%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021113604+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021113604+01'00') /Title (William, King and Conqueror) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4089 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(William, King and Conqueror)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As medieval English kings go, William I has been well-served by his modern English biographers. D.C. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas? self-consciously monumental life of 1964 has worn well, despite subsequent developments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, and a certain ponderousness of tone; David Bates? briefer life of 1989 encompasses many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those developments with a lighter touch, and is presented as but a first stab at a much more substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replacement for Douglas. What room is there, then, for another short biography in the interim, prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of Bates? promised work?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Normandy and England in the 11th and 12th centuries remain the most active area in Anglophone medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical scholarship, as a glance through the annual volumes of )] TJ ET BT 347.636 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Norman Studies)] TJ ET BT 457.304 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will confirm. Partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for that reason, there is no lack of disagreement and controversy. This would suggest that there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable scope for a fresh assessment, to take account of the last quarter century of publications, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one might hope, to present a view different, perhaps markedly different, from those of either Douglas or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bates, not to mention various recent French biographers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hagger cites a great deal of recently published work, both in his endnotes, and in ten supplementary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages of suggested further reading. He makes considerable use of it, but not to advance a strikingly novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1437)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 20 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hagger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781780763545)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I B Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ibtauris.com/Books/Biography%20%20True%20Stories/Biography%20general/Biography%20historical%20political%20%20military/William%20King%20and%20Conqueror.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Garnett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7768 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the Conqueror. Any selection from the work of others is bound to be personal, but there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some omissions which are by any standards curious: Ken Lawson on the battle of Hastings, or most of J. C. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holt?s wonderful essays of the 1980s and 1990s. Michael Hare?s subtle and suggestive studies arguing for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practice of crown-wearings in Edward the Confessor?s reign are of less general importance than either of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these, but their absence here is still surprising, given the emphasis which Dr Hagger rightly lays on royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritual and ceremony. Works which are mentioned sometimes seem to have had no detectable influence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hagger, although they should be fundamental to any modern study of the Conqueror?s reign in England: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Fleming?s use of Domesday to reassess the replacement of the Old English aristocracy, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Holt?s \(in my view\) definitive essay on the introduction of knight service. The conclusions of the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are directly contradicted, without any attempt to justify the position taken, or any acknowledgement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradiction. They might be disputed, but they cannot simply be ignored. The subject which is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noticeably enriched by recent publications is the history of Normandy, particularly as illuminated by detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of charters, including a few which have yet to be edited ? a subject on which Hagger has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published a number of interesting papers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s approach and its tone are traditional, and the story it tells is therefore a familiar one. William of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poitiers? claims not to have taken a single step beyond the truth appear to have been accepted at face value; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is no sense that the )] TJ ET BT 154.664 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Guillelmi)] TJ ET BT 230.996 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is artfully contrived, steeped in the traditions of Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and of classical literature more generally, with William taking evident pleasure in his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly virtuosity. Thus, for instance, Hagger simply accepts that when the invasion fleet was on its way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the duke really did drop anchor in the middle of the Channel, and sit down to a slap up confidence-boosting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meal. The implicit parallel with Aeneas, which was doubtless William of Poitiers? point, is never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered. And because William of Poitiers and William of Jumiges together cannot provide enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdotal material to sustain even a brief modern biography, Hagger turns to Orderic Vitalis, who wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades after the Conqueror?s death, and who himself elaborated and tweaked both William of Poitiers \(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he had a fuller text than that now extant\) and William of Jumiges. But Orderic?s confections were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcely less Romanesque than William of Poitiers?, and, of necessity, could hardly be based on much eye-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness testimony ? a telling consideration for one steeped in the conventions of classical historiography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hagger acknowledges that Orderic?s ?account of William?s reign incorporates stories that had grown up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 50 years since the Conqueror?s death?; but it seems that some stories are too good to be omitted, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should therefore be accepted as accurate records of events. He does not go so far as to say that the deathbed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech which Orderic attributes to the Conqueror is an accurate transcription of what the dying king said, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he implies that it might well be. Yet Orderic was almost as great an admirer of Sallust as William of Poitiers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and they both confected speeches in the Sallustian manner, for Sallustian purposes. Even Wace is adduced as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reliable source for the disposition of forces at the battle of Val-s-Dunes, though he wrote well over a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century after the event, with the primary aim of entertaining his lay audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hagger is, therefore, too credulous in his treatment of narrative sources. But he seems more at his ease with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them than with documents other than the Norman charters which are his forte. Ermenfrid of Sion?