135.315 m 237.308 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Carr, )] TJ ET BT 137.000 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains)] TJ ET BT 406.664 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New York, NY, 2010\); <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/jul/15/slow-reading)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 106.803 m 349.676 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 352.676 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 366.668 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 12 April 2013]; <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/jan/30/jonathan-franzen-ebooks-values)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 92.547 m 442.964 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.964 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 459.956 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 12 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 2013]. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.9317 595.8055 500.9237 607.6855 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 206.9095 118.0037 218.7895 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.8957 178.3975 333.8837 190.2775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 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