%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R 49 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 88 0 R ] /Count 12 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722125755+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722125755+01'00') /Title (Pan-Asianism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2836 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Pan-Asianism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1430)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sven Saaler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher W.A. Szpilman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781442206021)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(120.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(768pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowman and Littlefield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781442206021)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sven Saaler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Victor Koschmann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415372169)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415372169/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barak Kushner)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7239 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These engaging tomes, a two-volume collection of translations on pan-Asianism and a collection of articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an edited volume on the same topic, offer a mint of scholarship on what has long been a troubling issue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decipher for students limited to the English language ? namely, what is the deal with Pan-Asianism? What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does it all mean, who talked about it, why and where? This is a complex enough question when one can read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Japanese, Chinese, Korean and even Turkish languages, but for most of us, especially for younger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students starting out or for those in less specialized fields, the question has long been of interest but few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the tools one could employ to gain insight or even access to more than mere cursory introductions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These books change the nature of that game.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of this sea change is the two-volume set of fine translations covering the 19th and 20th centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(with a bit into the 21st\), focusing on a wide variety of well-known, and some lesser known, ideologues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Japanese and other\) on the topic of pan-Asianism. The editors, and translators themselves, have tracked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down competent original language tracts, admirably and clearly cited, and produced mostly lively and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smooth translations. And the selection is mostly what both teachers and students will want ? this is a set for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any library and to serve as a reference on office shelves when researchers who cannot read the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages now need a source they can easily access and on which they can rely. These books bring an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous span of disparate writings together ? an exceedingly admirable goal even without the translations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and introductions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In both of the translation volumes, each selection is preceded with a clear explanation from the translator, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noting the significance and providing some background on the text itself. Sometimes the introductions or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanatory sections are longer than the actual translation, and that is fine because these volumes offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely that to the beginning reader ? an introduction. I can think of no better set of current volumes on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market that offer this wealth in terms of both coverage, depth of explanation, and then actual translation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary text, to readers in English. In volume one, the usual suspects emerge: haven?t we already heard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough for the time being from Kita Ikki or Okakura Tenshin? Luckily, the editors also scoured the ends of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earth for a more international approach and we get to choose from a smorgasbord of individuals. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chaep?il, the early Korean reformer makes an entry, as does Abdurresid Ibrahim, who connects Islam and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of Japan in the early 20th century. Particularly pleasing was the choice to include a tract on An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chunggun, the assassin of Meiji statesman Ito Hirobumi. Sun Yat Sen puts in an appearance in a discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his relationship with Germany, as do the more standard historical personages that normally get associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with this topic. I noticed the consideration of pan-Asian thought among Koreans, but the dearth of analyzing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader Chinese discussion of this issue is a lacuna. This may be because other scholars are covering this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect and, in the end, a book only has so many pages. That being said, one of the key moments for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, followed up in volume two, is that it demonstrates that the theme of Pan-Asianism is a topic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern to more than just scholars of Japan. The attention to detail is spread over a wider geography to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the historical significance of the topic. This is a worthy pursuit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volume two arguably has to deal with a more well-known cast of characters so the editors must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debated their selections for quite a while. At the same time, the editors push the envelope and do not let the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate close with the end of the Second World War. In fact, they demonstrate the startling vibrancy, or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least relevance, of the idea of pan-Asianism in the post-war period through the Bandung Conference in 1955, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even a piece from Wang Yi on China?s new Asianism in the late 20th century. The selections in volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two have perhaps a tougher job, with the need both to analyze the ideology during the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and also to detail why the theme of pan-Asianism continues to enthral some, such as former prime minister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mahatir Mohamed in Malaysia, and simultaneously repel others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saaler and Szpilman should be commended on being able both to corral an army of able and intellectually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gifted scholars from around the world and get them to produce translations and introductions in this multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layered collection of tracts from the last century and a half. One could always have quibbles about choices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tone, but what would be the point? I can only imagine the effort put forward in producing this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication and the two volumes sit proudly on my shelf, already well-thumbed as I paw through them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking for insight. I am sure their bindings will continue to soften as I man-handle them for use in future )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 4493 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third book in this review is a related collection of 15 different essays shepherded into several themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that emerged from a conference on the topic of pan-Asianism, published several years before the translation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes. The initial thrust that I drew from my first reading concerns the vast and amorphous blob that is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of pan-Asianism. If there is one consistent concept on which the authors agreed, it was that pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asianism adheres to no one idea or set of ideas but rather exists within a vortex of competing ideologies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swirled around Japan and East Asia for a half century before transforming into separate motivating forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the war, but with some vestigial attachment to their pre-war roots. In some measure this conclusion was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later reflected in the varied choices for translation in the two-volume collection of tracts. Thus, pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asianism was and remains, at once, an abhorred and adored philosophical scheme. It does, however, appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to stand on two somewhat shaky foundational pillars. One of these was an actual plan to unify Asia as some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of political bloc and the other scheme essentially masked the Japanese desire to lead East Asia toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that goal. That being said, while the ideology led a fruitful earlier 20th?century life it has subsequently died, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only to really retain some value in the right or nationalist fringes in Japan. No ties really remain across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographic span of East Asia as existed in those heady pre-revolution