%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818085107+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818085107+01'00') /Title (Turncoats and Renegadoes: Changing Sides during the English Civil Wars) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4011 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Turncoats and Renegadoes: Changing Sides during the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Civil Wars)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of the nature of allegiance in the English Civil Wars has been a perennial issue for at least three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of professional academics. The high point of the allegiance question was arguably in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s and 1970s when research comparing the allegiance choices of contemporaries with their social origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined the notion that the English Civil War was a class war fought by a rising ?middle class? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentlemen against an fading )] TJ ET BT 171.992 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 240.308 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The dramatic effects of this research arguable gave rise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?revisionism? by re-opening the debate on what caused the English Civil War to spiral beyond a mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion to ?the? English revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further studies into allegiance have also yielded profitable information. These range from the enlightening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations of Anthony Fletcher into the nature of ?neutralism? \(which turned out to be anything but\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Underdown?s \(albeit not entirely successful\) attempt to link the issue of allegiance to a soft form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecological determinism based on patterns of agriculture and local industry. In addition the work of Clive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holmes, Peter Lake, Richard Cust and Ann Hughes has shown how allegiance could be based on immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localist responses as well as the interaction between local and national politics. Most recently Rachel Weil, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1434)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Hopper)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199575855)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199575855.do#.UbmXkPk4sb0)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliot Vernon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5823 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mike Braddick and Jason McElligott have raised fresh questions about allegiance. Professor Weil has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded us that the concept of allegiance as a category has a )] TJ ET BT 332.600 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 395.588 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in itself and that this pre-history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be isolated from the period 1640?60. Braddick, realising the problems that a static concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?allegiance? can yield in a period when the world was turned upside down, has raised the alternative concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the study of specific mobilisations. In a similar vein, Jason McElligott has revived calls for a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side changing as a means of reopening the question of why people engaged their lives and fortunes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England?s ?intestinal? civil wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr McElligott?s call has been answered by Andrew Hopper, whose previous work on Sir Thomas Fairfax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situates him as ideally suited to explore questions of the politico-military nature of side changing. Hopper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has also had the fortune of being able to access a wealth of recent work by, amongst others, Barbara )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donagan, John Walter, John Adamson and the two-volume collective project on royalism initiated by Jason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McElligott and David L. Smith, all of which figure prominently in )] TJ ET BT 355.676 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turncoats and Renegadoes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Hopper?s work on Fairfax, )] TJ ET BT 191.312 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turncoats and Renegadoes)] TJ ET BT 321.968 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is divided into two parts, splitting a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wider thematic analysis of the turncoat. The first part explores side changing amongst aristocrats, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament men, professional military officers and rank and file soldiers as well as chronological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional patterns of allegiance. This section is intentionally limited chronologically to the period of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war, a period, Hopper argues, when it is still possible to describe ?parliamentarianism? and ?royalism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as relatively unified ?sides?. The second part of the book attempts to tell the cultural history of the civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turncoat, exploring the well known culture of early modern oath taking, the presentation of treachery in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda, the importance of honour and reputation and the development of legal mechanisms to respond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to treachery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his analysis of side changing among the differing segments of mid 17th-century society, Dr Hopper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on a number of key case studies, as well as commenting on less well known figures. Throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these chapters he is keen to recognise the difficulty of finding formal deterministic rules as to the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side changing and is sensitive to recognising the complex interplay of conscience, honour, self interest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duty in each individual case study. The primary case study in his chapter on aristocratic turncoats is that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Rich, Earl of Holland, half brother to the Earl of Warwick, an important parliamentarian ?junto? peer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a multiple side changer. Holland appears always something of a contradictory character, being a courtier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was a favourite of the Roman Catholic Queen Henrietta-Maria, but considered by contemporaries to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a genuinely godly Calvinist with a deep sentiment of anti-popery. Hopper explores Holland?s initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defection to the king?s party in summer 1643 as originating in the functional radicalisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentarian war effort that caused many parliamentarian aristocrats to face a crisis pitting their duty \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation\) of personal service to the king against their desire for a constitutional settlement. This group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included Holland, and the turn of events in 1643 meant that he had become estranged from those at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster, though he soon found that he was equally alienated from those around the king at Oxford. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holland?s return to Westminster in late 1643 came after much political wrangling. Isolated by the suspicions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those at Westminster he returned, fatefully, to the king?s side in the second civil war of 1648, a change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that would lead to his execution by the new Republican regime on 9 March 1649.