%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818081903+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818081903+01'00') /Title (Macaulay and Son: Architects of Imperial Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4393 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Macaulay and Son: Architects of Imperial Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the government in the midst of yet another shake-up of the national curriculum, the teaching of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in schools has become perhaps the most contentious of proposed reforms. Like many Education Secretaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before him, Michael Gove has found his agenda, namely the creation of a national story complete with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroes, to be at odds with the proposals of the history profession and thus become the source of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarrassing conflict for the government. Catherine Hall?s new study of the great Victorian historian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provider of a national narrative, Thomas Babington Macaulay, is therefore a timely one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In writing a biographical history of Macaulay, Hall tasks herself with the deconstruction of his )] TJ ET BT 490.616 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 74.684 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by looking at the centre of the Victorian narrative of England from its margins, and thus exposing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how certain groups had been written out. This shift in focus away from previous studies is perhaps the next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logical step in a career dedicated to unearthing the gendered, racial and imperial attitudes that underpinned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English identity. She has often stated in previous works that the role of coloniser was a constituent part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The primary target of )] TJ ET BT 139.988 92.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Macaulay and Son)] TJ ET BT 229.976 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, is a particular silence in history, that of the emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and psychological life; aspects which so clearly shape historical actors yet are rarely accounted for in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of great men. From the start she points to Macaulay?s lack of interest in internal thought. His figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are 'bundles of characteristics', one dimensional actors; unlike himself, whose letters reveal strong passions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1428)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300160239)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(389pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalebooks.co.uk/display.asp?K=9780300160239&nat=false&sort=%24rank&sf1=keyword&st1=9780300160239&m=1&dc=1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kieran Hazzard)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fluctuating emotions. In order to make sense of this and to better understand Macaulay's politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies and )] TJ ET BT 94.676 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 130.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, she changed her focus to also encompass Zachary Macaulay, his father, and Tom?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with him and his family, particularly his mother and two favourite sisters, Hannah and Margaret. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Tom? incidentally is the name by which Hall and his family refer to him throughout the book, and as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result is the name with which I shall refer to him from now on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Looking at father and son, whose visions of nation and empire were very different yet also connected, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way for Hall to explore two key moments in the creation of imperial discourse - evangelicalism and liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism. Thus the book is not simply a biographical study; rather by exploring the lives and writings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two men it provides a lens through which to observe ideas of nation, empire and history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section of the book opens with a question which runs throughout: what makes an imperial man? It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then tracks Zachary's early life from Scotland to Jamaica, where he encounters the cruelty of slavery first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, and on to Sierra Leone, thanks to his connection within the Clapham Sect. This opportunity to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of himself and play a leading in the colony's establishment, was not without difficulties and led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his support for an authoritarian empire against unruly black immigrants from Nova Scotia. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter explores Zachary's faith and its influence upon his life to a much greater extent; his sense of duty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and understanding of sin played a huge part in his relationship with imperial reform. As a result, he became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fervent supporter of abolition, to the detriment of his finances and leaving a powerful vision of a godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation and world, organised by men like himself as a legacy to Tom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section turns to Tom himself, his upbringing, his relationship with his family and its effects upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his outlook and personality, in particular the immense blow of losing his mother and two sisters and how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would affect his later public life and his writing.The fourth chapter moves on to his life as a Whig and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformer; his part in the Reform Act and his belief in an inclusive and assimilative idea of nationhood, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraced Irish Catholics and Jews, yet also excluded women and colonial subjects from the nation in 1832.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five expands to the empire. Tom's vision would be shaped by the ideas of his father but were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly different. His vision of empire was one which abandoned conquest and slavery and instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused upon spreading civilisation to its subjects. Hall discusses colonial difference and its effects on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom?s philosophy. While all men belonged to one family and all British subjects must enjoy the rule of law, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the methods and forms of government must be different based on the level of civilisation achieved by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different subject peoples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter looks at Tom the historian: his motivations and goals; how he saw his writing as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementing the Whig goal of governing )] TJ ET BT 247.328 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for)] TJ ET BT 261.332 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the people; his central theme of progress from barbarism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation and how Englishmen shared a common liberty; finally, how his history defined the nation and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outsiders and attempted to build up walls to maintain that division.