or pre-war times. This conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stands in some opposition to the last section of volume two of the translation collection where the editors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly go out of their way to find texts that suggest pan-Asian is still being broached in East Asia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regardless, this edited volume is loaded with some fascinating in-depth case studies of pan-Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologues of various stripes but authors and the editors, with the exception of Saaler?s fine introduction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent little time in drawing comparisons between chapters. This would have been a nice addition since one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misses the sort of debates that might have taken place at the conference and readers here are only presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with 15 independent essays that do not necessarily always make for a coherent whole. We learn much, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was much more room for expanding the sort of themes chosen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The questions that arise from this genre of research centre on the issue: how does one clearly distinguish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between right wing political ideology and pan-Asianism? Is there or was there a difference? Did it depend on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decade or the political appearance? Did pan-Asianism wear a certain uniform and goose-step while it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marched, or could it take the form of a consultative approach at school or as a journalistic angle for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media? Moreover, how do we avoid referring to the inevitability of the Second World War in ascertaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ultimate shade of ?ism? it truly was? Did history necessarily have to end as it did? Were there regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences or was this a national paradigm? How did these ideologies play out in the larger empire itself?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8366 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of these questions remain unanswered in the edited volume, in part because a majority of the chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the intellectual history angle and not necessarily on the transnational aspects of pan-Asianism, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange absence given the topic. Li Narangoa, Roger Brown, the introduction by Sven Saaler, and to some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent Kristine Dennehy, in their essays point in the right direction and actually delve into the ?pan? aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ideologies that cut beyond Japan?s national borders. The bulk of the other excellent essays stood more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographically bounded, demonstrating that much of how we entertain the thought of pan-Asianism remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an intellectual or philosophical exercise mostly relegated to Japan?s four main islands. In this manner, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is much heady talk about the Kyoto School, philosophy, and related notions but little discussion of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas Japanese in their links to the US, Hawaii or South America were doing. \(Many of these nitpicky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points are rectified by the two-volume collection of translations where readers are treated to a much richer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(array of texts concerning the ideas of pan-Asianism\). Likewise, the China connections are obvious and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely show up in the bibliography, nor is there any detailed discussion of relations with nationalist-minded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asians like Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, Chandra Bose in India, Ba Maw in Burma, or others throughout South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Southeast Asia as well as the rest of the Far East. These are serious points, particularly when taken in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of what Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper have noted in )] TJ ET BT 336.980 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Wars: Freedom and Revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Southeast Asia)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.020 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.020 569.235 m 122.012 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.012 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where they write that Japan?s intervention in Asia created new nations without states, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end causing even more bloodshed and discord after 1945. One would have hoped for maybe a hint of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage regarding the Indian National Army traitor trials at Red Fort in late 1945 ? were they not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced in some measure by their wartime association with the Japanese, Nehru as the emerging Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader, and under the spell of pan-Asianism that grew on the subcontinent?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We need more actual pan-Asian coverage of pan-Asianism if we are going to move beyond the somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsessive concern with the already well-trumpeted holy trinity of pan-Asian Japanese philosophers: Miki )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kiyoshi, Royama Masamichi, and Tanabe Hajime. This conference volume expounded on some of these key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nodes but did not exactly offer the sort of relief I had hoped for, and which certainly shines through in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent two-volume collection of translations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saaler leads off with a solid introduction on pan-Asianism throughout Japanese history. In part, he sees pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asianism as a precursor to regionalism. In one of its initial incarnations, pan-Asianism, Saaler writes, mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized the need for Asian unity in the face of pressure from the West. Asia was the space where Japan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined itself and thus its roots are mid 19th century. When the Sinocentric and Tokugawa worlds collapsed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a sudden and great need to re-identify how the people saw themselves. Katsu Kaishu, a bakufu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official, early on proposed a ?Nisshin teikei?, an 1860s union of Sino-Japan to ward off the West. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Meiji intellectuals, with the exception of )] TJ ET BT 258.656 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Datsu-A)] TJ ET BT 298.652 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(leave Asia\) promoter Fukuzawa Yukichi, saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidarity with Asia as a safe move forward. The )] TJ ET BT 270.632 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Koa)] TJ ET BT 293.636 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kai)] TJ ET BT 308.300 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Society for Raising Asia\), in 1880 and the )] TJ ET BT 523.280 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toa)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dobunkai)] TJ ET BT 81.344 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(headed by Konoe Atsumaro\) in 1898 were some of the earliest and strongest private groups that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arose to support the idea of a unified Asia under Japan against the threat of the West. There were also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more nefarious )] TJ ET BT 109.328 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Genyosha)] TJ ET BT 157.316 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Dark Ocean Society\) in 1881 and the )] TJ ET BT 348.272 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kokuryukai, )] TJ ET BT 410.264 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded under Uchida Ryohei )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1901. Ironically, while many of these groups have received their share of academic attention over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, most of them did not gain significant traction with the government since Meiji leaders were wary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeding to Western fears of the supposed great yellow peril. As Saaler instructs and others in their essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point out, the supposed sheen of pan-Asianism took decades to actually form into a viable and cohesive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political force in Japan, not really emerging until the turn of the 19th to the 20th century. Saaler \(p. 6\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assesses that until the First World War, pan-Asian rhetoric in Japanese government circles did not matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that much. Suematsu Kench, one of the first Japanese to study at the University of Cambridge and who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went on to first introduce parts of the )] TJ ET BT 215.324 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tale of Genji)] TJ ET BT 278.660 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in English, had to reassure London society when he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a diplomat that Asia was not going to unite against the West. There were resonating signs toward pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asianism in China ? in 1919 Li Dazhao, a Chinese scholar, pushed a new sense of Asianism to get weak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian nations to band together. In 1924, Sun Yat Sen gave a talk in Kobe, which criticized the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan believed it had to choose between belonging to the east or west. Miyazaki Toten?s support of Sun Yat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sen is well known but did this ever grow into anything? I was struck several years ago when I visited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small museum devoted to Miyazki in the distant suburbs of Kumamoto that Sun traveled all the way to deep )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.0197 569.5495 122.0117 581.4295 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8425 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western Japan to pay his respects to Miyazaki. Photographs of the two together abound, but ultimately the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendship that is often touted in history books resulted in precious little mutual political action. Is that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testament to the lasting impotence of pan-Asianism, in that it appears to be a sexy topic but in the end never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivers?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the problems with the original Japanese essays that were ably translated in this edited volume is they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliver less punch, with the exception of Oguma Eiji?s, than the majority of other chapters. Miwa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kimitada?s ?Pan Asianism in modern Japan? is one such example, even though Miwa is a grand master of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field. This chapter is a rehash of the evident. He breaks pan-Asianism down as a sort of ideology that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows Japanese nationalism overseas, where it develops a stronger regional identity, p. 21, which arose to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compete with yellow peril fear from the West. Japan?s struggle during the Meiji era was trying to decide if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was leaving or leading Asia, a question also referred to in Oguma Eiji?s essay. Oguma quotes a Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual in 1950 who announced that he was pleased to have rejoined East Asia. I remain somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubious of Miwa?s claim that pan-Asianism created any support for itself by relying heavily on the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War propaganda ideal )] TJ ET BT 176.636 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hakko)] TJ ET BT 208.292 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ichiu)] TJ ET BT 232.292 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?eight corners of the world under one roof?. Who really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood this idea at the ground level? Even towering intellectuals ? Miki, Royama and others ? had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservations about the true thrust of what they were claiming.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.628 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.628 569.235 m 342.620 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.620 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Miwa concludes with a rather anodyne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion that while pan-Asianism is now lifeless, during its heyday it witnessed a battle between the )] TJ ET BT 519.632 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hakko)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ichiu)] TJ ET BT 58.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 81.344 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kokutai)] TJ ET BT 116.672 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. I offer that such a proposition would have been more convincingly argued as a struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between domestic issues and internationalism. In this way, the content could have tied in very nicely with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the essays by Li and Scheider.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kuroki Morifumi, in ?The Asianism of the Koa-kai and the Ajia Kyokai,? delivers an informative piece that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to list organizations more than analyze their impact. He explains that these groups were forerunners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toa)] TJ ET BT 86.348 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dobun Shoin)] TJ ET BT 146.684 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Kuroki defines Asianism as the rise of thought to resist Western encroachment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These pan-Asian groups started language schools to teach Chinese, provide translations, and to open cross )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural doors of communication ? admirable goals in the purest political sense. They also provided key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence information and reported back on the situation across China. Essentially, Kuroki sees such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups as promoting ?Asian ideals?, offering a new way of justice to supplant the western way of the despot. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But their numbers were always small, so how do we judge their influence? Surely, investigating pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asianism does not mean that we are going to try and search out every tiny group and tie them together to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate how active the ideology was? We need a stronger set of methodological tools to help us gauge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact and influence. Kuroki?s somewhat reductive conclusion is that these several small groups laid the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groundwork for the )] TJ ET BT 130.328 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toa)] TJ ET BT 152.000 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dobunkai)] TJ ET BT 196.664 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which operated from 1898?1945. The )] TJ ET BT 386.624 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toa)] TJ ET BT 405.296 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( meddled in China affairs, other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups prior did not, and there is located the shift in pan-Asian ideology he concludes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Li Narangoa, in her chapter, ?Universal values and Pan-Asianism: the vision of Omotokyo?, offers one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tastier essays in the book. Founded by Deguchi Nao and then furthered by son Deguchi Onisaburo, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Omotokyo was a new religion that grew during the Taisho era. Founded in response to the Meiji crisis, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first the leader called for )] TJ ET BT 154.976 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(yonaoshi)] TJ ET BT 198.308 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?redoing the world?, announcing that Japan would only heal after an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armageddon like crisis. The question then is, what were the religion?s links with pan-Asianism? First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War Omotokyo leaders started to see Japan?s problems in the greater context of the world and Onisaburo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that by boosting Shinto principles Japan?s philosophical treasures could be shared with others to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a world family system. His overseas mission sought to affirm that goal. Working with the Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Red Swastika society in 1922, Omotokyo also sent missionaries to Manchuria and North China. In 1924, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while supposedly under house arrest, Onisaburo escaped and traveled to Mongolia, the cradle of East Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he thought. With help of Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin, Onisaburo raised a small army but failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rally religion and unity with Japan. When he returned to Japan \(p. 61\) he was now a much larger mythic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure around which a small media frenzy grew, and the founder of the )] TJ ET BT 376.592 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kokuryukai)] TJ ET BT 432.584 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Uchida Ryohei, finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to view him as something other than a comic figure. Omotokyo combined missionary zeal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnocentric pan-Asianism within a Japan-centric universe. The religion?s followers tried to disseminate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?great truth of Japan? as the central leader tied such ideology in with gods and the mythic ideology of Shinto.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Szpilman is exceedingly knowledgeable about the history of the right wing in Japan and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.6277 569.5495 342.6197 581.4295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7846 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates his erudition in, ?Between Pan-Asian and nationalism: Mitsukawa Kametaro and his campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reform Japan and liberate Asia?. It is a nicely packaged chapter that starts and finishes by commenting on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ishihara Shintar, the headline seeking former mayor of Tokyo. Szpilman?s inclusion of Ishihara leads one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to believe that maybe there is a smidgen of value left in pan-Asian ideology in contemporary Japan given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mayor?s consistent foot-in-mouth comments over the years. Szpilman does not analyze the mayor but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitsukawa Kametaro, a late Meiji prolific writer and networker. The )] TJ ET BT 367.940 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kokuryukai)] TJ ET BT 423.932 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( hailed him as a thinker and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he pulled Kita Ikki and others up from obscurity through the ranks, including Okawa Shumei. Mitukawa?