%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150522203408+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150522203408+01'00') /Title (The Firth of Forth: An Environmental History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4245 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Firth of Forth: An Environmental History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a long and fruitful career, Historiographer Royal T. C. Smout has provided historians of Scotland, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles and Europe with a number of discipline-defining studies. From pioneering economic and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in his debut )] TJ ET BT 129.356 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Trade on the Eve of Union, 1660?1707)] TJ ET BT 358.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1963\) and the classic )] TJ ET BT 468.992 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish People, 1560-1830)] TJ ET BT 166.340 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1969\), to his great passion for environmental history realised most recently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his co-authored )] TJ ET BT 111.332 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Native Woodlands of Scotland, 1500-1920)] TJ ET BT 383.996 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2007\), as well as a bounty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited volumes, essays and articles. Alongside an infectiously engaging personal style and sense of humour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most compelling characteristic which links all these works is the historian?s persistence in asking simply, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly ?how?? and ?why?? ? followed by ?with what consequences??. Here, in conjunction with researcher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mairi Stewart \(of the University of the Highlands and Islands\), Professor Smout \(Emeritus, St Andrews\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings us another such ground-breaking, thought-provoking work: an inter-disciplinary study of the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over time for the interrelationships between people and the natural biodiversity of one of Scotland?s and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles? greatest estuaries, the Firth of Forth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The present reviewer is the grandson of both a former lighthouse-keeper on the Bass-Rock and a carpenter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who prepared templates for the pylons of the Forth Road Bridge, the son of a regular rod-and-line fisherman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1425)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Smout)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mairi Stewart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781780270647)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birlinn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glasgow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Penman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on both shores of the tidal estuary \(who has caught bass and lobster in the last few years\), and now himself a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular dog-walker and observer of natural life on the upper northern banks of the Forth \(as well as a former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student of the lead author\). Thus as a study of a region I know well, I found this an absorbing, shocking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspiring book. As the introduction makes clear, this is not always the tale of gloom readers in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly environmentally-conscious era might expect. This project?s great strength is its commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluate a wide variety of qualitative and quantitative evidence: from archaeological analysis, charters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early travellers?, antiquarians? or naturalists? accounts to modern scientific and conservation management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports; from medieval and early modern maps to 18th- and 19th-century company, trade association and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate papers, census data and other allied government audits of industry, commerce and population. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can indeed be merged and compared to paint an appalling if predictable picture of over-exploitation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pollution of fish and shell-fish stocks in the post-Union industrial age. There is also a fine sensitivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout this study to the question of the evolving scale of human impact upon the Forth?s natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources, in search of tipping points in time and technology when human demand for food, fuel, tradable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodities and physical space overwhelmed the point of cyclical, natural replenishment or recovery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, adopting longer-term baselines where possible, this book also seeks to explain the apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourishing in the 20th and 21st centuries of other species in the Forth, such as colonies of particular sea-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birds and seals, often unintended outcomes of human activity which cannot always be immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume takes a largely thematic approach, tending \(given the weight of evidence\) towards a focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Anthropocene? industrial age up to the present day. Chapter one, though, briefly surveys the formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Forth through Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze/Iron age and medieval millennia, a vast stretch which opens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c.7,000 years ago with the sea flooding inland to fill glacial retreat up to 12 miles west of modern Stirling \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topography mistakenly echoed in medieval maps [plate 1] where the Forth/North Sea almost touches the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clyde/Atlantic\). Archaeological finds of ancient whale and breeding sea-bird bones and shell-fish middens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well above modern tidal reaches on land long since given over to bog and peat, point to a small pre-historic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population hunting and gathering on shore, sea and isle. As dedicated farming and fishing communities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in the medieval and early modern eras, the gathering of sea-weed, ?wrack and wair?, to fertilise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields would sustain such valuable coastal links until the Victorian import of guano, leaving the present-day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma of plastic-ridden rotting weed on tourist beaches \(which does, though, prevent erosion\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two traces the development of commercial fisheries in the Forth, sifting the paucity of record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence and with a focus upon the emergence by the 16th century of an extensive regional and European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry along coastal Fife \(with over 100 boats manned by c. 1,000 fishermen by 1700\) and from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leith/Newhaven to Eyemouth on the southern shore. These boats sailed far afield to seasonal grounds as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as exploiting local waters, with an export peak of almost 50 per cent of all the herring sold to the Baltic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the 1700s. But despite the importance of their contribution to Scotland?s national wealth these fishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities were self-policing: extant fishing regulations of 1627 for Fife west of Leven make for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating reading, prohibiting Sabbath fishing, night or pre-dawn catches or malicious competition. