%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831101537+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831101537+01'00') /Title (Leisure and Cultural Conflict in Twentieth Century Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4544 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Leisure and Cultural Conflict in Twentieth Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume, a collection of essays written by academics based in North America, Britain and Europe, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good example of how far leisure history has travelled since this historical sub-discipline first gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentum in the 1970s. Where once leisure history was invariably approached through the framework of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?social control?, seen for example in Peter Bailey?s seminal monograph, )] TJ ET BT 385.952 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure and Class in Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England: Rational Recreation and the Contest for Control 1830-1885)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.356 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.356 200.649 m 386.348 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.348 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, leisure history is now less likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be welded to such ideological moorings and floats more freely, approached through frameworks such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?body?, ?gender?, ?masculinity? and ?femininity? or perhaps the ways leisure reflects aspects of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or regional identity. Whilst this shift is partly due to a newer generation of historians working in the field, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also certainly due to the shift in the attitudes of the British middle class to leisure by the 1920s and 1930s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 19th century they had had concerns that leisure was not often a blessing to the working class. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th, they too were also enjoying the leisure boom, both as producers and consumers of commercial leisure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and were perhaps less condemnatory of the use of spare time. As the leisure historian Stephen Jones once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted, in the realm of arts, music and dancing, during the inter-war years, ?all social groups came together in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their leisure?. This is not to suggest that social control is an irrelevant concept in the context of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, for while leisure was provided by the voluntary and commercial sectors, it was increasingly directed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1432)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brett Bebber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719087042)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719087042)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Griffiths)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.3557 200.9635 386.3477 212.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8351 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and facilitated by national government in its guise as both policeman and provider. The policing of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture continued in the shape of the 1906 Street Betting Act, for example, and popular leisure time pursuits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as drinking\) were also curtailed by the state in the Great War. In the inter-war years the state attempted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to halt the encroachment of American popular culture, seen in the context of the Royal Commission and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent Cinematograph Films Act \(1927\), which insisted on a percentage of British films being shown in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cinemas of the Empire. The emergence of the BBC under state control was also a feature of the inter-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era. The tendency for the state to intervene in order to ?prevent? did not disappear after 1945 either, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the context of the permissive society and its aftermath, with government initiatives to curb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(football hooliganism in the 1970s and 1980s and to suppress counter-cultural cannabis consumption after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967. By contrast, a series of more enabling acts in the 20th century encouraged those who wished to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in the kind of rational leisure of which the Victorian middle class would have approved. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Right of Way Act \(1932\) and the Access to the Mountains Act \(1938\) were measures designed to aid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rambling and trekking. The introduction of paid holidays for employed workers \(1938\) facilitated the already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular seaside holiday and also saw \(as a counter to the dreaded Blackpool landlady\) the rise of the holiday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camp \(with the dreaded Red Coat\), the golden age of which was probably witnessed in the 1950s and 1960s; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before package holidays took the working-class to sunnier climes. In this sense, the state effectively ?stood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in? for the middle class, who had invariably pushed such initiatives in the previous century. In any given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year, however, the holiday for most citizens was a special event, and this volume instead focuses in the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on rather more frequently enjoyed leisure pursuits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays included in this collection certainly reflect the diversification of leisure history. They are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised chronologically from the 1920s to 2000 and focus on very different types of leisure activity, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public to the private, the legal to the illegal. There are three themes used to group the essays: ?social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict and leisure regularisation?, ?standardisation of leisure? and ?national identity and leisure?, outlined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the editor in his opening chapter. These do not form sub-sections of the book, but rather are embraced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some extent by each contributor. In the first chapter Jeffrey Hill notes, in a very entertaining overview of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure?s treatment by historians over the last few decades, that interest in leisure has been paralleled by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of both sports history and more recently the heritage industry. Sports history, perhaps like leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, has had to combat the rather conservative tendencies within certain sectors of the academy \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhodes Boysons\) who believe that the history of sport is not ?credible? history. Significant way-markers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the road to changing opinions here were provided in the work of Tony Mason at the beginning of the 1980s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the history of football\) and Richard Holt \()] TJ ET BT 238.988 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport and The British: A Modern History)] TJ ET BT 436.988 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) at the decade?s close.