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success demonstrates how one rose in the right wing ranks. This essay is sort of a genealogy to show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right-wingers supported one another and developed over time ? they never emerged )] TJ ET BT 438.584 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sui)] TJ ET BT 455.588 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(generis)] TJ ET BT 490.916 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impoverished in Osaka, Mitsukawa became a journalist for a while to pay bills. During the First World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he founded the )] TJ ET BT 108.332 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rosokai)] TJ ET BT 146.996 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a study group to exchange ideas. Then he split off \(p. 88\) and founded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Yuzonsha)] TJ ET BT 80.024 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Those who remain\) with a pan-Asian and radical domestic agenda. The groups had nebulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies and we cannot really assert they were fascist. Mitsukawa felt Asia?s glory was in the past and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to return to the ideology of the time to be able to push against the West. He detected stirrings in Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but said that they needed Japanese help to rise up. In the 1930s Mitsukawa promoted Japanese colonialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Asia and his chief hypothetical enemy had become the United States. He believed America coveted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China but had planned to get rid of Japan first because it was in the way. He also announced that a race war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was brewing. Mitsukawa admired American might but was also disgusted by it by the 1930s, although with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Depression such anxiety dissipated. In Mitsukawa?s mind, by 1935, pan-Asianism was \(p. 99\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unbridled Japanese chauvinism?, and this was not considered a bad thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a similar vein, Dick Stegewerns chose to focus his chapter on one individual, in ?Forgotten leaders of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interwar debate on regional integration: introducing Sugimori Kojiro?. There are several problems, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with these sorts of chapters in an edited volume. I think we have to offer more than just an outline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(someone?s life if we hope to present that person as somehow key to our understanding of pan-Asianism. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must refrain from just plucking personages from archival obscurity, not that Stegewerns does, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugimori?s relevance was never explained in my opinion satisfactorily to the reader. As such, Stegewerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never really completely ties in the story of Sugimori with his importance, or lack thereof. Why do we need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to know about him, and one could likewise ask the question of Szpilman?s choice as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eventually, Stegewerns asks the same question that Saaler threw out in the introduction: how does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regionalism differ from pan-Asianism? Until recently, Japan never focused on Asia as a region and now this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic is quotidian. What pushed regional integration? Around the time of the First World War Japan began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasp the deeper problems of nationalism in Europe as a root cause for the tremendous unrest that led to war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugimori saw the union the United States constituted and admired the project \(p. 107\), believing the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was possible in Asia, with Japan in the lead. How did Sugimori see the world? He did not see East and West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as separate, only a world civilization with superior and inferior levels, where the East was inferior. Sugimori )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opined that Asia had to help itself, it was not a white man?s burden. In 1927, with the KMT on the verge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unifying China, he believed such a step would potentially threaten Japan?s position in Manchuria. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lingering issues with the Szpilman and Stegewerns essays was that they pulled on many threads, chased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down leads and started topics, but in the end I remain confused where they wanted to leave us. In this vein, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maybe it is appropriate that both authors were a bit vague since it parallels their assessment of the pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asianists in general; these ideologues were unable to really grasp Chinese nationalism and denied it in a bid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see Japan as the preordained leader of East Asian regionalism. This, too, is not exactly a robust set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions. Was Sugimori emblematic of this set of beliefs, or did he help create this mindset of a greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East Asia that predates the Second World War?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Brown delves into some compelling questions about government and political philosophy in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of Yasuoka Masahiro, in ?Visions of a virtuous manifest destiny: Yasuoka Masahiro and Japan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingly Way?. Unlike the other chapters that focus on individuals, Brown is more careful to delve into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger context surrounding the person, not just providing a brief biography that will supposedly speak for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. Yasuoka, a Confucian scholar, had a long standing career as private advisor to government officials, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counsellor to Kita Ikki, confidante of Okawa Shumei, and manager of his own polishing school for ?men of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8179 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character?. Yasuoka also more famously helped rewrite Japan?s imperial surrender. After the war he, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many other pan-Asianists, was purged, but then rebounded and educated post-war bureaucrats and prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers. Yasuoka blended a Confucian focus on self-cultivation with Neo-Kantian interest in cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authenticity; proper government in his estimation originated from the imperial house of Japan. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan?s kingly way, a sort of reaction to despotism, that gave Japan the mantle to rule East Asia \(p. 135\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yasuoka assessed that China and Japan should play up more their shared common heritage and along these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines Yasuoka was a Neo-Confucian devotee to the Sung dynasty Chinese philosopher Wang Yangming. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yasuoka was not strictly a militarist, though like many pan-Asianists of his ilk, he pushed the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivating the self, living the way of the gods as he termed it. Countries could follow suit, he believed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations that followed ?the way? could employ military force as ?an exemplar of bushido?, which we learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from recent scholarship is more a late Meiji if not turn of the century construct and not a traditional value as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so often vaunted in philosophical tracts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.332 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.332 638.259 m 239.324 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 239.324 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Fundamentally, the pan-Asianists who stuck to this nascent idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to impress others wanted to find an ideology that competed with Victorian England and early Prussian ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of patriotism and duty. Essentially, Yasuoka?s ideas promoted the concept that Japan as a nation could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the true samurai?, which of course they were not. To keep the country stable and ordered was key, he felt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to help officials avoid revolution. A constant renewal of the belief in centrality and an orientation toward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centripetal importance of the imperial house was also vital. Education helped foster this quality in students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who then grew up and served as leaders. Yasuoka championed Japan?s empire because it helped keep out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism and Western influence. He was eager to establish an ?international Showa? and he relied on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new interpretations of the Chinese classics to proclaim that Japan was destined to be the leader of East Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and needed to be. Of course there was supposed to be a plan, such ideology cultivated learning, and one can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognize why this might have been attractive to many at the time and in the post-war period as well. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief linked Japan into a much longer and deeply philosophical historical memory channel of thinkers than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it actually possessed. In 1937 when the fighting grew fierce on the Chinese mainland Yasuoka supported the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire but urged the Japanese to behave in a ?kingly? fashion. The Nanjing Massacre proved otherwise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yasuoka could not see Japan?s failings and like so many of his intellectual brethren he eventually blamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chinese for the war?s excesses because Japan?s cause was supposedly righteous. We see similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of such deeply held beliefs in the diaries of Japanese generals and high officials in the immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war periodwhen they reflected on the war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.948 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.948 395.907 m 274.940 395.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.940 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Elite Japanese persuaded themselves that the Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ignorant if they did not welcome Japanese action on the mainland. After all, Japan was there to assist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China and one could theoretically observe on the ground the ramifications of Yasuoka?s philosophy. Japan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?just war? was not an idea of the past but lives on. Yasuoka also believed that men of talent, who were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous, needed to go forth to China and persuade the Chinese what was required of the future. If they did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, Japan would fail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I admit my bias from the outset ? maybe I am being unfair to John Namjun Kim and his piece on ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporality of empire: the imperial cosmopolitanism of Miki Kiyoshi and Tanabe Hajime?. Many of us have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already drunk from this reservoir of knowledge surrounding scholastic infatuation with Miki and Tanabe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How much more can be said about these two that impacts the field? I enjoyed the opening of the chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where colonialism was discussed as practice; imperialism is generally ideology. These two major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals were stalwarts of the Kyoto school, where the theory of subjectivity supposedly girded Japan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. I still have my doubts that this was so central an issue except to post-war intellectual historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the subjects that I read in archives rarely mention this topic. One wonders how important the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pan-Asianism was to wartime intellectuals or was it and ideology more reflective of economic class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences based on how one viewed the usefulness of empire? To what extent did Japan?s empire have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual foundations? No one ever seems to discuss the role of the media and pan-Asianism in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breath yet arguably the news industry had a far larger impact on the idea of empire and Asia. A corollary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be to ask how much American society hinged on political scientist Francis Fukuyama?s idea of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of history in the early 1990s or was it more affected in recent years under the Bush administration by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Yoo?s twisted legal theories about the acceptability of torturing ?enemy combatants? to gain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly necessary intelligence? Maybe we need to assess a combination of the two strands, but surely not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only Miki or Tanabe?s ideas in isolation? If we are going to overemphasize the influence or importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals within the discussion of what pan-Asianism was then we need to also offer stronger evidence )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.3317 638.5735 239.3237 650.4535 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.9477 396.2215 274.9397 408.1015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8644 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about its influence. Kim is a bit obtuse with sections that evaded me. For example \(p. 152\) he states ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual subject only attains subjectivity through a temporal identification with an imagined social totality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that )] TJ ET BT 55.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(promises)] TJ ET BT 98.348 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( freedom?. What exactly does that mean? If this book is to be enjoyed by a variety of scholars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including advanced students, such prose needs to be parsed out for the laymen, not only the specialist. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how about at some point touching on the personal lives of these intellectuals, as Paul Johnson once famously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did when taking grand European scholars down a notch.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.632 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.632 723.795 m 317.624 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.624 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Miki studied with Nishida Kitaro and then went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off to Germany to engage with Heidegger. What an opportunity here to discuss religion, to dig into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heidegger?s interesting relationship with his much younger Jewish protg, Hannah Arendt, and what that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant. Did Arendt ever meet him? Did she see things differently than Heidegger and was Miki at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the fact that a Jewish woman had a Nazi lover? We need more of that German-Japan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interchange and less of the obsessive concern with the story of subjectivity ? a topic I would argue few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduates grasp and that needs to be more pulled into the working life of pan-Asian ideology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In relating to the chapter on female pan-Asianists ? did these guys ever have social lives or did they only eat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sleep and drink extreme political philosophy? Did their family lives engage in any manner with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual pursuits? Should we care or does that detract from the historical investigation? The fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these pan-Asianists were often multi-cultural and multi-lingual, but at the same time fiercely nationalistic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also runs against our contemporary dogma that studying foreign languages and cultures is the source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity and understanding. What was different about the pre-war period, and how did that create such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fissures? Unfortunately, these sorts of questions are not mixed in so at times in this edited volume we seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be treading over familiar academic ground, and I am not convinced the chapter really illuminates anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly new. It obviously details and expands but there is also a tendency in intellectual history to over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectualize. In Tanabe?s philosophy there was a ?promise for a future with full membership in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed community that marks the imperial moment? \(p. 165\). Tanabe certainly encouraged students in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1943 to die for the empire but was that an imperial moment? In the end the author explains, ?Tanabe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument here is that individual freedom is only won within the state?. Kim tells us that empires are not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military; there needs to be a bureaucratic class, where theory trains new leaders. To be sure, we saw this in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Brown chapter on Yasuoka and the point is well taken. One need only examine contemporary China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which then begs the question: with all the corruption and such, is there a theory behind the state? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropologist of China, Frank Pieke, would say one place to start such an examination would be in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cadre training schools.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.328 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.328 369.651 m 156.320 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 156.320 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And we know that Miki worked at the Showa Research Association, and Tanabe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught, so such pursuit is not mere sophistry. In conclusion, Kim was prescient in anticipating the questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we would ask at the opening of his chapter and he provides good use of a quote from former United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deputy secretary of defence Paul Wolfowitz to demonstrate this his analysis is not all ethereal but ties into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar debates, including the issues the United States is currently struggling with. Unfortunately, in the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter does not quite deliver on what it promises.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Doak decodes ?the concept of ethnic nationality and its role in pan-Asian imperial Japan? in his essay. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan?s inter-war period placed emphasis on the idea of )] TJ ET BT 305.612 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(minzoku)] TJ ET BT 345.608 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, centering on a common racial identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was at the core of Japan?s imperial project. One of the main issues with this supposition, of course, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this idea crumbled so very quickly in the summer of 1945, which alludes to the secondary question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how serious or important such notions were if they failed so suddenly without a trace? The fact that Japan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a racially stratified empire does not mean that there were not strains within it that called for more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equitability For example, University of Tokyo Students in the early 1920s clamored for Koreans to get the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vote during the Taisho era. Yoshino Sakuzo wrote that Japanese youths were supportive of giving Korea a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say in its future, proclaiming, ?Give her independence or autonomy!?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.616 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.616 158.067 m 381.608 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 381.608 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Doak posits that the Japanese were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested more in ethnicity than race; local identity was labeled as )] TJ ET BT 356.960 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(minzoku)] TJ ET BT 396.956 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and regional as the East Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. The First World War had started people thinking about clashes between ethnicities and Okawa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shumei started selling the idea of Asia as one )] TJ ET BT 255.656 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volk)] TJ ET BT 277.652 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, turning on the idea of liberating themselves from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western yoke. While they acknowledged race, his supporters saw Asia as a large region comprised of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples in opposition to the Anglo Saxon bloc. With Japan?s 1905 victory in the Russo-Japanese war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Okawa, like many others, came to believe that the coloured races had value. But how to create a community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in East Asia where arguably not much of one existed? During the 1920s a crisis occurred in the Japanese )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.6317 724.1095 317.6237 735.9895 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3277 369.9655 156.3197 381.8455 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.6157 158.3815 381.6077 170.2615 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 55 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 8313 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, combined with a severe economic downturn, which caused Marxists and socialists to find the answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their doctrines. They developed ideas of a new order, )] TJ ET BT 304.616 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(minzoku)] TJ ET BT 347.612 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chitsujo)] TJ ET BT 385.616 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which helped to justify Japan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule of East Asia. Pan-Asianists began to proliferate but they never really agreed on any one course to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execute their various plans. Doak sums up the main issue and writes \(p. 181\) ?[o]ne searches in vain for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single, coherent policy on regional integration during the era of imperial Japan?. Shouldn?t that idea lead the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay? Were all these pronouncements Japanese intellectual posturing or did they mean something? Who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attended and read these lectures, I am always dying to know. Doak presents his magic trick and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly puts the rabbit back in the hat, with a knowing nod and a wink that suggests at times he wants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present these ideologues as having wielded masterful influence but simultaneously wants to hedge his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Victor Koschmann, in ?Constructing destiny: Royama Masamichi and Asian regionalism in wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan?, says that he wants to look at the margins of pan-Asianism. Royama Masamichi, another elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member of the intellectual wartime field, pushed for what became the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sphere. With colleagues at the Showa Research Association, Royama pursued studies that supported Japan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding empire but, Koschmann argues, he was a rationalist. There is a continuity between his pre- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war thinking, and here Koschmann moves a bit away from the normal reworking of wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals into some newer and fruitful territory, where we can question if pan-Asian thought remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valid post-war and for what reasons. Maruyama Masao wrote that pre-war Japanese political science was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sterile since academics could not question the status quo. \(Does the example of the anti-war politician Saito )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Takao not oppose this idea a bit?\) Koschmann raises a salient point that Japan moved into its imperial state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only due to ?irrational obscurantism? \(p. 187\) but also because it was ?supported by the most recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social scientific approaches to politics and international relations?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.300 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.300 483.699 m 367.292 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 367.292 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Royama became a political scientist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1920s when he turned away from the rumblings of Taisho democracy and was arguably more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressed with the Soviet five-year plans and Nazi organization. Royama developed the idea of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?community of destiny? as he termed it, that Asia would come together in its commonality against the white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West, which, he explained, was why the Chinese nationalist project was doomed. In much the same way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the US has consistently misinterpreted the history and values of the Middle East and Afghanistan, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immense room here for an expanded notion of comparing Japan?s intellectual debates during the war and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is happening in America today.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 210.656 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 210.656 383.907 m 224.648 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 224.648 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Royama chastised the Chinese for not understanding Japan?s goals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that gap supposedly caused the friction. How could Japan expand and maintain its empire in a way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would maintain connections through high level transport links and communication hubs?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.324 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.324 355.395 m 481.316 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.316 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A unique sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cross discipline analysis could have been accomplished here if this line of reasoning had been pursued. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the post-war period, Maruyama Masao and Royama Masamichi became part of a team \(p. 198\) that signed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the December 1950 petition that opposed a one-sided Japanese peace treaty which excluded the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union and other nations not aligned with the United States. Koschmann points out that there was little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparity between the wartime pursuits of total war social science advocates and post-war democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because both still saw the global confrontation as a pitched battled between East and West as an inherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the story. In this sense, pan-Asianism retained a relevance for de-imperialized Japan as much as it did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for pre-war Japan. Koschmann?s article may have done the most to shake up our convictions that pan-Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought has little relevance left in the post-war period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oguma Eiji delights in a short essay, ?Postwar intellectuals view of ?Asia??, but leads into his argument by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminding us that in 1950 the pop intellectual Shimizu Ikutaro commented, ?now, once again, Japanese are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asians? \(p. 200\). The actual conditions of the Second World War had clearly demonstrated how shallow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan?s modernity was and in 1949, Oguma writes, the Japanese pejorative view of China began to erode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the rise of the people?s revolution. China scholar Takeuchi Yoshimi also started gaining