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter certainly occurred in what were rich, profitable and increasingly crowded waters with Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boats vying for ground their communities claimed to have worked from ?time immemorial? against titled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landowners, their agents and foreign boats: this was all the more so the case after c.1730 as the herring and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stocks of haddock, cod and other white fish became erratic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the 18th century thus saw the fisheries decay, chapter three also charts the sad fate of the Forth?s 50 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(square miles of oyster beds. By the Union of 1707 demand for up to 30 million oysters a year taken by small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in-shore boats had already overwhelmed attempts to avoid the longer-term exhaustion of the ?scalps? by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposing a close season and protecting the monopoly of the local Society of Free Fishermen of Newhaven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Dutch and English vessels \(which sought to take young oysters to replenish their own beds\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic opportunity of demand from Victorian London from the 1830s made matters worse \(as did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railways from the 1840s\) with violence and litigation recurrent between Newhaven fishers and both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners of neighbouring beds and the English merchant to whom Edinburgh City Council briefly leased its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scalps in 1839 \(as revealed by Admiralty court records\). Thereafter, the introduction of the heavier steam )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7251 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dredge and sheer greed ? which saw oyster gauges to preserve the young ignored ? left the scalps bare by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1870s, a stark contrast to France and the Netherlands where early state intervention saw beds successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed and farmed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar combination of demand and larger boats with more/finer trawl nets \(instead of lines\) also sealed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fate over time of the Forth?s booming herring fishery of the 17th and 18th centuries \(chapters four and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five\). By the 1870s the unique commerce and culture of the ?Lamas Drave? at the mouth of the Forth was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer viable: its seasonal counterpart, the ?Winter Herrin??, tailed off to nought, too, between the World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wars. In both cases, the reluctance of the authorities to legislate is remarkable. The Scottish Fisheries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Board/Commission did seek the best scientific evidence of the day \(beginning in the 1880s with work by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gatty Marine Laboratory of St Andrews University\), and was satisfied that there was no cause-and-effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between intensive trawling and disruption to the spawning of massive herring shoals, ignoring complaints by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller-boat and line fishermen. The public debate continued beyond the 1890s by which time steam and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then diesel engines multiplied the trawl damage caused previously under sail. This, though, was a failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention echoed in the muddled European Common Fisheries Policies of the present day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six briefly surveys the history of fresh-water sprat, salmon and trout fishing with small boats, nets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and traps in the Forth?s upper reaches \(west of Queensferry\). Here the picture of decline is repeated but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes have less to do with over-exploitation than with agricultural and later industrial pollution obscured by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific ignorance. A failure to distinguish between sprats and young herring as separate species is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable before the later 20th century. However, the blind folly of Victorian land drainage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carse around Stirling sent tonnes of \(valuable\) peat down the river to silt up small economy harbours, sandy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beaches and fish traps. Metal and oil works around Falkirk and Grangemouth, and the upheaval of the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval base at Rosyth \(just look at the ?before? photograph of that tranquil bay in 1909, page 6\), would also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruin the ?sparling? fisheries of the mid-Forth by the 1960s and 1970s. Nevertheless, here the fight against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pollution of the last two generations - together with habitat conservation and restoration - has aided species )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A focussed survey of modern industrial pollution \(chapter seven\) makes disturbing reading, charting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unregulated tainting of the Forth?s many tributaries with deadly effluent from construction, mining, paper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mills, dye works and oil refining to meet the demand of booming Victorian cities, towns and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterlands. The cumulative effect of these works was to reduce water levels and starve even flowing water )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of oxygen, eradicating plant life, insects and fish. Again, attempts at oversight and legislation were hindered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by contemporary laissez-faire and limited science. An Inspector of Rivers \(1876\) and a Scottish Advisory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission for River Pollution \(1922\) showed an understanding of cause and effect but legislation proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow to introduce. Indeed, it is has only been with a sector shift to tourism, services and leisure and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment from the 1970s to tackle environmental contamination that these processes have been slowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in some instances reversed \(if not everywhere, as anyone walking at Crombie Point above the Forth Rail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Road bridges and Rosyth will know\). But not all species have benefitted from environmental awareness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Forth?s population of eider duck proving unsustainable without the raw sewage effluent pumped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the estuary, just as land-fill regulations have now driven away gulls.