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving on to the first of the book's major themes, in the first section Hall sets out her position on racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, through the experiences of Zachary. At 16 he had taken up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment as a book-keeper in Jamaica, an under-manager on a plantation. Though shocked by the daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence he witnessed, he felt it important to assimilate himself into white planter society, and, except for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sober manner, his habits and dispositions became like theirs. Yet he soon came to recognise his actions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grave sins, to be atoned for, thus on his return to Britain he used the one advantage he possessed, a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, to argue for emancipation on the behalf of the enslaved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As in previous works, Hall states that, ?it was only through the construction of others that the Englishman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could know what Englishness was? \(p. xxiii\). Yet unlike previous work, such as )] TJ ET BT 421.304 127.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilising Subjects)] TJ ET BT 510.980 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she states 'what is absolutely the same versus what is absolutely other, will not do' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.976 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.976 112.323 m 444.968 112.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.968 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this stress on racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(othering is not dwelt upon, being neither qualified nor tempered in this way. Othering is a concept not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without its critics )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.356 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.356 83.811 m 134.348 83.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.348 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and a discussion of the similarity or even ambiguities of racial difference within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macaulays? imperial experiences would have been a welcome addition.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9757 112.6375 444.9677 124.5175 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.3557 84.1255 134.3477 96.0055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7386 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This aside, her summary of racial theories in the period is excellent and nuanced. Hall suggests that race has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always been entwined with numerous other conceptions of difference and understandings of humanity. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws out the multiplicity of conceptions of racial difference during the long 18th century, but rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses upon the singular and stadial view of civilisation as formulated during the Scottish Enlightenment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She goes on, however, to contend that though there remained the vision of a singular human nature and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimistic belief that with the removal of environmental or cultural factors, progress would be possible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, this formulation created an impassable barrier for subject races. Thus, drawing on the work of Stuart Hall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others she affirms that race has two registers, the cultural and the biological, and that cultural differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as religion, history or social norms can be just as ?essentialising? as skin colour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst this is a very important insight for our understanding of racism historically, it is problematic when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to British India, at least prior to 1857. Undoubtedly, cultural racism can be just as vicious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusionary as biological racism, but with the small and essential difference being that Tom, and all other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary liberal writers on India, thoroughly believed in the civilising mission, not as mere window )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dressing for imperialism, but as a way to reformulate its institutions to bring about change in the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. This oversight clouds many of the book's later conclusions about the imperial projects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macaulays. Both men were certainly racist, and Tom?s candid letters prove him to be much more so than his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father, yet they both firmly believed they were working towards the material betterment of colonial subjects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both were also convinced by the universal nature of man, viewing difference as mutable and temporary; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief which coloured both their policies and writings, even if results were markedly different, which Hall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not fully allow for.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In discussing race in the work of Zachary Macaulay and other Clapham Sect abolitionists she brings out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly the dual nature of their intervention, as both emancipatory and restrictive. By approaching abolition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a task for the civilised white man to perform in order to save the barbarous black, they came to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial hierarchies. Zachary?s own experience in Sierra Leone proved, they were much more comfortable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the idea of a pleading African, as in the famous image asking ?am I not a man and a brother??, than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clamorous settlers, with their dissenting beliefs and claims to equality, who peopled the new colony. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of this was his own assertion of despotic authority against the ?Jacobinical? colonists, a difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position for a man such as himself. This was a turn of events which he preferred to forget in later years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferring instead to concentrate on abolition, which held out the hope of ending the source of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic differences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom?s reaction to his troubling encounters with other races was similar to his father?s. Each chose to forget )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ignore such issues, preferring more congenial tasks to tackling the disturbing experiences which might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermine his idealised vision of progress. If Partha Chatterjee?s theory of colonial difference is right, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps one way it operated on idealistic men like the Macaulays was to encourage obfuscation or neglect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than active reassessment of the prospects of ending difference or a repositioning of the goal posts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.908 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.908 262.371 m 548.900 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From his upbringing Tom had lived with ideas about empire and its gradations of racial difference. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young man he developed his own approach, marked by his father's beliefs but shaped by his commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal imperial reform and its goal of progress. His was a secular vision of improvement, whereas his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father?s was deeply Christian. Before he arrived in India, Tom had been 'profoundly influenced' by Mill's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which taught there was nothing to learn from Indian culture, and once ensconced in the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclave in Calcutta he found the country foreign, chaotic, decayed, hot, superstitious, degraded, wretched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and peopled by ?blacks?. He came naturally to view India as backwards due to his own understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British history. Comparisons between the Scottish Highlands or Ireland, prior to English intervention and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?improvement? taught him to judge India accordingly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it came to Tom?s most famous act in India, his )] TJ ET BT 293.324 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minute on Education)] TJ ET BT 394.652 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hall?s analysis is insightful, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a valuable demonstration of Chatterjee?s colonial difference in action. The aim of an English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education was to construct a class of Indian collaborators to act as a link and interpreters between the rulers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ruled. The English language would bring with it knowledge and progress, but the use of English was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.9077 262.6855 548.8997 274.5655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7997 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a way of maintaining their separation both culturally and in terms of power relations; establishing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent dominance of one culture over the other. Mimic men could never be Englishmen, otherness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would never be overcome and Tom?s 'brown Englishmen' a dream deferred. An additional aspect of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minute)] TJ ET BT 68.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that Hall?s biographic approach brings out is his tendency to dissipate strong emotions through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing; the )] TJ ET BT 92.684 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minute)] TJ ET BT 126.680 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was written only a month after his sister Margaret's death, the harsh language used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout can thus be viewed as a vehicle for venting some of his anger at her loss.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom?s more liberal credentials were on display elsewhere in his dealings with Indian administration, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the law, which drew upon his understanding of English history and the centrality of the rule of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law. Hall tells us that to his mind, the Great Reform Act had limited the power of the aristocracy in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Tom saw his task of instituting equal laws for all races in India through codification as a way to end the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of a 'small white aristocracy' over millions. A measure he was proud of, even if this meant turning a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blind eye to actual equality in exchange for establishing legal equality. Imperial entanglements were not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite what Tom might have wished to be isolated and his experiences were to shape his understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home and its history. By the 1830s Tom and James Mill had repaired any rift between them over democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England and were correspondents over Indian affairs. In a letter home to Mill he even went so far as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say his Indian endeavours had led him to desire codification of the law in England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On his return to England Tom took up writing his )] TJ ET BT 275.348 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 311.348 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was for him the most important task he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet undertaken. Despite his claims to write a completely objective history, Hall reminds us of how deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjective all history writing is, and Macaulay?s is no different. His )] TJ ET BT 362.312 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 398.312 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was one which stressed national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniqueness as a challenge to revolutionary French universalism. Unlike Herder, who thought poetry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language were at the heart of nationhood, he stressed constitutional history, progress and the search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty as the essentials of the English story. This emphasis not only privileged certain narratives but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors, marking out the boundaries of the national community; this of course meant creating exclusions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as inclusions. On his return from India, Tom told a friend he had abandoned Locke long ago, though he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained a staunch Whig. He was certainly no friend to democracy, believing it would result in anarchy or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergence of a military state to quell that anarchy, both of which would not provide liberty. Working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men were also not educated enough to vote even if they could be trusted not to plunder the aristocracy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, like their imperial counterparts, they were to be subjects not citizens, granted suitable liberties by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their betters but not active in politics. The security of the nation depended on the full inclusion of men from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle classes, men like himself, into political citizenship, but also on bringing the respectable working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes into the national family. This was the story which his )] TJ ET BT 328.664 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 364.664 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presented, one where the great men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past fought to establish the liberty of England for her grateful people. And they were men of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women being excluded from this tale; always attached to men or acting for them and were thus sidelined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his history. Here is perhaps the most important point for contemporary legislators and potential creators of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?national? history; all history writing, no matter what its intentions, will privilege certain groups and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives over others and contribute to a sense of exclusion for the multitudes who do not fit this image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In turning to the extension of England?s story outside her borders, he looked first to the home nations. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Scotland focussed upon its successful assimilation with England and the benefits of prosperity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation that this had bestowed; a narrative which reflected his personal story. Ireland?s story was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic. Ireland might be Britain's sister kingdom, but all progress according to Tom in that country was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down to Englishmen. The Irish, like the Indians, were stuck in barbarism and their best hope of achieving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation was through complete assimilation with England. Until that time a strong 'father' was needed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When discussing the empire Tom completely overlooked North America and the Caribbean, instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focussing on Ireland's place as a colony. He therefore ignored the sphere of his father's life work except in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing to celebrate abolition, preferring not to dwell on the horrors of what came before it. Hall suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this was perhaps because of his distaste for his upbringing, but was also another example of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic turn away from the troubling aspects of imperial greatness. India, unlike the other colonies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was important to Tom?s story of England and her rise to greatness.Yet even here it was the scene for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishman's triumph and the focus was much more on India's effect on England than the reverse. It is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the common thread of progress, residing in both Macaulays? deeds and writings, which places )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as the architects of liberal imperialism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Family analogies were common in Tom?s )] TJ ET BT 238.664 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 274.664 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and these are considered in the final and perhaps most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important aspect of Hall?s analysis. Tom's education was very exacting and Zachary was a hands on and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times domineering father. There was strong emphasis put naturally on religion but also on duty. Tom reacted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(badly to this, though his education did not suffer; his intellectual abilities came to build his fragile self )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence, where arrogance formed his defence. More than anything else it was his relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in his family that shaped his character and career. The trauma of losing his mother, and then the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage and subsequent separation from his two favourite sisters were to mark him deeply and left scars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that never fully healed. Such things were banished to the private world, for his )] TJ ET BT 413.288 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 449.288 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would focus upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and national history, where women would play a background role.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sense of unstinting love received from Hannah and Margaret was what allowed Tom to maintain his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence from party and electorate pressures and to act as his conscience and education guided him. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both sisters for their part idolised Tom, and were extremely happy during their time living together in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London. Though deeply attached, they remained hopeful of a marriage and were aware of the heartache the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting separation would be for all. With Margaret's inevitable marriage he was indeed angry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastated, though he tried unsuccessfully to contain these emotions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On his appointment to India, he all but forced an unhappy Hannah to accompany him, unable to contemplate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facing life and duty alone. This was itself a fateful decision, for in Calcutta Hannah would meet and fall in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love with Charles Trevelyan, a man Tom did not disapprove of, though he felt Charles had lacked for society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in India. He was once again deeply wounded, and the event was shortly followed by the death of Margaret, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the final blow which Tom was never to recover from. His response was to bury himself in books. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragedy was to express itself in Tom's writing, which he used as a barrier to further pain by closing himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off from an emotional life. In writing the )] TJ ET BT 232.988 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 268.988 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he could create a safer world, though one shaped by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of government and empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This section on Tom's relationship with the key women in his family is the most successful. Tom's emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life and character are brought to life in riveting detail. His sense of loss, of inadequacy and selfishness are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laid bare and the reader is left feeling at once pity for and frustration with him. The sections which suggest at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an almost incestuous love between the sisters and their brother are a little disturbing. The language of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters is indeed emotionally charged and comparable to letters between lovers, but one wonders if the florid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and confessional language of private letters between all very close friends and relations of this period do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share this characteristic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Hall?s project is an insightful and illuminating one. In focussing upon the private and emotional life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Macaulays she brings forth an aspect in the lives of historical actors so often neglected. She also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully establishes the relationship between this hidden aspect and the actions and beliefs of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary character, Tom. The project, however, does feel muddled at times and the structure, at once joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography and historical analysis, might prove too unwieldy for subsequent historians to undertake. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are moments when one is left desiring greater exploration of the points where the lives of the Macaulays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touch on current historiographical concerns, whilst those unfamiliar with the subjects will not find an easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology to follow. Another small complaint might be that Hall does not provide enough direct quotations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Tom?s large body of writing.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7346 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, the book?s real achievement is in revealing the background and substance of Macaulay?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical scope, his assumptionsand his exclusions; constraints which sadly still persist today in writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside of academia. Political debate on foreign policy, informed or otherwise, still rests on assumptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western superiority, while consumers of popular history, in print and on television, remain captivated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retelling of the national story, with the familiar focus on its 'great men'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.632 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.632 726.051 m 389.624 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 389.624 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The history of other nations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, minorities, and social groups other than the political elite remains disturbingly marginalised. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the real danger in allowing the government to prescribe a singular national narrative to be taught to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation?s young minds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall, )] TJ ET BT 140.336 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilising Subjects: Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination, 1830?1867)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2002\), p. 16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.336 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.336 603.507 m 242.324 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a critique of what he calls 'historians' folk wisdom' with regard to identity see Peter Mandler, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('What is "National Identity"? Definitions and applications in modern British historiography', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Intellectual History,)] TJ ET BT 201.668 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3, 2 \(2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.660 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.660 560.739 m 311.648 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partha Chatterjee, )] TJ ET BT 152.996 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories)] TJ ET BT 478.352 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 532.227 m 149.000 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maya Jasanoff, ?)] TJ ET BT 145.652 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Macaulay and Son: Architects of Imperial Britain)] TJ ET BT 384.968 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Catherine Hall - review?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET BT 110.684 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 December 2012,<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.760 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/dec/21/macaulay-and-son-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.760 503.715 m 542.720 503.715 l S BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catherine-h...)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 126.992 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.992 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 143.984 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 19 March 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.272 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.272 489.459 m 330.260 489.459 l S BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Listen to Professor Catherine Hall's Creighton Lecture on 'Macaulay and Son: an imperial story'.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 463.203 m 497.768 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 500.768 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/dec/21/macaulay-and-son-catherine-hall-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 408.435 m 455.600 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 458.600 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historyextra.com)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/macaulay-and-son-architects-imperial-britain)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 379.923 m 457.268 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.268 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/01/macaulay-and-son-architects-imperial-britain)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 351.411 m 463.304 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.304 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical Association)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_resource_6156_73.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 322.899 m 365.972 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.972 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.lrb.co.uk/v34/n22/bernard-porter/manly-voices)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 294.387 m 317.648 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 320.648 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 291.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 273.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 273.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1428)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 271.881 m 328.316 271.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 246.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/65883)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/dec/21/macaulay-and-son-catherine-hall-review>)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.704 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://historyspot.org.uk/podcasts/creighton-lecture/macaulay-and-son-imperial-story)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/dec/21/macaulay-and-son-catherine-hall-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 174.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/macaulay-and-son-architects-imperial-britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/01/macaulay-and-son-architects-imperial-britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_resource_6156_73.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.704 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://www.lrb.co.uk/v34/n22/bernard-porter/manly-voices)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.6317 726.3655 389.6237 738.2455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.3357 603.8215 242.3237 615.7015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.6597 561.0535 311.6477 572.9335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 532.5415 148.9997 544.4215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.7597 504.0295 542.7197 515.9095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/dec/21/macaulay-and-son-catherine-hall-review>) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 489.7735 126.9917 501.6535 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/dec/21/macaulay-and-son-catherine-hall-review>) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.2717 489.7735 330.2597 501.6535 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 463.5175 497.7677 475.3975 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://historyspot.org.uk/podcasts/creighton-lecture/macaulay-and-son-imperial-story) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 408.7495 455.5997 420.6295 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/dec/21/macaulay-and-son-catherine-hall-review) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 380.2375 457.2677 392.1175 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/macaulay-and-son-architects-imperial-britain) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 351.7255 463.3037 363.6055 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/01/macaulay-and-son-architects-imperial-britain) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 323.2135 365.9717 335.0935 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_resource_6156_73.html) >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 294.7015 317.6477 306.5815 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.lrb.co.uk/v34/n22/bernard-porter/manly-voices) >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 272.1955 328.3157 284.0755 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1428) >> endobj xref 0 62 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000005092 00000 n 0000005201 00000 n 0000005311 00000 n 0000005420 00000 n 0000008981 00000 n 0000009109 00000 n 0000009193 00000 n 0000009284 00000 n 0000016766 00000 n 0000016796 00000 n 0000016924 00000 n 0000016960 00000 n 0000016990 00000 n 0000017116 00000 n 0000017152 00000 n 0000017236 00000 n 0000024675 00000 n 0000024705 00000 n 0000024833 00000 n 0000024869 00000 n 0000024934 00000 n 0000032984 00000 n 0000033049 00000 n 0000039149 00000 n 0000039324 00000 n 0000046723 00000 n 0000046753 00000 n 0000046881 00000 n 0000046917 00000 n 0000047045 00000 n 0000047100 00000 n 0000047228 00000 n 0000047283 00000 n 0000047410 00000 n 0000047465 00000 n 0000047593 00000 n 0000047728 00000 n 0000047855 00000 n 0000047990 00000 n 0000048118 00000 n 0000048173 00000 n 0000048300 00000 n 0000048436 00000 n 0000048563 00000 n 0000048697 00000 n 0000048824 00000 n 0000048960 00000 n 0000049087 00000 n 0000049224 00000 n 0000049351 00000 n 0000049468 00000 n 0000049595 00000 n 0000049703 00000 n 0000049831 00000 n trailer << /Size 62 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49927 %%EOF