prominence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s and it is interesting to note his focus on something other than the holy trinity of Royama, Miki and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanabe. Here Oguma seems to be able to relieve himself of the genuflection paid to the three wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophers and reflect on a solidly different topic. During the 1950s Japanese became interested in )] TJ ET BT 519.260 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(minshu)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the people\) as they reflected on intellectuals? devotion to enlightenment thought focused mainly and over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependently on the West. Similar to communist Chinese behavior after the revolution, the Japanese spoke of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning from the masses. A 1948 essay by Takeuchi, comparing Chinese and Japanese modernity, was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 51 0 obj [49 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 353.2997 484.0135 367.2917 495.8935 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [49 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 210.6557 384.2215 224.6477 396.1015 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [49 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.3237 355.7095 481.3157 367.5895 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 8054 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered in the 1960s to be one of the ten most influential essays in post-war Japan. The Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist Party started to gain prominence at this time and talk about )] TJ ET BT 379.340 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(minzoku)] TJ ET BT 419.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( independence. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese re-evaluation of Asia, importantly as Oguma points out, did not include soul searching about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for the war in Asia. Until then such discussions mostly focused on politicians, the military and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucrats; regular Japanese still defined themselves as victims and gave little thought to the Asian victims. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In September 1951 the magazine )] TJ ET BT 194.984 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sekai)] TJ ET BT 220.976 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published a special issue on problems relating to the San Francisco )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace treaty, opposing China?s exclusion but only two out of 120 writers mentioned reparations. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s the domestic Japan economy was soaring and the country was no longer associated with the poor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backward; by 1963 Japan had joined the OECD, entering the ranks of developed nations, and left behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat its discussion about pan-Asianism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kristine Dennehy, in ?Overcoming colonialism at Bandung, 1955?, explains that Japan joined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference to promote solidarity and wanted to use the occasion to showcase its re-entry into international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. Takasaki Tatsunosuke was the lead delegate and most Japanese officials attending were from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant conservative political leadership. In Dennehy?s assessment, Bandung served two somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting functions. One was to let progressive intellectual groups like )] TJ ET BT 384.308 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rekishi)] TJ ET BT 422.636 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kagakukai)] TJ ET BT 471.956 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( push a critique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Japan?s imperial past to link up with other formerly oppressed Asians. The conservatives, on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, wanted to promote Japan?s economic reintegration with Asia and use the Bandung conference as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launching off platform. They also used the meeting to discuss reparations with Burma, Thailand, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippines. Many of the delegates were conservative, as were their advisors. One advisor was Fujiyama )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aiichiro, president of )] TJ ET BT 140.000 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ajia)] TJ ET BT 163.004 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kyokai)] TJ ET BT 197.000 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and head of the Dai Nippon sugar manufacturer. Fujiyama had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purged in the immediate pre-war period but by 1957 was appointed as Foreign Minister under Kishi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nobusuke. Fujiyama took over economic direction as director general of economic planning under Ikeda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following that. As a former imperial capitalist, Fujiyama had interesting ideas about pan-Asianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering his position as a colonial elite in Taiwan during the war. It is a tantalizing suggestion that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have gone much further; Dennehy lays out the interesting line of questioning but then does not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide proof for the argument. She details the politics but does not probe the core of whether pan-Asianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a motive force or not at Bandung. In the end the gathering was important because it did allow Japan to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realign itself with Asia but how precisely that worked is not explained. Japan and its colleagues at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference pushed new anti-colonial goals with a pan-Asian flavor but did that ever move beyond rhetoric? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A new pacifist agenda Dennehy points to as one new goal, and the Japanese put themselves in a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position to critique the Cold War and escalating arms race from that vantage point. The fact that dissolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their empire was a direct cause of the situation seems to not have been considered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hatsuse Ryuhei, in ?Pan-Asianism in international relations: prewar, postwar and present?, aims to show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that pre-war pan-Asianism was political and after the war it had stronger economic leanings. This is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting point and supported by Dennehy?s article that precedes it. NGOs and aid to Asia could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered a post-war form of pan-Asianism, if some form of ideological thrust underpinned the efforts. So, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what were the post-war changes in international relations in Asia that led to this? Hatsue informs us that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the war nations were no longer colonies of Japan or elsewhere but sovereign in their own right ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this included Burma, India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, the two Koreas, Laos, Cambodia, Taiwan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam ? an important to list to consider. Their goals after 1950 \(p. 228\) shifted from striving toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence to furthering economic development. After the Cold War \(presumed to be over in East Asia, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debatable point unto itself\) during the 1990s Asian countries established a stronger interstate system of trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and relations. APEC \(the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation\) grew in 1989, and the Asia-Europe Meeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ASEM\) was created in 1996. Since most Asian nations had become independent after 1945 Japan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime pan-Asianism had lost its fundamental raison d?tre, which its propaganda had touted as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation of Asia. The larger idea itself also became discredited because it was linked with the Greater East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian Co-prosperity Sphere. But, according to Hatsue, when offering aid and credit the post-war Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and companies would place similar emphasis on the idea of cooperation and co-prosperity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia. Unfortunately, after offering up this intriguing morsel, Hatsue delves into detail about Nakamura Tetsu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his Peshawar-kai medical services, an NGO in north Pakistan. Supposedly Nakamura goes to places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where no one else will and wants to protect human rights in Asia. Precisely what he is an example of, or a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R ] /Contents 63 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Length 9677 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lone extreme of, remains unclear. Is Nakamura supposed to be an example of the new co-prosperity sphere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or just a case study? I was never sure. In sum, this chapter offers the most modern and up to date case study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the idea of pan-Asianism even if the author does not bring the argument expressly to the forefront. We do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not know how much impact or media footprint this doctor has in Japan. Is it really pan-Asian or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian aid and is there a difference? As some of the authors tried to show with their philosophers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was always a mix