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Next, Mairi Stewart contributes an intriguing chapter on land claim from the sea. In the regions of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winding boggy Carse and wider inter-tidal zones, the Forth has seen a considerable amount of reclamation if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markedly less than on other busy estuaries in the British Isles. It is in this chapter that the strongest sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval era is conveyed as monastic estates were among the pioneers of ?warping? and infill to reclaim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land for agricultural use, a practice continued right up until the 19th century with infill using industrial ash. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But is has been the 20th century which has seen the largest scale of land claim on wider estuarial shores to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodate power stations and other industrial \(and, at present day Granton, urban\) expansions. While this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has radically altered the coastal landscape it has also recently been tempered with a ?managed retreat? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?renaturing? of reclaimed lands, engineering the reinundation of the upper Forth to restore salt-marsh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus wading bird, insect and river flora habitat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar theme dominates the final three chapters of the book which survey the history of sea-bird and seal )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8096 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies on the islands and shores of the Forth. The decline of recreational shooting and man?s bird )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predation from the late 19th century \(aided by a Seabirds Preservation Act of 1869\), the withdrawal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheep, rabbit culls and the automation of the lighthouse, has all helped the unique gannet population of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bass rock ? a mere 7 acres of clifftops off North Berwick ? to grow by 3 per cent per annum to reach a peak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 55,500 breeding pairs in 2009. A similar combination of factors has seen auk, guillemot and puffin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations multiply on the isle of May and other islands and cliffs. However, now observed but undisturbed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by man, these colonies have begun to decline appreciably in the last few years, the cause most likely global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warming?s effects on plankton and sand eel growth limiting the birds? food supply. In 2007, it is reported, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two-thirds of guillemot chicks perished in their nests for lack of food; just this March, it might be added, late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winter storms starved 1000s of puffins up and down the Forth. Grey and Harbour seals have arguably proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far more resilient, re-establishing colonies in the Forth from the 1970s. The book closes its thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage by applying science to debunk the fisherman?s myth that seals deplete fish-stocks. Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimental public reaction to the culling of seals has undoubtedly been the most prominent spur to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(species? conservation )] TJ ET BT 141.320 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ahead)] TJ ET BT 170.648 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the hard science of the last generation which has justified it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume closes with a survey of issues of most immediate concern to ?environmentalist? readers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy makers: the dangers which remain to these recovering species \(and humans\) from accidents in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries which have asserted themselves on the Forth?s shores at this end of our ?Anthropocene?, oil and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power generation; with a nod forward, too, to what further environmental changes new sustainable energy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might bring, chiefly via wind and wave power. Here, the reader is perhaps rightly left wanting more by way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of current data and future policy \(not least, an answer to the bizarre Edinburgh rumour about the depot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tanker moored at Hound Point, South Queenferry, which was never a renamed )] TJ ET BT 413.264 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exxon Valdez)] TJ ET BT 478.916 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This then is a fascinating study with a broad, judicious sweep and tone. As a medievalist myself, I could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps have wished to read and see more of the nature and scale of environmental management and change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before c.1600, particularly in terms of land ownership, the nature of agricultural practices on the shores of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Forth \(the distribution, say, of arable and pastoral\), \(de\)forestation, transport infrastructure \(roads, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bridges, ferries, ?lost? harbours, fords\) and early industry \(particularly following the growth of Edinburgh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the loss of Berwick-upon-Tweed in war\), as well as more on the impact of patterns of medieval and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern climate change. A further case-study of a single medieval community along the Forth might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have illustrated some of these linkages and the development of some of the larger regional market towns like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haddington, Linlithgow or Kirkcaldy. Admittedly, the rich footnotes direct readers to further secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies \(several of them by T. C. Smout\) which develop these themes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.980 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.980 343.395 m 383.972 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 383.972 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But some of these relative gaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might also be addressed by a future Birlinn edition with even fuller illustration. This last point is by no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means