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 341.139 m 48.008 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Holt?s work showed that, at its best, the history of sport is ultimately the history of wider societal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development. Hill also draws attention to the more recent burgeoning of the heritage industry, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on television where many citizens learn their history \(for better or worse\). There is a nice discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes such as the BBC?s )] TJ ET BT 189.668 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Flog It!)] TJ ET BT 226.664 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 249.992 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who Do You Think You Are?)] TJ ET BT 389.660 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the case of the latter, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism has been made that it is celebrity culture meeting genealogy, depicting easy history without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slog. To give television history its due, recent historical series such as Jeremy Paxman?s )] TJ ET BT 461.300 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire )] TJ ET BT 499.628 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 105.020 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and other recent contributions from Jeremy Black, Tristram Hunt and Andrew Marr, can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefully be brought into the lecture room to provide a clip to illustrate a point. \(Even )] TJ ET BT 442.976 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who Do You Think )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Your Are?)] TJ ET BT 83.684 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( includes some academic comment\). History as represented on film is also discussed and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency to put a good story or an elevation of a myth before historical accuracy in the effort to achieve a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(box office hit noted. Hill also usefully signposts the areas of 20th-century leisure history that still need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered in book and article form; to take two examples, the largely unexplored decade of the 1960s; \(we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to interview people who lived through this decade before they pass, despite the maxim that if you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remember the 1960s you weren?t there\), and the way in which British leisure was replicated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider/British Empire/influenced world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three of the essays in this collection engage with notions of British/English identity and the reaction to and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges posed by international culture in the realm of leisure. Allison Abra examines the evolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular dance in the inter-war decades, noting that many of the popular dance styles arrived from either the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern States of North America \(black dances\) or Latin America. In the post-1918 reaction to four years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war, dancing grew in popularity and concern was voiced that many dance-hall patrons were unconcerned )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 341.4535 48.0077 353.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7624 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether they danced correctly or not. Professional dance teachers tried to steer dancers to particular types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dance \(for both aesthetic and financial reasons\) but it was invariably public taste which dictated which type )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dance would be in fashion for a particular season. As attending a dance-hall was, for many, a means to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end \(to meet the opposite sex\), replicating the dance as prescribed by dance tutors was often ignored. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps one organisation that could be mentioned in the context of forging identity in this period is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Society of Dance Teachers of whom Victor Silvester \(discussed in the essay\) was a member.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American rivalry is also at the heart of the contribution by Sandra Trudge Dawson, who, in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the revival of the circus as a historically ?English? phenomenon in the inter-war period, notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was depicted as such in the face of the encroaching American popular culture of the 1920s and 1930s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the United Kingdom. The leading players in the revival of the circus were Maurice William Disher, drama )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic for the )] TJ ET BT 96.332 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mail)] TJ ET BT 148.664 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the newspaper of choice for the little Englander, and William Bosworth, a circus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiast who founded the Circus Fan Association of Great Britain in 1934. Portrayed as a democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution by such figures, the circus stood in opposition to the rise of totalitarianism on the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent by the mid-1930s. The circus was democratic because it was comparatively cheap to attend. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes apparently attended the venue, although there were cheaper and more expensive seats to keep the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes apart \(Very English!\) The numbers of circuses in operation rose four-fold between 1921 and1945, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicating that the British public embraced the circus in the middle decades of the century. Yet the rebirth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the circus was not without its accompanying controversy. Another aspect of English \(British?\) identity has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the welfare of animals as a chief concern. Circuses had to prove they kept animals in humane conditions; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a battle that has ultimately been lost. During the war years, travelling circuses became popular as a result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?holidays at home? initiative, instigated by the state. At some point in the year the circus would come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you ? no need to take a car to see the circus. Yet here too, the circuses met resistance. They invariably left a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mess after they left town, incurring the ire of rate-payers and councils and the notion of itinerancy \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian concern\) was still a bugbear for some critics. Were circuses even English in the sense of who they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed? Many entertainers journeyed from Europe to perform, which problematised the image of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circus as quintessentially ?English?. The origins of the circus are, of course, by no means undisputedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in England either, as Dawson notes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelly Boyd?s contribution examines the transference of the Western from its inter-war popularity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cinema, to the small screen in 1950s Britain. A generation of adults and children were entertained by a raft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of programmes that focused on the American frontier. They were seen as a ?safe? vehicle for ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems to be raised, since they focused on a land across the ocean and an expanding white frontier that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not British. It is a genre, of course, that declined in the 1970s and 1980s