%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818104137+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818104137+01'00') /Title (Health, Medicine, and the Sea: Australian Voyages, c.1815-1860) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4268 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Health, Medicine, and the Sea: Australian Voyages, c.1815-1860)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Military men, as histories of the Royal Navy in particular have shown, tend to be interested in controlling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanitary conditions. Among seamen, maintaining health was always essential otherwise ships could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain at sea. The main theme of Dr. Katherine Foxhall?s interesting book is voyages to Australia. On these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voyages the internal environment of the vessel was the same, whether those on board were military men or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilians. And once aboard, of course, there was no place to escape an outbreak of disease. Even for regular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sailors, usually selected from among fit men, there were always epidemics or other unexpected dangers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health lurking at overseas ports, or else unhygienic supplies to contend with during any voyage. Things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be worse for civilian passengers. Convicts and emigrants were generally from among ?the labouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor? in Britain. Furthermore, there were usually women and children on ships bound for Australia whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical condition might be such that they were in an even weaker state. Among the records of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journeys are some of the real and most telling experiences of 19th-century colonists. Vessels with convicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or emigrants might accommodate a variety of social classes compared with a naval man-of-war. Indeed, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried microcosms of British society, yet all were destined for new lives on the other side of the world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Changes of climate during the voyage and the accompanying physical and mental stress in a cramped and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stifling environment often made it difficult for the ship?s surgeon to maintain regulations, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding separate living quarters for the sexes or locking the women below deck at night. As the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1426)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Foxhall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719085710)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yuriko Akiyama)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains, given the nature of convict and emigrant ships, there was no strict routine for washing decks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothing or bedding as was prescribed for Royal Navy vessels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foxhall?s research commences with a study of voyages to Australia based on examinations undertaken by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgeons, and it analyses the internal spaces aboard the ships which largely affected sanitation and hence the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health of the passengers. She focuses thereby on voyages undertaken in tropical climates while discussing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convicts, scurvy and diets within British prisons in the first half of the 19th century, comparing those diets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with rations issued during the voyage. The relationship between the ship?s surgeon and passengers is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined, even, as the author explains, after arrival in Australia. Foxhall investigates how people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood health at the time and what adaptations were needed in order to sustain it in unfamiliar climates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during long voyages. Voyages to Australia tested ?colonial fitness? ? essential, of course, for Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonisation of distant lands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one discusses how, at the moment of departure, a naval surgeon?s decisions and his assessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the health of passengers were important for a successful voyage. The government made naval surgeons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for convict ships in 1815; they thus supported the ?expanding and evolving process of global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration?. However, selecting suitable migrants to the colonies, at least from a medical perspective, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often undertaken by medical officers in chaotic circumstances. Decisions had to be made quickly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes it was necessary for surgeons to reject sickly emigrants or convicts at ports immediately before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departure. Naval surgeons were paid after a safe journey with acceptable numbers of convicts and emigrants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmed to be in good health. Those unfit for the journey were therefore best declared to the port authority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The inspections of convicts undertaken by surgeons in British and Irish ports can be analysed from journals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the Admiralty records in which they recorded their anxieties. Surgeons complained that convicts? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illnesses were ignored and often concealed during embarkation by other medical inspectors, thereby creating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious hazards afloat in the weeks ahead. After the Napoleonic Wars convict transportation became one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the full-time jobs for naval surgeons, particularly so in the 1830s and 1840s. Formal British government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration schemes to Australia began in 1831. However, it was difficult for surgeons to reject prospective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigrants as they had no authority to assume an overall responsibility for them. Would-be emigrants often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travelled long distances to reach departure ports and, in the process, some became unfit for the rigours of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gruelling voyage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regarding the weather and departure, surgeons requested that emigrant and convict vessels should not leave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the autumn or winter, especially those from Ireland. Surgeons had to consider that the lifestyle of most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary British people was not the same as that for trained military men. Then there was the risk of disease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aboard which, in the worst cases, could become epidemic. Cholera was among the most feared of these; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first affected a convict ship in 1831. During an outbreak of disease naval surgeons could seek assistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a naval hospital, as part of the Royal Navy?s medical infrastructure, if they were close to English or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish southern ports. Emigrant ships, however, had more links to the west and north of England, specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Liverpool which was a trading hub and became the main port for voyages to Australia. A further problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that when aspiring emigrants were left behind at any port the authorities did not provide social welfare. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the author discusses, port inspections by naval surgeons were therefore crucial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The internal environment of any vessel would obviously prove a key factor for maintaining health among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both convicts and migrants bound for the colonies. This is well analysed in chapter two. Insufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ventilation within the ship was always a problem, as was excluding moisture and controlling damp. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanitary condition of the ship was largely maintained by keeping the deck dry and ensuring an adequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of air. This was necessary to avoid the fevers and other diseases common in prisons in the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 18th century. In the tropics, heat on the ship also caused illness. Deaths among emigrants was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in )] TJ ET BT 100.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 149.684 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( editorial in 1835, despite the fact that Passenger Acts in the early 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined the number of passengers that ships could carry. Storing and controlling the issue of water, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserving it in a fresh and drinkable state, was another important element in good health aboard. Failures to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide sufficient ventilation, and where unhealthy environments had developed which had caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infectious diseases aboard ship, were often recorded in the 18th century. Indeed, James Lind, the famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physician at Portsmouth?s Haslar naval hospital between 1758 and 1783, was quoted as to the critical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7801 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of ventilation, cleanliness and dryness ? particularly in bad weather. Scrubbing decks, cleaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ships and cleaning the belongings of convicts and emigrants was done, although not, as noted above, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same thoroughness as by Royal Navy sailors. An invention by Neil Arnott, using pumps as a method of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing ventilation, was introduced on warships from the 1840s onwards. This was one example of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradual improvements being made in sanitary conditions. The Admiralty experimented with other ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removing damp from ships by better maintenance of water closets. Chloride of lime and later chloride of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zinc were also used as antiseptic and disinfecting agents. Naturally, ships were built using the most water-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tight techniques of the time, however water and decomposing material was always in the hold and the smell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the bilges could often be overpowering. Some ships had hospital quarters, similar to naval sick berths. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These, however, could sometimes allow contamination because of the extreme humidity. Setting up a sick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(berth in either convict or emigrant ships was in some respects more difficult that doing so on a man-of-war; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more space had to be allocated when both men and women were aboard. More attention also had to be paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to living quarters. All ships? hospital quarters had the problem of unbearable heat and foul air when in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tropics. This, as the author explains, also caused illness aboard, controlling which was a key task for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgeons throughout long voyages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The focus in chapter three is on the unfamiliar conditions experienced by convicts and emigrants en route for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia. Sailing for a prolonged period through a tropical climate would inevitably be difficult. Naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers and seamen, by contrast, routinely travelled in the tropics. It is fascinating to observe a periodical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tropical Times)] TJ ET BT 128.024 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, produced by passengers aboard )] TJ ET BT 287.312 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 308.312 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth)] TJ ET BT 353.648 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sailing from Bristol to Melbourne in 1853 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which records their completely new environment. In general, the changeable climate was only recorded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authorities. Here, however, personal records and the common understanding of such things among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passengers can be found. The passengers gradually became used to the changes, even though, as Foxhall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, their health was much influenced by the ?constant movement through the different regions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments, and climates of the oceans?. Travellers? health was not only affected by the varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temperature and humidity. The food which was supplied to them was sometimes rotten. Furthermore, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong sun caused sunstroke. Generally uncomfortable changes were recorded by the passengers; their arrival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the tropics was mentioned by some of them in diaries kept while aboard. Surgeons? journals recorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different illnesses following the ship?s geographical progress; influenza and rheumatism improved when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ship passed through the Mediterranean climate, while boils appeared when the ship reached the tropics. Heat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused skin problems. Bowel conditions and diarrhoea also became worse ? equally affected by changes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diet. Headaches and dizziness were associated with the outbreak of fevers. Heat caused foul odours in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior of the ship, even as cleaning, ventilation and disinfecting continued. It proved particularly difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep women and children healthy. For women, their frailty could be both physical and psychological. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more likely to fear the change of climate and in some cases their health and mental condition made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard for surgeons to communicate with them. And even when considering the need for better ventilation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all passengers, ship?s surgeons still had to uphold rules about morality: women had to be separated from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men even if the same deck was a better place to stay. In addition to rotten food, surgeons also mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poisonous fish as a cause of illness in tropical climates. As Foxhall indicates, medical progress in 18th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 19th-century Britain was often hindered by the fact that there was no consensus about how to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health, even among medical professionals. Gradually more advice was given to those travelling to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian colonies in the form of manuals. These manuals, however, did not seem to say much about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparing for the voyage. The ceremony when crossing the line nevertheless provided a unique opportunity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aboard when even the ship?s captain temporarily relaxed the usual hierarchies of maritime discipline, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some surgeons? anxieties about disorder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scurvy is the focus of chapter four. In the 18th-century scurvy was the most common ailment at sea. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, of course, a large historical literature which deals with this topic already but it is appropriate to include it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a section here. Throughout this book, though, readers will notice that the theme is not only the progress of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine; Foxhall puts more weight on the backgrounds of the passengers who suffered from scurvy as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as how surgeons struggled to treat it. Cases of scurvy were discovered only occasionally in emigrant ships. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the 1830s, surgeons recorded scurvy as being found mostly among convicts. To prevent scurvy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convict ships, naval surgeons in the early 19th century tried to improve diet and the living quarters. In the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6944 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820s and 1830s surgeons attributed scurvy among convicts not only to their journey; it had often already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been brought about by the prison?s dietary regime in Britain or Ireland before departure. Convicts from mid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century prisons were judged to have weakened minds and bodies before transportation to Australia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Issuing lemon juice was one of the most popular treatments for scurvy. However, since the Admiralty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced the allocation of lemon and sugar in 1832 it was not only the prisons which reduced rations to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convicts. Apart from lemon juice, nitre was issued experimentally on convict ships in the 1820s and 1830s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1840 Sir William Burnett, the Medical-Director at the Admiralty, instigated research into scurvy among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convicts heading for Australia by analysing cases which appeared at sea. The results merely confirmed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions of Lind from almost a century earlier: lemon juice proved to be the most effective remedy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author discusses these experiments performed in the name of medical science; surgeons were not to cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scurvy but they were allowed to undertake a trial when cases were diagnosed. Nonetheless, improvements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanitary conditions and in medical knowledge did not change health at sea dramatically in the first half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century ? despite a number of reforms and altered procedures based on various reports. In fact, little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to change throughout the history of these Australian voyages. The best that can be said, perhaps, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that some progress in treatments is detectable from case reports and other records.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond the crowded conditions for both passengers and convicts, in chapter five Foxhall explains that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voyages to the colonies are not noteworthy only for the sickly environment endured below deck. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgeons who lived and laboured among those in transit, and who struggled to control their health, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertook medical work, especially when performing post-mortem examinations and when carrying vaccine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lymph. After all, surgeons were specialists who could supply advice for maintaining healthy living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions, as was recorded in the diaries of both passengers and surgeons. Examining the dead provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional opportunities for surgeons to improve their knowledge since post-mortem study could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficial for medical advance. The navy collected records of such analyses. A thorough post-mortem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required the ship to stay becalmed. This was not always possible, though, and in some cases the task had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be rushed or the examination abandoned because of rough weather. Examining bodies was also a surgeon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to explain to the navy?s Medical-Director in London that he had not been at fault during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voyage. From the 1820s onwards voyages to the colonies were valuable opportunities to deliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vaccinations. In the 1830s the British government provided vaccination which helped prevent smallpox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among emigrants and convicts alike. Compulsory child vaccination started in England and Wales in 1853. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vaccine, of course, was delivered to Australia. This was all experimental work for surgeons but by reducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death rates and offering vaccination in the colonies it is possible to conclude that colonisation schemes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social conditions in Australia were clearly linked. Foxhall concludes by explaining how even after surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the long voyage, as described in chapter six, it was necessary for new arrivals to spent time in quarantine at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sydney. It depended on the health of the immigrants, because there was always the danger that they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring typhus or contagious diseases to the colonies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a well-written monograph which makes a useful contribution to areas of academic study which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded considerably in the past decade ? those of health and medicine at sea and of military medicine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more widely. The book contains some maps and illustrations, moreover, images of these hazardous voyages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Australia emerge between the lines while reading. The short narratives and records of the individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned are made interesting and are well organised. Foxhall provides the opinions not only of officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and medical specialists drawn from the Admiralty?s records but she also reveals the authentic voices of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common passengers. She shows the ordinary people?s understanding of sanitation, of ideas relating to public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health and of the nature and causes of disease. Such matters, naturally, remain important for people even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 142.735 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 124.955 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 124.955 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1426)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 123.561 m 328.316 123.561 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 98.584 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/64898)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 123.8755 328.3157 135.7555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1426) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004967 00000 n 0000005076 00000 n 0000005186 00000 n 0000005295 00000 n 0000008856 00000 n 0000008984 00000 n 0000009068 00000 n 0000009133 00000 n 0000016641 00000 n 0000016706 00000 n 0000024560 00000 n 0000024644 00000 n 0000031641 00000 n 0000031769 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31865 %%EOF