%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150522122721+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150522122721+01'00') /Title (A Soldier and a Woman: Sexual Integration in the Military) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4552 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Soldier and a Woman: Sexual Integration in the Military)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td 2.191 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is impressively detailed, showing women's experience of demobilisation and the aftermath of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td 0.580 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(armed conflict - an often neglected area of military study relating to women - as well as their feelings about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td 3.590 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality, their male counterparts, uniforms, duties and a slew of other subjects. Specifically 'female' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td 1.263 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects; menstruation and pregnancy for example, are not glossed or examined from a single perspective; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td 1.257 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the range of the chapters, which is extensive, we can examine the views of women themselves, male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td 4.070 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers, commanders and the public at large on the most controversial question relating to female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td 2.202 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarisation. The effects of military service on women's mental and physical health and the frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting inability of militarised women to become mothers are covered with depth and focus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td 1.099 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 28 chapters range from Early Modern Europe to current military law in the United States of America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td 0.571 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(from West Point to terrorist women, and across most areas of the globe. If there is a criticism to be made, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td 0.724 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies in the relative paucity of material from Africa, made even more galling in the paperback version by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td 3.133 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover photograph of a Sudanese woman fighter which implicitly \(and wrongly in the case of Sudan\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td 0.576 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested material on women in African militaries could be found inside. But apart from thought provoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td 2.942 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and powerful revelations about the role of Muslim women in warfare and particularly about Algeria's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td 1.791 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex societal problems, there is little material about women in Africa. This area of study is complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td 0.725 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed and the lack of substantive material on gender in Africa is indicative of the difficulty of establishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td 0.702 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the roles and views of women in African militaries. The material in the book, although more or less limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td 1.145 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Northern Africa, is a valuable contribution to largely unexplored and often inaccessible experience. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td 0.000 Tw /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(143)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerald De Groot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corinna Peniston-Bird)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780582414385)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kay Sexton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7983 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors are to be congratulated on the quality of what has been included.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td 0.266 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Across such a range of discourse it is difficult to comment fairly and fully on the many subjects of which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td 0.583 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(various texts treat. Thematic review is perhaps the only way to attempt to cover some - although not all - of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td 1.185 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the material. Large and small themes emerge in individual chapters or link them, and the book as a whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 1.143 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(has solid information and discourse of value to students of gender, military history and students of society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 2.016 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and culture. From the perspective of this student in the field, military history can be seen as a study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td 1.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(battles, campaigns and strategies, as a study of commanders and decisions, as a study of materials, terrains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td 0.898 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and utilisation of the available resources, as a study of causes, leaders and propaganda. Until recently there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td 1.647 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been a denial, tacit or explicit, of the study of military history as the study of individuals. One great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td 2.362 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(service provided, perhaps unintentionally, by gendered study, has been the increasing acceptance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td 0.456 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of the thoughts and behaviours of individuals involved in the creation of what we later identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(as part of "military" history. This book is a cogent contribution to that new corpus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 2.354 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(One strong theme emerging from many chapters and linked to other themes such as harassment, is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td 1.237 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradox of appearance. This subject is impacted by military, social, ideological and religious mores. From )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td 2.284 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor of Aquitaine in her gold embroidered military apparel to the masculinised Russian Battalion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td 2.311 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Death is one continuum of this subject. The other extends from the French Resistance women carrying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td 0.570 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(messages and material on bicycles through to the cultural/religious dilemma of the Algerian women fighters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td 2.403 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(selecting 'European' or 'national' garb depending on the 'disguise' required and on to the Israeli women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td 3.823 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose postings rest upon their attractiveness to male officers. Women appear to be trapped by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td 0.607 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between their appearance and its effects on the male military machine. They evince a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td 2.080 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses from rejection of feminine appearance \(Flora Sandes\) to the \(literally\) undercover adoption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(most feminine apparel \(British Servicewomen in WWII\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td 2.915 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(This theme in turn, examined across time and across cultures in the various texts, leads inevitably to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td 1.115 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of harassment in militaries. Harassment is not peculiar to military situations but is peculiarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td 3.783 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(emblematic of them. This subject in all its manifestations from the unconsciousness of chivalry \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td 0.433 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed by Major General Phan Trong Tue's eulogies over women volunteer's 'pink brassieres', 'frail heels' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td 0.421 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 'sweet songs' on the Ho Chi Minh Trail\) to the systematic brutality of the drill sergeant \(at the Aberdeen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td 