of ideals concerning this nebulous cauldron of pan-Asianism that provided such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large label attached to many products and beliefs. Such a range confused many, including countries like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China, which could not understand how the Japanese insisted they were there to help. Maybe Japan?s pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asianism, though this doctor, has transformed into a more humanitarian form and thus is something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, this edited volume spurred conflicting responses. On one hand, while challenging many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypes concerning pan-Asianism, it offered essays that sought to extend our knowledge beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream core of what we already know. At times this effort fell a bit flat. On other counts it provoked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new thought in other areas. My first inclination upon completion was: can we finish with the holy trinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centered on the Kyoto school and move forward? There are many as yet unexplored areas of pan-Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought and history, including transnational issues, such as how was pan-Asianism seen outside of Japan, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the periphery of empire where it arguably mattered more? Some of my concerns were allayed with the two-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume collection of translations that really needs to be purchased with this edited volume of essays. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, I have a few editorial queries, which might seem a bit extraneous. The index was interesting; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained some of the minor characters but nothing on the fringe of important movers like the Meiji right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing ideologue Suzuki Chikara, and nothing on bushido. There is also no mention of the cultural links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through pan-Asianism that affected the consumer product world, like the inventor of )] TJ ET BT 442.280 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calpis)] TJ ET BT 473.624 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Mishima Kaiun, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his notions of Mongolia and pan-Asianism that would tie in so well with Omotokyo and Deguchi?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign trips. These are a few ideas concerning future possibilities for exploration of pan-Asian thought but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a way toward expanding our ideas in English about this vast topic, reading through this edited volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should still be our first step. In fact, go and buy all three books, the edited volume of essays and the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume translation set, as they work best together as a unit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 378.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper, )] TJ ET BT 237.992 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Wars: Freedom and Revolution in Southeast Asia)] TJ ET BT 526.976 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 2007\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.668 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.668 332.643 m 234.656 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miles Fletcher discusses how these men viewed the intellectual underpinnings of the war through their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in the Showa Research Association, in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.320 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Search for a New Order: Intellectuals and Fascism )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.320 304.305 m 549.632 304.305 l S BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Prewar Japan)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 290.049 m 144.680 290.049 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 147.680 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 161.672 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, University of North Carolina Press, 1982.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.988 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.988 289.875 m 421.976 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oleg Benesch, ?Bushido: the Creation of a Martial Ethic in Late Meiji Japan? \(PhD, UBC, Canada, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 261.363 m 149.000 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such comments from General Okamura Yasuji, commander of China Expeditionary forces and his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second in command, Imai Takeo occur frequently in the immediate post-war period. See )] TJ ET BT 491.600 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Okamura )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Yasuji taish shiry j)] TJ ET BT 171.704 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 177.704 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sens kaishen)] TJ ET BT 250.028 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hara shob, ed. Inaba Masao \(1970\); and )] TJ ET BT 457.640 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imai Takeo)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nitch wahei ksaku, kais to shgen 1937?1945)] TJ ET BT 301.676 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Takahashi Hisashi and Imai Sadao \(Misuzu )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shob, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.680 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.680 190.083 m 183.668 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Johnson, )] TJ ET BT 133.688 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intellectuals)] TJ ET BT 193.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.340 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.340 175.827 m 328.328 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Pieke discusses cadre education in China and we might wish to think along the same lines )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning how Japanese bureaucrats were produced. See )] TJ ET BT 345.248 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Good Communist: Elite Training and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Building in Today's China)] TJ ET BT 217.268 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.588 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.588 133.059 m 368.576 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am indebted to my student, Don Q Kim, for pointing this out. Yoshino Sakuzo, ?Liberalism in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan?, in )] TJ ET BT 115.004 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What Japan Thinks, )] TJ ET BT 213.668 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Kiyoshi. K. Kawakami \(New York, NY, 1921\), p. 91.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.284 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.284 104.547 m 543.272 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 91.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tessa Morris-Suzuki has made this point as well, in ?Ethnic engineering: scientific racism and public )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion surveys in mid-century Japan?, )] TJ ET BT 255.992 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(positions)] TJ ET BT 299.336 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8, 2 \(Fall 2000\), pp. 499?529.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.328 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.328 76.035 m 502.316 76.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Dower has formed and discussed this question somewhat in )] TJ ET BT 379.316 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of War: Pearl )] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harbor/Hiroshima/9-11/Iraq)] TJ ET BT 204.020 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.656 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.656 47.523 m 372.644 47.523 l S endstream endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.6677 332.9575 234.6557 344.8375 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.3197 316.9303 279.3197 316.9303 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://uncpress.unc.edu/browse/book_detail?title_id=2020) >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.3197 304.4455 549.6317 316.3255 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://uncpress.unc.edu/browse/book_detail?title_id=2020) >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 290.1895 144.6797 302.0695 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://uncpress.unc.edu/browse/book_detail?title_id=2020) >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.9877 290.1895 421.9757 302.0695 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 261.6775 148.9997 273.5575 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.6797 190.3975 183.6677 202.2775 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.3397 176.1415 328.3277 188.0215 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 314.5877 133.3735 368.5757 145.2535 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 43 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.2837 104.8615 543.2717 116.7415 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 46 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.3277 76.3495 502.3157 88.2295 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 51 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.6557 47.8375 372.6437 59.7175 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 54 0 R >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 90 0 R 92 0 R ] /Contents 89 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Length 1608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are interesting links with Daqing Yang?s work in )] TJ ET BT 334.304 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Technology of Empire: Telecommunications )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Japanese Imperialism, 1930?1945)] TJ ET BT 250.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 2011\) concerning the interaction of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology and imperialism. 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