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6936 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The defection of parliament men below the ranks of the aristocracy, after the initial flurry of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported the king?s party in early 1642, was in some ways a more serious business, especially as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford parliament of early 1644 could lay equal claim to being the representative parliament of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdom. These defections caused factional conflict over the war aims to deepen at Westminster and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime for which Sir John Hotham and son were executed, that of secretly negotiating with royalists, soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a basis by which factions could strategically tar their opponents with disloyalty. Factional politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to have been a key factor in determining whether those who strayed from perfect loyalty \(or the good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will of the controlling faction\) could keep a foothold within Westminster?s corridors of power. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusations that Denzil Holles, the pro-peace MP, had secret negotiations with royalists led to his political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation. On the other hand Sir Robert Pye could use his connection to John Hampden to avoid similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(censure. Hopper points out that defections by royalist MPs to Westminster were fewer and had less drastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political consequences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the chapters on the defections of soldiers, Dr Hopper shows that varying factors could induce side )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing, from being engaged to fight under false pretences to personal fear, need and desperation. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional soldiers, career advancement and personal honour were further matters that could motivate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person to change sides. In addition, Dr Hopper includes an important discussion on Irish, Welsh, Cornish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and continental European soldiers, developing the study of what Mark Stoyle has termed the ?ethnic? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to the issue of loyalty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first part of the book, Hopper is to be credited for his sensitivity to the importance of the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the particular, and thus his conclusions provide a nuanced exploration of the reasons for side changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the actors in the English Civil War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving away from the largely prosopographical study of the first part of the book, Hopper moves onto a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more thematically driven cultural history of the turncoat. This part abandons the chronological limitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first civil war, choosing, where necessary, to go into the period of the English Republic. One underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme of this section is how the trope of the turncoat, in some sense symbolically linked to the pre-civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mythology surrounding the ?papist? who refused to join with the wider English community, was developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both polemically and legally to ensure loyalty, or at least acquiescence, with the various civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrations. In a similar vein, printed propaganda drew on already existent languages of insult and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconstancy to define and condemn side changers. This in turn led those accused of being turncoats to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop a collective language to justify past behaviour. This was often crucial as the turncoat?s ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion their actions as honourable served as their best argument to prevent the loss of their estates and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopper?s exploration of the legal changes relating to turncoats is particularly revealing in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly severe approach that parliament took towards those it considered to be traitors. The treachery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hothams, amongst others, set in chain a legal development of the notion of breach of trust and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incursion of military law into the justice system. These notions were developed to try and execute turncoats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, as Hopper points out, were ultimately used against Charles Stuart himself. Hopper reveals that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible parallel development, that of death for breach of the Solemn League and Covenant, presumably on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authority of Romans 1:31?2, was not developed as a judicial tool against turncoats. The Covenant?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with Presbyterianism after 1646, and its promise to preserve the king?s authority and person )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that its utility was limited as a judicial tool for disposing of traitors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Hopper explores the question of the collapse of stable notions of ?the cause?, be it parliamentarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or royalist as the 1640s moved into the 1650s. One of Dr Hopper?s case studies is the scaffold speech of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welsh Presbyterian minister Christopher Love, who was executed for treason for communicating with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scots by the Rump Parliament on 22 August 1651. Love?s ?parliamentarian? credentials had been proved as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chaplain to Colonel John Venn?s regiment at Windsor during the first civil war, and he inflamed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Uxbridge peace negotiations in January 1645 by calling for capital punishment against royalist leaders as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition any treaty with the king. However, tracking the fragmentation of parliamentarianism into )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4761 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factionalism, in 1647 Love was singled out in a New Model regimental petition alongside Thomas Edwards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as stirring up discord between the people and the army. With the army?s military putsch of the Long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament in December 1648 and the execution of the king a month later, Love was to become one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loudest critics of the Rump parliament as an unconstitutional and factional regime whose authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately rested on the New Model?s pikes and muskets. With such a public challenge coming from one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who held a previously exemplary parliamentarian record during the Civil War, it comes as no surprise that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Rump was prepared to make a capital example of Love. As Hopper shows, the Rump?s propagandists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned to the rhetoric of ?turncoat? to attempt to denounce Love, whose execution alienated many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentarians of a Presbyterian judgement and was still counted as a national sin requiring national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repentance by the London turner Nehemiah Wallington in 1655. The notion of ?turncoat? and ?side changer? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore had become a malleable one that, as the manifold alliances that made up parliamentarianism or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royalism collapsed, could easily become a hammer with which to crush former allies and friends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Hopper?s focus on the cultural history of politics in exploring the world of the side changer begs many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions, often of central importance to the emerging wider post-revisionist synthesis of the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Civil War. If I have one criticism of the work, it is that this relatively short book \(223 substantive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages\) does not always fully answer the questions it raises. For example, I found myself wanting more detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the emerging use of breach of trust in the legal response to the problem of the turn coat. I also desired a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater exploration of the polemical and political use of ?turncoat? after the first civil war, especially after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collapse of recognisable parliamentarian unity in 1647. 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