1.789 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Proving Ground\) is explored through many chapters of the text. Perhaps one of the most illuminating, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td 0.882 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit, examinations of harassment occurs in Corinna Peniston-Bird's chapter on women, the military and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td 0.812 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hollywood. While, as she points out, harassment is shown in the films as part of their plot development, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td 1.119 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(many other chapters of the book the military reveals itself as an intrinsic vehicle for harassment. In effect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td 1.022 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fictional histories of film characters play out many of the recorded experiences of women in militaries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td 1.776 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the films make an unstated claim that it is harassment that allows their heroines - such as Private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td 2.188 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin, GI Jane, or Walden - to succeed by finding strategies to survive harassment, real life stories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td 2.016 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that the harassment of women in militaries is integral to the task of locating military women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td 0.735 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [('successful' positions. While this is by no means a problem faced only by women in militaries, it has a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td 1.315 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(different slant to that faced by men. Men are required by 'hazing' or other initiatory mechanisms to locate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td 1.268 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves at a place on the spectrum defined as 'male' within their given military circumstances. Women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td 1.960 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(however are required to locate either into the male \(Russian Battalion of Death\) spectrum or the female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td 1.510 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('lipstick on her nipples'\) one. Either location is both inherently unstable and limited. While we recognise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td 1.191 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Private Benjamin as moving through the female spectrum to become more empowered and more powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td 1.484 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(we also see her Captain, Doris Lewis, as the epitome of what it is to extend too far into the male; she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td 0.584 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(sadistic, incompetent and love starved. Because she is a woman who has become over-masculinised she is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td 0.206 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure of ridicule. Alternatively, in M*A*S*H*, Major Houlihan is given the soubriquet 'Hot Lips' and this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td 2.158 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently used to undermine her role as a nurse; her femininity allows her to be ridiculed - as a sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td 0.290 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(object - although her professional ability is unquestioned. At the extreme this harassment is lethal, in Algeria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td 1.274 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(women may be killed by fundamentalists for not wearing a veil or by civilian 'militaries' for wearing one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td 2.278 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(This escalation of the duality of Algerian women's cultural choices extends from their roles against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(French during the Algerian War and demonstrates how symbols of femininity can be utilised by patriarchies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td 0.583 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(This theme, in its turn, leads to a question that emerges through the reading of women's experiences in such )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8159 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td 0.358 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(a range of historical and geographical militarised roles. That question lies in the apparent difference between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td 0.625 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(male 'fraternal' experiences in militaries and female 'sororial' ones. From these accounts women seem not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td 0.371 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(bond and form mutually supportive groups as men do in militaries. The nurses who 'fought' for their patients )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td 0.492 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Anglo-Boer War do not appear to have gathered themselves together to produce a united front against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td 1.574 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the behaviour of the orderlies or the failure of medical supply systems. The women who took part in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td 1.410 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese Long March seem only to have come together in circumstances that were away seen as a part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td 2.044 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(their essential 'female' role; childbirth, making clothing etc. Unlike the men who bonded together in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td 0.260 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(trenches during the 1914-18 War or the Israeli military units who move 'lock, stock and barrel' into high tech )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td 1.393 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries, women do not seem inclined either to act together to protect themselves within militaries or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td 1.832 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(extend their career opportunities outside them. A striking example is the complete isolation of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td 0.269 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women Veterans after Vietnam. Unlike their male counterparts, whether combatant or no, they seem to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td 0.842 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(had no opportunity to experience the solidarity of their gender within the military system. Possible answers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td 0.942 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the question emerge through the experiences of the women in many chapters of the book. These include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td 0.362 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(such possibilities as the following: women's acceptance of the paradigm and their choice to work within it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td 0.492 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(gain acceptance from their male peers. Or, women's identification with their unit or peer group regardless of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td 1.793 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender and their wish to not move outside it to establish 'sorority'; women's failure to identify either the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td 0.260 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for sororial support or the means by which to effect it; women accepting the paradigm and feeling that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversion could damage identified gains; or indeed women themselves becoming misogynists)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td 1.715 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such explorations inevitable lead to examination of power relationships within and outside militaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td 2.729 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(here the book serves the reader well, identifying the wide range of justifications used by militaries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td 1.231 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(preclude women being strategic decision makers. These justifications range from the essentialist: - women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td 2.708 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(are mothers and nurturers, hence unsuited to the command decisions that require orders to kill, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td 0.824 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological: - women must give birth to the new generation and hence have no higher role to aspire to than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td 2.061 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood, to the economic: - men are breadwinners and women must not expect to have positions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td 7.284 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(which