by way of criticism: the colour plates and black-and-white images included here are rewarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices \(even if the computerised maps are a little bald\), but rather that like a number of recent histories ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, Geoffrey Parker and Colin Martin?s )] TJ ET BT 273.956 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spanish Armada)] TJ ET BT 374.624 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Dava Sobel?s )] TJ ET BT 459.272 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Longitude)] TJ ET BT 507.944 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance and detail of the inter-disciplinary text is deserving of even more images, maps and graphs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly of a comparative nature across time drawn from the wealth of cartographic, print and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographic evidence in Scottish collections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So this in no way detracts from a volume which is sure to be a source of inspiration to many scholars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students. In this regard it is very tempting to ask the authors about key topics, archive sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections they feel still remain to be fully explored. Professor Smout writes persuasively of the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of published studies of European and American rivers: but which Scottish or British Isles? estuaries or river )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems does he feel require a similar inter-disciplinary study, perhaps for contrast with the Forth? In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, one of the recurrent motifs of this book is that in the early days of attempts at regulation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservation ? especially in Victorian dealings with fish stocks ? the methodologies and conclusions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marine science of the day were mistaken or simply did not provide an understanding of the connections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate, currents, food chain, species? biology and human activity. Much more is now known in our digital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age although some key questions remain unanswered ? nevertheless, do the authors envisage that future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science may yet challenge and reassess our current \(environmental historian?s\) understanding of certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(species? fate, both now and in the past? More generally how might an environmental history of the Forth )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.9797 343.7095 383.9717 355.5895 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 3271 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and Scotland\) look 50 years from now? Finally, it is perhaps too broad a field to ask how would the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefer that future studies of the Forth region of a discrete political, social, economic or cultural nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrate the results of their environmental study: but for the public at large, how at least might these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important findings and patterns over time alter new heritage presentations of the built and natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Atlas of Scottish History to 1707)] TJ ET BT 241.364 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. G. B. McNeill and H. L. MacQueen \(Edinburgh, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 658.275 m 118.004 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.157 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotsman)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.scotsman.com/the-scotsman/books/book-review-the-firth-of-forth-an-environmental-history-by-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 577.251 m 553.268 577.251 l S BT 34.016 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tc-smout-and-mairi-stewart-1-2733228)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 562.995 m 221.312 562.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 224.312 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herald)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.heraldscotland.com/books-poetry/reviews/tc-smout-and-mairi-stewart-the-firth-of-forth-an-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 534.483 m 531.248 534.483 l S BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental-history-birlinn.19755469)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 520.227 m 227.672 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 230.672 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 516.895 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 499.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 499.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1425)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 497.721 m 328.316 497.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 472.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/64895)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.scotsman.com/the-scotsman/books/book-review-the-firth-of-forth-an-environmental-history-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by-tc-smout-and-mairi-stewart-1-2733228)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.heraldscotland.com/books-poetry/reviews/tc-smout-and-mairi-stewart-the-firth-of-forth-an-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.032 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental-history-birlinn.19755469)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 658.5895 118.0037 670.4695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 577.5655 553.2677 589.4455 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.scotsman.com/the-scotsman/books/book-review-the-firth-of-forth-an-environmental-history-by-tc-smout-and-mairi-stewart-1-2733228) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 563.3095 221.3117 575.1895 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.scotsman.com/the-scotsman/books/book-review-the-firth-of-forth-an-environmental-history-by-tc-smout-and-mairi-stewart-1-2733228) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 534.7975 531.2477 546.6775 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.heraldscotland.com/books-poetry/reviews/tc-smout-and-mairi-stewart-the-firth-of-forth-an-environmental-history-birlinn.19755469) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 520.5415 227.6717 532.4215 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.heraldscotland.com/books-poetry/reviews/tc-smout-and-mairi-stewart-the-firth-of-forth-an-environmental-history-birlinn.19755469) >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 498.0355 328.3157 509.9155 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1425) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004933 00000 n 0000005042 00000 n 0000005152 00000 n 0000005261 00000 n 0000008822 00000 n 0000008950 00000 n 0000009034 00000 n 0000009099 00000 n 0000016598 00000 n 0000016663 00000 n 0000023967 00000 n 0000024051 00000 n 0000032200 00000 n 0000032230 00000 n 0000032358 00000 n 0000032394 00000 n 0000032513 00000 n 0000035837 00000 n 0000035964 00000 n 0000036019 00000 n 0000036146 00000 n 0000036336 00000 n 0000036463 00000 n 0000036653 00000 n 0000036780 00000 n 0000036970 00000 n 0000037097 00000 n 0000037287 00000 n 0000037415 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37511 %%EOF