%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141026142422+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141026142422+00'00') /Title (An Economic History of Modern Sweden) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4156 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(An Economic History of Modern Sweden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sweden, I think it fair to say, is a source of considerable interest and intrigue in Britain. Nowhere has this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been more evident than in the realm of British politics. The Labour Party have historically tended to be most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously in thrall of the ?Swedish model? and Sweden?s welfare state in particular, yet more recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative politicians have been taking notice of developments in the country. This latter trend is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely surprising given the success of reform-minded centrist and centre-right parties in Sweden since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006. Of course, a good deal of the reworking of the Swedish welfare system ? much of which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed by the Social Democrats ? occurred during the 1990s in the wake of a financial crisis; doubtless a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further reason for the current emphasis on Sweden?s politics. All this attention on the country?s welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, although admittedly selective, has generated something of a popular myth that tends to depict Sweden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as some kind of social paradise \(and, fortuitously, the Scandinavian climate presents ample opportunity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary on the weather, surely a fundamental necessity of any British utopian ideal\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The detrimental effect of this welfare state fixation in terms of scholarship has been a tendency to overlook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fuller picture of Swedish economic and social history. It would not take any researcher long to uncover a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plethora of studies on the welfare state but good, book-length works taking a broader economic history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach are relatively few in the English language. Although fairly recent publications by Rodney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edvinsson and Lars Magnusson have been valuable contributions to the field they do not detract from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1438)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 20 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lennart Schn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415671309)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(371pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abingdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jason Brock)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8042 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value and timeliness of Lennart Schn?s book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.320 795.075 m 272.312 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, whilst comparisons with Magnusson are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warranted, their purposes being somewhat similar, Schn?s work is far more accessible to the general reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Edvinsson?s study of the Swedish macro-economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The present book is a translation of one published in 2000, although Schn has taken advantage of this to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extend some comments in the work up to 2010. The work takes the 19th and 20th centuries as its core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology and the key themes are economic growth and structural transformation, this long-run approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being a typical feature of Schn?s studies. The book itself draws mainly on Schn?s own prior research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the existing historiography rather than ?new? research per se. The result is not a textbook ? although I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine it could be used as such if desired ? but rather a well-developed review of the long-term trends in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedish economic history during the country?s path to modernity. Much of the literature upon which Schn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws is unavailable in English and thus this book makes apparent at a glance the wealth of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history scholarship available in Swedish whilst also bringing it into a coherent historical framework. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned above, I believe that comparisons between Schn?s )] TJ ET BT 337.628 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History of Modern Sweden)] TJ ET BT 517.604 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magnusson?s )] TJ ET BT 102.344 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History of Sweden)] TJ ET BT 241.328 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are inevitable. Magnusson?s work appeared in English in 2000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an abridged translation of the original Swedish volume in 1996. Partly as a result of this abridgement both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works cover a similar chronological span and outline long-term trends in economic history. What, beyond an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additional word in the title, does Schn add to the historical discourse? Certainly, I think, this new book does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not supersede Magnusson?s, but nor is that the intention. Rather, the two works should be seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementary to one another in offering an introduction to, and overview of, Sweden?s modern economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Magnusson pays more attention to the role of political economy than Schn does, whilst the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a more developed discussion of structural change in terms of both the macro- and micro-economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schn?s study follows an essentially chronological organisation with the main exception to this being the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initial chapter on ?Growth and transformation over two centuries?, which approaches its topic in a thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner and doubles as a general introduction. Based on experience, and a regrettably broad generalisation, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can imagine a number of non-specialist readers will be tempted to skip this section and go straight to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information that they otherwise hoped to glean. This is, of course, a bad habit into which many of us fall at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one time or another and in this case one would miss plenty of information vital to understanding Schn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method. Firstly, his periodic division of the key ages in Sweden?s economic history is worth thinking about. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schn divides his work into five periods: transformation of agriculture \(1790?1850\), early industrialisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in agrarian society \(1850?90\), breakthrough of modern industrial society \(1890?1930\), growing service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production and modern industrial society \(1930?75\), and breakthrough of the service economy or post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial society \(1975 onwards\). In the main I have no qualms with this division and it is thankfully shorn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the baggage that comes with relating periods to ?big events? in political history. Schn develops his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages on the basis of cycles of crisis, transformation, and rationalisation. Episodes of structural crisis, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international in scope, are central to dislodging the old and ushering in the new. The end result is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural change during a period of transformation and renewal of institutional arrangements, thereafter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by a phase of stability during which improvements in efficiency are key. The Schumpeterian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element in Schn?s approach is evident here alongside the influence of Erik Dahmn?s work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development blocks, some of which is available in English.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.328 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.328 229.347 m 333.320 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.320 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Innovation, and especially technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation, is clearly fundamental to such an analysis, but that is not to say that Schn sees history as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive march of invention. Instead it is the way in which innovation is adopted throughout society that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is truly important, a process that is dependent on cyclical structural crises to realise its full potential. My )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongest reservation with regard to this aspect of Schn?s approach is that he does not, in my opinion, give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over enough space to developments in economic thought that must surely form part of this cycle of creative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other fundamental point that needs to be grasped in Schn?s method is his structural model. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishes his analysis from one based on an export-led model of economic growth by focusing instead on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domestic conditions as the foundations of transformation. Although exports are obviously important, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in phases of rationalisation and in creating the circumstances for transmission of international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crises, it is the domestic market that takes centre stage in transformative stages. Thus Schn is interested not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3197 795.3895 272.3117 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.3277 229.6615 333.3197 241.5415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7396 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in exports as the prime driver of structural changes but instead in how external factors, which have become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly important in a more integrated and globalised world, interact with domestic factors. The relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits of the domestic model and an export-led model stimulate historical debate and are relevant to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present economic situation in Europe. The big question is whether Schn?s domestic model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation can remain relevant in a more and more interdependent world. I suspect that it can, and I also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspect that commentators in 1913 might have considered a similar question before the inter-war breakdown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of international trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each chapter of this study begins with a brief overview of the international context of the period. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segments are good at helping to place Sweden in a broader frame of reference and allow us to see the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in Sweden?s economic relations with Europe and the wider world. The chapter covering the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790?1850 deals with the beginnings of Sweden?s transformation from an agrarian to an industrial society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given that the available data for these years is limited relative to that available for later chapters, the analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is impressive in its breadth. Schn engages in quantitative social history and ties this into his discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other factors that drove forward economic developments. Indeed, this emphasis on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interconnectedness of the forces of transformation, rather than a focus on the primacy of a certain element, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical of the book as a whole. The way in which industrial innovation impacted on agriculture is central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period, as is the rise of a new dynamic of consumption. Imports rose faster than exports in the first half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 19th century, partly stimulated by falling prices for luxury commodities, and the middle class began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consume quality goods. This in turn generated a shift in towards greater emphasis on income generation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to enable further consumption, thus promoting the gradual growth of domestic commodity production. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Improvements in infrastructure aided the integration of the Swedish market whilst banking reforms began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide better access to credit, although this primarily benefitted agriculture initially, and promoted saving. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schn also points out a few peculiarities in Sweden?s economic transition during the period, notably the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the expansion of mechanical workshops bore little relation to existing iron foundries since the majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such workshops constructed their own foundries. Here some of the transnational trends of the time are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed as Swedish manufacturers were unsurprisingly influenced by British methods, whilst Schn also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that the proto-industrialisation of rural Sweden proved appealing to some in Britain who detested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expansion of manufacturing cities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The middle of the 19th century, which for Schn marks the shift from agricultural transformation to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commencement of industrialisation proper, does not appear to me to match the general pattern of Schn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis on development blocks. The main impetus for industrialisation seems to be the increasingly rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion of railways rather than an institutional step-change following a structural crisis \(which in this case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be the 1848 revolutions\). Schn points out that much of Europe decided to follow a strategy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation after these middle years of the century, yet in many ways this seems to be a reaffirmation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends already in motion, albeit with a renewed emphasis. Moreover, Schn remarks that ?investment in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railways and heavy industry demanded new kinds of financing? \(p. 74\), which I cannot disagree with but I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also think that a change in this aspect of the institutional model requires something supplementary to explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation. Perhaps this is to be found in a more vibrant entrepreneurial spirit stimulated in part by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external factors, especially the manufacturing might of Britain. I am fully in agreement with Schn as to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primacy of domestic factors over export-led ones ? the evidence suggests it is difficult to contend otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and the inclusion of more emphasis on external factors would be consistent with this. All in all, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably the case that the cycle of crisis-transformation-stability works better in a society that has already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergone the transformation to modern industrial capitalism rather than in a period of commercial society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This also carries the implicit suggestion that such a cycle of renewal is not necessarily a permanent feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leaving aside these minor comments, Schn?s chapter on the years 1850?90 is remarkably thorough. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story becomes one of industry driving economic growth in a society still dominated by agriculture. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of this discussion Schn poses the question of why Sweden did not become an underdeveloped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. It is here that the strength of an argument and analytical mode emphasising the domestic economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is most obvious, an export-led model being much simpler to expound but also less robust. Sweden?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 4072 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic success in the 20th century is principally predicated on the fact that it did not develop a dual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy of a developed export sector and a more backward domestic market, this being largely thanks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way in which economic institutions and large cross-sections of society helped to create domestic demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a dynamic market through consumption and investment. The role of the state in this era is also of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance and Schn points out that its involvement in economic transformation took a number of forms. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At one end of the spectrum the state began to invest in infrastructure, especially railways, and increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanisation led to more focus on local government. At the same time, the state and the Riksdag promoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liberalisation of markets, reduced regulation, and encouraged free trade. The Swedish state was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially important in laying the foundations for future prosperity given that Sweden?s relatively small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population relative to its geographic size made infrastructure development somewhat less desirable to private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investors than was the case in other Western European countries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subsequent chapter deals with the important period of 1890?1930 when Sweden experienced its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial breakthrough and the rate of GDP growth increased substantially. This roughly coincides with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second Industrial Revolution, the progressive adoption of the internal combustion engine, and the start of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradual move towards electric power. It is also a chronological span that features a period of fairly intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalisation up to 1914 followed by a phase of stagnation and retreat in that same process. The fact that real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wage rises in Sweden outstripped GDP growth during the years 1870?1910 was significant both in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating consumption demand and in creating conditions that constrained profitability in firms, ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to a need for rationalisation. Schn contends that the decades immediately preceding and succeeding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the turn of the 20th century involved the formulation of many of the aspects we would come to associate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the ?Swedish model?. Two of the most notable institutional developments were the establishment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Landsorganisationen i Sverige \(the Swedish trade union confederation\) and the Svenska )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arbetsgivarefreningen \(the Swedish employers? association\). Meanwhile, social policy reoriented towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater state intervention and concern with public welfare. The economic crisis of the early 1920s is given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special attention by Schn and its effects on Sweden were considerable. The discussion makes for quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refreshing reading given that this sharp recession is usually given short shrift in many studies due to it being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wedged between the common chronological breaks of the First World War and the Great Depression.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6889 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1930 a new cycle began in the aftermath of the Depression. This is one of the sections of the book in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which I would have liked to have seen the discussion of economic thought developed further. Schn writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the new ideology that strove to rectify the defects of the market and mentions both Keynes and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stockholm School, but this could have been taken further. To what extent did the economic discourse in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sweden follow the ideas of the Stockholm School over those of Keynes? How direct was the impact of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new theories on economic policy? I suspect that these questions reflect more of my own interests and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predispositions than anything else. Indeed, Schn?s description of the evolution of economic policy itself in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter covering 1930?75 is more than sufficient for most readers. The picture for the period as a whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one of industrial society at its peak and Schn is especially good at putting Sweden into the international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context with the chapter broadly divided into pre- and post-Second World War sections. Sweden?s relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good fortune in the 1930s fed into its impressive success after the War but also created the structural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions that made the next crisis relatively more severe. The mid-1970s oil price shocks mark the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of Schn?s final chapter where the story is taken up to 2010. Here, of course, the international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy is central to Sweden?s own experience and Schn expresses the complexities of the breakdown of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keynesian-inspired policy in impressive clarity. The challenges to the Swedish model are discussed and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms of the 1980s and 1990s are detailed. This period is a cycle considerably more convoluted in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways than those that preceded it and is marked by a series of smaller crises and consequent periods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation beyond the main structural crisis of the mid-1970s. Schn does a good job of elaborating on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these issues, which have ramifications for his approach, but it is unclear whether or not he sees this as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicative of a more fundamental alteration of the pattern, as it were, of economic transformation. It seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in our own contemporary era the relationship and interaction between the long- and short-cycles of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy has become more complex. Schn finishes his writing on an optimistic note by stating that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third Industrial Revolution of the information technology age may well present opportunities for a country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has fostered knowledge and skills in a wide range of sectors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Schn?s study of Sweden?s economic history over the previous two centuries is a work to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warmly welcomed into the English-language historiography. It justifies itself by providing a very neat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of Schn?s own prior research in the field, which is otherwise predominantly only available in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedish, even before we account for the way in which it engages with the broader economic history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse in Sweden. The scholarship on display here is thorough and the analytical methodology should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage us all to think critically about our own ways of studying history. I imagine that the book could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially find a fairly broad audience of non-specialist academics and students beyond those with narrower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests in economic history or Sweden in particular. There is another, perhaps less obvious, role that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schn?s history could play; since one of the great strengths of the text is its accessibility I rather hope that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may become a book sometimes deployed to introduce undergraduates to the discipline of economic history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rodney Edvinsson, )] TJ ET BT 160.352 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Growth, Accumulation, Crisis: With New Macroeconomic Data for Sweden, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1800?2000)] TJ ET BT 118.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stockholm, 2005\); Lars Magnusson, )] TJ ET BT 303.008 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Economic History of Sweden)] TJ ET BT 458.324 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 206.595 m 118.004 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best example of Dahmn?s work available in English is Erik Dahmn, ?Development blocks in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial economics?, )] TJ ET BT 175.004 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavian Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 367.976 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.968 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.968 178.083 m 477.956 178.083 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 162.751 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 144.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 144.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1438)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 143.577 m 328.316 143.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/58587)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 206.9095 118.0037 218.7895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.9677 178.3975 477.9557 190.2775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 143.8915 328.3157 155.7715 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1438) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000004836 00000 n 0000004945 00000 n 0000005055 00000 n 0000005164 00000 n 0000008725 00000 n 0000008853 00000 n 0000008937 00000 n 0000009028 00000 n 0000017123 00000 n 0000017153 00000 n 0000017281 00000 n 0000017317 00000 n 0000017347 00000 n 0000017475 00000 n 0000017511 00000 n 0000017576 00000 n 0000025025 00000 n 0000025090 00000 n 0000029215 00000 n 0000029313 00000 n 0000036255 00000 n 0000036382 00000 n 0000036437 00000 n 0000036565 00000 n 0000036620 00000 n 0000036748 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36844 %%EOF