men have 'first rights'. Ultimately there is the military pragmatic: - women are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td 0.879 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong/committed/educated/respected enough to be commanders and/or policy makers because men will not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td 1.668 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect or trust their decisions. The grounds on which the 'pragmatic justification' are based must change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td 1.754 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly to keep pace with the changes in society; educational discrimination has long broken down in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td 1.038 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(most Western societies and - as with other justifications like physical strength - also begins to erode under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td 0.192 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new high technology nature of modern warfare. Militaries are increasingly forced to accept change or fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td 1.533 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(back on essentialist/ideological arguments. In this, women in militaries are exposed to a range of barriers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td 0.710 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(made explicit \(e.g. physical strength\) that women in other circumstances may identify as implicit or indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td 0.889 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not be able to recognise at all, due to their subtle and undeclared application. Women in militaries are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td 0.159 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore likely to be a testing ground for gender issues not yet apparent in many other areas of society \(West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td 3.009 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Point's admission of women cadets\). The fact that in militaries women may still labour under gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td 1.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(inequalities resolved in other spheres does not invalidate the contention that military women are a frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td 2.678 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and volatile touchstone for wider opinions about women's roles. While women surgeons are no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td 0.291 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(newsworthy, women fighter pilots still are. This relates strictly to the controversial power of women to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td 3.067 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions. When a woman can decide whether bombs should be dropped it seems to challenge many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td 0.355 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(established hierarchies in a way that a masculine decision does not. When a female terrorist can threaten and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td 0.778 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry out activities that frighten, hurt or kill men, it seems to be generally regarded as much more shocking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td 1.845 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had a man terrorised women. In essence then, the complex and subtle gender distinctions evidenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td 2.195 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(through history and across geography and culture may be seen to boil down to a very simple question, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td 1.481 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [("Should women have the power of life or death over men?" but such simplicity is misleading for women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td 2.039 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(have always had that power, from the moment of birth \(Chinese women had to abandon their babies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td 0.860 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninhabited villages on The Long March\) to the final hours of life \(in many wars, as in peace, overseen by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td 1.193 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(women attendants\) most men have been exposed to the power of women to nurture or destroy. It is in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td 0.344 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(making explicit that decision to allow or deny life that women's roles become controversial. These dilemmas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td 2.206 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(over women's ability to command extend back to the very first chapter of the book where Christine de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td 0.953 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pisan's position as a writer on masculine topics, including war, in the 1400s is examined in the light of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of women as contributors to the practical necessities of war.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3417 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td 0.386 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The guide to further reading is a comprehensive and valuable part of the book, containing as it does much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td 0.528 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualise the fields of gender and militarisation as well as more detailed studies of the fields included in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td 0.773 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(each chapter. Within the work as a whole it is encouraging to see so many younger contributors and such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td 3.972 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of disciplinary activities applied to this complex field. Particularly noteworthy, from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 0.548 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropological perspective, is the sensitivity of several contributors to their effect on their interviewees and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 6.119 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the likelihood of alternative contextual interpretation of material. This recognition of contextual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td 0.252 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation allows the reader to appreciate the multi-layered nature of material used and to begin to unpick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td 0.772 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various approaches taken by the writers. While the book is an invaluable aid to the student of gender in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td 0.353 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(militaries, it has wider applications simply than the militarist/historian/gender studies disciplines and the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td 0.471 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(introductory sections, one covering the period before 1945 and the other the period from 1945 to the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td 1.728 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(day, serve to harmonise the chapters but also provide a commentary and gloss on the various disciplines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td 3.733 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherent in the two sections of the book. The introductory sections make relevant and coherent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td 0.825 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent detail of the chapters and provide 'markers' for the further exploration of many of the themes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td 0.217 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(those chapters. Some of these essays are likely to become standard texts for the undergraduate, to which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td 2.797 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(are admirably suited, but this view should not invalidate the scope and quality of original scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td 1.511 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved. The editors are to be congratulated on making a seamless whole of sometimes widely disparate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects and the contributors on the depth and lucidity of their work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 511.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 493.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 493.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/143)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 491.961 m 322.316 491.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 466.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/766)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 492.2755 322.3157 504.1555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/143) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000560 00000 n 0000000642 00000 n 0000005246 00000 n 0000005355 00000 n 0000005465 00000 n 0000005574 00000 n 0000009135 00000 n 0000009263 00000 n 0000009347 00000 n 0000009412 00000 n 0000017448 00000 n 0000017513 00000 n 0000025725 00000 n 0000025809 00000 n 0000029279 00000 n 0000029407 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29502 %%EOF