to a point where dramas of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature have disappeared from our screens, politically incorrect in multi-cultural society The three essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken together show how certain aspects of North American culture received moral approbation whilst other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects were met with outrage or at least concern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three further essays in this collection by Brad Beaven, Brett Bebber and Chad Martin explore the regulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contestation of leisure. Beaven explores British working-class cinema going in the 1930s, tempering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that cinema was simply a societal tool used to pacify and indoctrinate the working class in a turbulent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade. Some historians have suggested that films such as )] TJ ET BT 315.980 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sing as We Go )] TJ ET BT 389.972 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were popular and prevented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployed workers from turning to radical or violent solutions and rather encouraged a passive acceptance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the economic situation of the 1930s with a hope for better times. Exploring the composition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience and its behaviour once inside the picture halls, it is evident that the viewers had considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency to shape both the kind of films shown and how the message or moral contained within a film was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received. While some of the other contributions to this collection note the adoption of American values in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inter-war era, Beaven observes that in a reverse process Hollywood began to make films that focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Empire in the mid to later 1930s. These films were successful, not necessarily because the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still saw themselves as an ?imperial people?, but that they just enjoyed swashbuckling adventures, set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against a fantastical background.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bebber?s exploration of football hooliganism, and Martin?s of cannabis use and government intolerance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its consumption, sheds light on the state in action. In a decade of social change, the post-war moral )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7691 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainties and the image of the family as the bedrock of this morality were apparently threatened. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of a weaker economy, the end of Empire and, ironically, only two years or so after England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winning of the World Cup at Wembley in 1966, football became the vehicle for youth to demonstrate their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anger at social and economic conditions. For others, a bit of a punch up had always spiced up the sporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afternoon and reflected a longer standing culture of the free-born Englishman?s right to partake of rough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure. Youth culture had, after all, since at least the later 19th century incorporated gang rivalry, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fierce protection of one?s own patch. Increasing disorder on match-days heightened the perception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parental laxity and the breakdown of the family. Interestingly, the divorce rate increased at the beginning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the escalation of football hooliganism. Indeed, this relationship did not escape some politicians at the time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Football had been comparatively untouched by the state since its growth in the later nineteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, in the face of disturbances, Harold Wilson?s Labour government of 1974?6, introduced the Safety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Sports Grounds Act \(1975\), which introduced new policing measures to deal with trouble-makers and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed the architecture of stadia, most notably the introduction of the ultimately fatal pens, that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to prevent pitch invasions, but which would be at the heart of the Hillsborough disaster 14 years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later. Football hooliganism also provoked a discussion at government level of the role of the family. It was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful card to play on the part of the government, invoking a golden age of football crowds \(probably the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s\) when fathers had taken sons to the game. It handily deflected attention away from the state of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy as a contributory factor. Increasingly, families were absent at football matches in the face of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonisation of games by young males, though initiatives were started by Arsenal in the 1960s and Watford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Football Club in the 1970s, designed to allowed younger children to watch the game without being subjected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to obscene language or buffeting by the crowd.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chad Martin explores the consumption of cannabis and the state?s increasing intolerance of the intake of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substance from the early 1970s to the current time. Cannabis has been a political football from the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s onwards. Despite inquiries such as the Wotton Committee \(1967\) which recommended the relaxation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of laws against the taking of the drug that had been on the statute book since the 1920s, ultimately the laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not altered. Roy Jenkins, who had been sympathetic to reform, was replaced at the crucial moment by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Callaghan at the Home Office. Whilst Jenkins the academic was in tune with permissiveness, Callaghan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Baptist and trade unionist, was not. His conservatism blocked reform, despite leading cultural figures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time calling for change \(the Beatles for example, who allegedly smoked it in the toilets of Buckingham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Place when they went to collect their MBEs in 1965\). By the early 1970s, cannabis was classified as a class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B drug and, while easily obtainable in Europe \(at Dutch coffee houses\), it was demonised by successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British governments on both Left and Right. Cannabis came to ?stand? for permissiveness and a target for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Thatcher backlash from 1979 onwards. The consumption of cannabis was popular amongst the Afro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean community and members of this community, under suspicion of carrying it, were the targets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police stop-and-search tactics in the early 1980s. These rather heavy-handed policing measures were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributory factor to the inner-city riots that engulfed English cities in 1981. By the 1990s, however, police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were far more likely to caution for possession than arrest and in the early 2000s under Tony Blair the drug )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was downgraded to class C, although Claire Short was reprimanded for suggesting its legality. In an effort to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear tough on law and order as an election loomed, Gordon Brown subsequently elevated it back to class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B status in 2007. Martin concludes that given the relatively light policing of the drug by the turn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, permissiveness has ultimately ?won out? in this case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final contribution to the volume Cecile Doustaly provides a survey of women?s leisure in the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, with special consideration of recent decades. Where women are concerned, the notion of ?leisure? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 20th century has proved more problematic for the historian than used in the context of men, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once married, spare time is often those minutes snatched between domestic duties. The life-cycle has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored by historians such as Claire Langhamer, and Doustaly reiterates this notion in the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s onwards, although more detailed research is needed into the post-1960 experience. One popular post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war leisure institution for women was \(and is\) the bingo hall, often staged in defunct cinemas. For working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women since 1970, leisure time has still been rather limited, with the working married woman still having to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance work, domestic duties and child care. However, since 1970, there have been some significant shifts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in gendered leisure patterns. Women?s pub attendance has risen since the 1970s, stimulated in part by the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 5592 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of the gastro-pub in the 1990s, while more men now go to bingo halls. Fitness has escalated as a leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit whether taken in mixed or female-only gyms. Shopping figures as a popular female leisure activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well. Both sexes enjoy \(perhaps in each others company\) watching television.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leisure for women is still perhaps most clearly identified in the context of pre-married life, and over the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two decades, more people are living the single life for a longer period. Retired women?s leisure is given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shorter shrift in the chapter. Doustaly notes that women may end up living for some years after the death of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spouse on a limited pension, without access to leisure and without family near them to offer support. Placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside this rather sad image is, however, a more positive one, where retired couples \(or widows\) move to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller villages, participating in a range of village activities such as wine-tasting, bowling clubs, dinner-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clubs, theatre clubs and the Workers Educational Association. The latter institution has shifted its profile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially in the last thirty years, now offering courses for the purposes of ?learning for leisure?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Institute is also still a significant club in which mature women participate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection of essays is a valuable contribution to leisure history. It deserves to be included on reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lists and study guides relating to 20th-century leisure and sports history courses. Such is the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays, they also deserves inclusion on wider survey courses that consider the interaction of sport and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics conceived of as spelt with both a small and large ?P/p?. The book also points the reader in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction of the other monographs published in the )] TJ ET BT 279.992 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Popular Culture )] TJ ET BT 412.004 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series issued by Manchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press - a series which includes titles written by some of the contributors to this volume. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninitiated the book might be usefully read in conjunction with Jeffrey Hill?s 2002 text, )] TJ ET BT 458.984 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport, Leisure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture in Twentieth Century Britain)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.036 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.036 500.211 m 229.028 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 229.028 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which provides useful timelines to put the essays in this collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into better context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure and Class in Victorian England: Rational Recreation and the Contest for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Control 1830?1885)] TJ ET BT 158.360 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.684 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.684 406.179 m 293.672 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Mason, )] TJ ET BT 131.012 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Association Football and English Society 1863?1915)] TJ ET BT 386.684 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1980\); Richard Holt, )] TJ ET BT 496.340 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British: A Modern History )] TJ ET BT 215.012 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.660 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.660 377.667 m 344.648 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffrey Hill,)] TJ ET BT 125.000 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport, Leisure and Culture in Twentieth Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 398.024 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.684 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.684 363.411 m 551.672 363.411 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 348.079 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 330.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1432)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 328.905 m 328.316 328.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 303.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/66686)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.0357 500.5255 229.0277 512.4055 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.6837 406.4935 293.6717 418.3735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 290.6597 377.9815 344.6477 389.8615 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.6837 363.7255 551.6717 375.6055 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 329.2195 328.3157 341.0995 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1432) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005253 00000 n 0000005362 00000 n 0000005472 00000 n 0000005581 00000 n 0000009142 00000 n 0000009270 00000 n 0000009354 00000 n 0000009383 00000 n 0000009511 00000 n 0000009547 00000 n 0000009631 00000 n 0000018035 00000 n 0000018065 00000 n 0000018191 00000 n 0000018227 00000 n 0000018292 00000 n 0000025969 00000 n 0000026034 00000 n 0000033778 00000 n 0000033890 00000 n 0000039535 00000 n 0000039565 00000 n 0000039693 00000 n 0000039729 00000 n 0000039857 00000 n 0000039912 00000 n 0000040040 00000 n 0000040095 00000 n 0000040223 00000 n 0000040278 00000 n 0000040406 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40502 %%EOF