%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818095446+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818095446+01'00') /Title (Money in the Medieval English Economy: 973-1489) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4506 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Money in the Medieval English Economy: 973-1489)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money in the Medieval English Economy: 973?1489)] TJ ET BT 286.640 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an insightful and wide-ranging book on money and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its place in the medieval English economy, covering the period that began in 973 with the decree that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be a single coinage in England, and which ended in 1489 with the institution of the pound coin. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since Professor Peter Spufford?s book on )] TJ ET BT 235.316 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money and its Uses in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.952 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.952 214.905 m 444.944 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.944 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has there been a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on this topic which ranges so broadly in its chronological coverage. A wide range of numismatic evidence is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered in the light of economic modelling and related to a diverse range of historical sources and key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical debates. Bolton?s work follows the observation of Nicholas Oresme \(d. 1382\): ?it is clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without further proof that coin is very useful to the civil community, and convenient, or rather necessary, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the business of the state?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.332 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.332 143.625 m 170.324 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money in the Medieval English Economy: 973?1489)] TJ ET BT 286.640 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( begins with a consideration of monetarist theories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably Fisher?s explanation of exchange, and their application to medieval economic history \(pp. 3?15\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This methodological tool is used to show how the money supply not only affected prices, wages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards of living within England, but also influenced the flow of gold and silver bullion between England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental Europe and the adjoining areas of Africa and Asia. The business cycle \(expansion, peak, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1427)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Bolton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719050404)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719050398)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Wareham)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9517 215.2195 444.9437 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.3317 143.9395 170.3237 155.8195 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8057 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recession, depression and recovery\) is used to consider the fluctuations in the English economy between c. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1370 and c. 1550 \(p. 307\), and throughout the book there is engagement with the ideas of Ricardo, Smith, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malthus and von Th?nen \(p. 262\), in preference to ??Robinson Crusoe? economics, that hard work and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventiveness conquer all? \(p. 274\). Bolton?s work focuses upon money supply, showing how it developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an initially static position to a fast spurt during the late 13th century, before the set-back of the mid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 14th century \(pp. 23?7\). In presenting this numismatic data, Bolton draws not only upon the extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data which has been available since the early 1970s, but also takes account of the latest revisions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numismatic research on English coins and mints.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.000 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.000 695.283 m 282.992 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.992 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The originality of Bolton?s work stems from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration of the coinage data with estimates of population levels and data on prices and wages. Critically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolton shows how the availability of coin fell from a peak of between three and eight pence per capita under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late Anglo-Saxon kings to between one and four pence under the Anglo-Norman rulers, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovering under the early Plantagenets, and then reaching the dizzying heights of between 80 and 120 pence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per capita in the early 14th century, a figure which would not be equalled until the beginning of the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century \(pp. 23?7\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.324 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.324 609.747 m 139.316 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.316 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The richness of Professor Bolton?s study lies in the way in which the quantitative data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is related to a wide range of primary sources? discussion of money, ranging from the tracts of St Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aquinas \(d. 1274\) and Nicholas Oresme to 15th-century English poems which commented upon England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade policy \(pp. 35?6; 227?8\). Poetry and economic history are not usually viewed as academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companions, but it is a measure of Professor Bolton?s skills as a historian that he is able to connect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting complaints of political poetry to the fiscal concerns of the day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s measure can be grasped by considering the extent of the secondary literature discussed, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides readers with a complete view of the role of money in the economy of medieval England. Debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on agrarian capitalism, the bullion famine and the crisis of the knights are deftly summarised and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commented upon \(pp. 185?7; 231?5; 261?2\). By complementing and widening current understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval English economy, this book engages with the viewpoints of leading scholars in the discipline, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Professors Britnell, Dyer and Hatcher, and is able to qualify, modify, confirm and, when needed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to challenge received orthodoxies. For the central and later middle ages, analysis of the English numismatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic data is firmly rooted in a European context that encompasses both national and corporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions. For instance, discussion of the bullion wars between England and Burgundy provides one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts for explaining the functioning of the Tower mint and the consequences for money supply \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(246?8\), while knowledge of the workings of Italian banking houses is deployed to suggest that English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innkeepers, scriveners and lawyers were amongst those who took on the role of financial intermediaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the late 14th and 15th centuries \(pp. 285?9, 292?3\). The breadth of scholarship means that the full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of micro-histories and local studies are teased out; thus Dr Briggs? and Professor Schofield?