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penitential ordinance is almost certainly misdated. This is a minor glitch, and open to dispute. More serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the mishandling of Domesday Book. It would require a degree of ingenuity to integrate the Survey and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Book into a biography of the Conqueror ? one would certainly want to suggest something about the ?deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech? at the 1085 Christmas court at Gloucester, when the Survey was planned and instituted, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great assembly at Old Sarum on Lammas day 1086, which appears to have marked its formal end, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation to the king of the documentation produced by that point, and mass performance of homage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. One might also trawl through the Book and its satellites for those rare entries when some specific event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involving the king was recorded, to see what it revealed about the details of his life. Hagger mentions the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion at Old Sarum, and ventures to suggest that it ?seems in some ways to have made a formal end to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Norman Conquest of England?. But he fails to explain in what ways it did and in what ways it did not. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is thinking of Holt?s rich paper on 1086, one part of which might be summarised in this way, he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say so. Otherwise all we get is just over half a page on Domesday, offering the most cursory of surveys of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few scholarly opinions about the Book \(during which Maitland?s name is misspelt\). Hagger is capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adducing intriguing and obscure details from Norman charters, which conjure up some of the particularities )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5412 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 11th-century life: a quilt for the royal bed, or the gift of a fox fur, or Roger of Montgommery?s dressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his young son, Robert of Bellme, in a miniver cloak, and throwing him into a marsh in order to ensure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses would remember Roger?s gift of the marsh to a nearby abbey \(Orderic would have relished that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one\). Such nuggets suggest that Hagger would be capable of extracting much more from Domesday, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been characterised as the greatest of the Conqueror?s English charters. But then none of the king?s more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard English \(by contrast with Norman\) writs and charters receives much attention. The coverage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is puzzlingly patchy. Perhaps his publisher was draconian about a word limit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might be objected that an introductory book intended ?for both undergraduates and the general reader? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should present an uncontroversial, perhaps even a bland, survey, and leave it to readers whose interest has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been fired to pursue further reading. But as this review has suggested, it is simply not possible to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncontroversial about the Conqueror. The evidence for his reign is too plentiful and rich ? certainly by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with any other 11th-century ruler ? and it has been pored over too intensively by too many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. And blandness is no more a guarantee of objectivity and accuracy than the affected flamboyance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a William of Poitiers, or the more subtle artfulness of an Orderic Vitalis. Indeed, blandness can be much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more effective than flamboyance in concealing questionable judgements and assumptions. Thus at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconclusive end of an apparently even-handed discussion of differing interpretations of Duke William?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim to the English throne, we are told that ?the very fact that William risked all by invading England in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1066 suggests that he believed, indeed was certain, that he had been promised the throne at some point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during Edward?s reign?. At first sight this might appear just common-sensical, but a moment?s reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals that the assumptions made here are both astonishing and unsubstantiated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, the book is a missed opportunity. If Hagger had written more, he might have been able to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the many topics which are simply glossed over. He might also have allowed his eye for intriguing detail to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rove more freely ? Orderic?s passing reference to prosthetic fingers, for instance. But as it stands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate and general readers cannot dispense with Douglas or, if they prefer a short and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible account, with Bates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hagger does not wish to comment. For those who would like to establish the accuracy of the review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for themselves, or would like to gain an idea of the content or approach of the book, extracts may be found at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://bangor.academia.edu/MarkHagger)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 347.907 m 229.304 347.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 232.304 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 246.296 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historyextra.com)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/william-king-and-conqueror)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 293.139 m 375.968 293.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 378.968 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 289.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 272.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 272.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1437)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 270.633 m 328.316 270.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 245.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 231.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/63722)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://bangor.academia.edu/MarkHagger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/william-king-and-conqueror)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 348.2215 229.3037 360.1015 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://bangor.academia.edu/MarkHagger) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 293.4535 375.9677 305.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/william-king-and-conqueror) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 270.9475 328.3157 282.8275 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1437) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000523 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000004746 00000 n 0000004855 00000 n 0000004965 00000 n 0000005074 00000 n 0000008635 00000 n 0000008763 00000 n 0000008847 00000 n 0000008912 00000 n 0000016733 00000 n 0000016831 00000 n 0000022296 00000 n 0000022423 00000 n 0000022512 00000 n 0000022639 00000 n 0000022757 00000 n 0000022885 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 22981 %%EOF