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on credit in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk is related to the national picture, thereby underscoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of these historians? conclusions \(pp. 210?11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In writing such a long-run study, Professor Bolton may have been tempted to emphasise blended variations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a general story of continuity, and to end with a call for further research to tease out the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the more notable variations. One of the many positive features of this book is that answers to big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions are not deferred to further research, and obscured within a narrative of general patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convergence and continuity. The major political and social fissures running through English society from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Danish and Norman conquests of England to the civil wars between the houses of Lancaster and York are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised, and related to demographic and economic challenges which varied in their extent, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to wider European problems, in determining the purposes, effectiveness and impact of money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through time. For instance, the role of inflation in contributing to the problems faced by King John, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to the issue of Magna Carta, is discussed fully \(pp. 176?82\), and at the other end of the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectrum Bolton comments upon alternative estimates of the budgets of peasant households in later medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England \(pp. 189?90\). In short, Bolton provides readers with a fascinating insight into the economic world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of medieval England, which will be of interest to readers who want to know how money worked in a world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before industrialization and ready credit. The book?s back-cover summary views the potential market as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?course text ... providing wide teaching coverage?. In view of this intended readership, it is unfortunate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apart from the front-cover there are no illustrations. A woodcut image of a moneyer or a mosaic image of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.9997 695.5975 282.9917 707.4775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.3237 610.0615 139.3157 621.9415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7829 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sins of avarice and cupidity )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.992 795.075 m 182.984 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or some images of Anglo-Saxon pennies cut into two to make half pennies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and into four for farthings, would have added to the discussion and the book?s appeal to its target audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second edition would benefit from a more detailed index; while Bruges and the towns of Flanders are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in terms of their impact upon the English economy \(pp. 98, 247\), they are not included. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occasionally a signal could have been given to the existence other research approaches. If Professor Bolton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is right to suggest that coin hoards cannot be regarded as random distributions of data because they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deposited for irrational reasons ? that is to say not necessarily in response to political disorder or fear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipated debasement \(p. 60\), how can economic anthropology be used to reassess the contribution of coin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoards to the debate? Over 19,000 coins of Cnut, king of English \(1016?35\) are deposited in coin hoards, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly in the Baltic and the arc of territories reaching into European Russia, and the data has been used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to far higher figures for money circulation in early 11th-century England than that data presented in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money in the English economy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.988 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.988 626.259 m 198.980 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 198.980 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Insights from economic anthropology can be broadened out to address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and cultural history; the defacement of Christian and Arabic coins by Viking merchant-warriors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with pagan symbols tells us about the circulation of ideas and ownership of ideologies, in a similar manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the defacement of coins by the Suffragettes in the early twentieth century. For the period c. 950?1150 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions arise both over the boundaries between coins and commodity currencies, and the role of European-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide social and political transformations, including conversion and the crusades, in influencing money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply. In giving greater weight to single-finds databases as against the authority of coin hoards, Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolton is aware of some of the constraints of single finds \(p. 190?1\), but the case could be taken further. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant in Worcestershire who came of age in 1066 and lived to experience the geld demands of the 1090s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have needed to take much more care of his the pennies in his or her possession, when compared to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noble, in the preceding or following generation, who departed an English port for the purposes of a European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrimage, in which the greatest item of her or his expenditure comprised gifts and bequests. To say that for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early medieval period signals could have been given to economic anthropology in a book, which covers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five centuries of economic history and places numismatic studies in a historical context, is only to note the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which Professor Bolton has written a thought-provoking and clear study on an interesting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the book?s principal research strengths is that is that it eschews single-cause explanations. Instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers are encouraged to engage with the ways in which movements in population, commercialisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money supply interacted with political crises in collectively shaping the uses to which money was put, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its impact upon society during times of invasion, conquest, tyranny, anarchy and civil war. Recent events in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyprus show that we are still concerned about the worth of savings and the stability of currencies, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxious about the ability of public institutions to provide fiscal and financial stability over the longer term. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Money is Janus-faced; monetary reforms secure political and economic benefits, but create unexpected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems. In 973 a single currency was introduced into England in order to bring about political unification, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but by concentrating bullion production at many coastal mints, the new rulers of England created a honey-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pot which attracted a new wave of Viking invasions, which came close to breaking up the kingdom of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Bolton?s cogent book provides a superb study of the ways in which medieval kings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary assemblies and local communities dealt with monetary and fiscal crises, against a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of political and environmental shocks, at a time when national and European institutions \(in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of the papacy and the medieval church\) were competing for the allegiances of subjects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishioners. Other secondary literature is available on money and the economy in medieval England, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Bolton?s book offers students, researchers and general readers a breadth of vision and analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Spufford, )] TJ ET BT 125.348 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money and its Uses in Medieval Europe )] TJ ET BT 320.984 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.304 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.304 80.547 m 469.292 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A Treatise on the Origin, Nature, Law and Alterations of Money cited in C. Eagleton and J. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money: a history)] TJ ET BT 146.000 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd ed., London, 2007\), p. 77.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.652 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.652 52.035 m 352.640 52.035 l S endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.9917 795.3895 182.9837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.9877 626.5735 198.9797 638.4535 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.3037 80.8615 469.2917 92.7415 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.6517 52.3495 352.6397 64.2295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 3034 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the latter see also, M. Allen, )] TJ ET BT 219.992 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mints and Money in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 407.636 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.956 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.956 795.075 m 558.944 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eagleton and Williams, )] TJ ET BT 180.008 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money)] TJ ET BT 212.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 78)] TJ ET BT 242.660 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.660 780.819 m 299.648 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the latter, see A. Murray, )] TJ ET BT 204.980 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reason and Society in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 392.288 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1985\), plate \(a\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.584 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.584 766.563 m 556.580 766.563 l S BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 78.008 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. Jonsson, ?The Coinage of Cnut?, in )] TJ ET BT 252.668 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway)] TJ ET BT 539.336 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. A. Rumble \(Leicester, 1994\), pp. 207, 218; compare to pp. 25, 60-61 in the volume under review.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 709.539 m 118.004 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EH.net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eh.net/book_reviews/money-medieval-english-economy-973-1489)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 382.976 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.976 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1427)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 328.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/65880)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://eh.net/book_reviews/money-medieval-english-economy-973-1489)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.9557 795.3895 558.9437 807.2695 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.6597 781.1335 299.6477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.5837 766.8775 556.5797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 752.6215 78.0077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 709.8535 118.0037 721.7335 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 655.0855 382.9757 666.9655 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://eh.net/book_reviews/money-medieval-english-economy-973-1489) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 328.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1427) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000005204 00000 n 0000005313 00000 n 0000005423 00000 n 0000005532 00000 n 0000009093 00000 n 0000009221 00000 n 0000009305 00000 n 0000009334 00000 n 0000009462 00000 n 0000009498 00000 n 0000009527 00000 n 0000009655 00000 n 0000009691 00000 n 0000009782 00000 n 0000017892 00000 n 0000017922 00000 n 0000018050 00000 n 0000018086 00000 n 0000018116 00000 n 0000018244 00000 n 0000018280 00000 n 0000018385 00000 n 0000026267 00000 n 0000026297 00000 n 0000026425 00000 n 0000026461 00000 n 0000026491 00000 n 0000026619 00000 n 0000026655 00000 n 0000026781 00000 n 0000026836 00000 n 0000026962 00000 n 0000027017 00000 n 0000027143 00000 n 0000030230 00000 n 0000030358 00000 n 0000030413 00000 n 0000030541 00000 n 0000030596 00000 n 0000030724 00000 n 0000030779 00000 n 0000030905 00000 n 0000030960 00000 n 0000031087 00000 n 0000031142 00000 n 0000031269 00000 n 0000031387 00000 n 0000031515 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31611 %%EOF