%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141225022520+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141225022520+00'00') /Title (Comedy, Caricature and the Social Order, 1820-50) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4465 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Comedy, Caricature and the Social Order, 1820-50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is 50 years since Edward Thompson introduced historians to the phrase, the idea, the reality of 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condescension of posterity'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.156 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.156 243.417 m 181.148 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.148 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And while Thompson restricted his lens to the poor and forgotten of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th- and early 19th-century Britain, for a number of years a small number of historians, John Barrell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable among them )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.008 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.008 214.905 m 149.000 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.000 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, have reminded us that there is another not insignificant condescension which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars of this age have also engaged in: that toward its art. In short, the historic art we like possesses a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking influence on the historic art we write about. This is not of course a truism applicable to all art and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all histories of art, but certainly to speak of the history of comic art is largely to speak of William Hogarth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Gillray, George Cruikshank and Mr Punch. It is to speak of comedy unsullied by filthy lucre, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passion unbridled, of audiences gagging for more, of art for art's sake, of satire for satire's sake. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although these men and their publications did indeed represent the foremost comic art of this era, scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could do more than to follow the whims of collectors, of those who elevate particular bodies of work to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of 'good' art for reasons other than their scholarly merit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps with one eye toward this narrative, Brian Maidment's Comedy, Caricature and the Social Order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820?50 sports a work on its cover resembling the very same tradition it seeks to question and concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1439)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Maidment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719075261)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719075261)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Baker)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.1557 243.7315 181.1477 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.0077 215.2195 148.9997 227.0995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7695 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a brief study of the canonical publication Punch. These framing elements are misleading, one suspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite knowingly and deliberately, for the comic art which occupies the core of Maidment's volume derives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from unfamiliar names, from unstable and protean formats, from work of indifferent quality. Of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indifferent should not be confused with poor, to do so would be to condescend the vernacular forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maidment recovers, rather its use here is testament to the minimal significance aesthetic quality is afforded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Maidment's prose, a fetishism trumped by a desire ? as is the modus operandi of his book ? to restore what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posterity has disregarded to their contemporary status: as loved objects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book proceeds in two parts. The first tackles Regency and early-Victorian humour, in particular its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('modes and markets', and opens with a refutation of David Kunzle's haughty characterisation of work from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period as little more than 'graphic bric-a-brac'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.284 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.284 654.771 m 290.276 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.276 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For whilst Kunzle saw in the 1820s a change for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse, Maidment sees just change and in the following chapter seeks to evaluate this change against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanying loss of a Georgian caricature tradition as experienced by post-Regency comic artists. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loss was no phantom: the single-sheet satire so prominent in Georgian London did indeed wither away. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet this withering was driven by a confluence of technological innovation and widening demand for comic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images, and as Maidment deftly illustrates in the third and final chapter of the opening section, many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comic tropes common to Georgian and Regency forms retained their vitality in the early-Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketplace. This lengthy chapter, entitled 'Continuity, innovation and change: comic visual culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820?1850', forms the core of the book and is in its own right a significant contribution to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comic art.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book takes the themes of continuity, innovation and change discussed with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medium and reapplies them to the message, to a series of thematic case studies. These begin with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vibrant discussion of prints which depicted print shop window scenes and is followed by a chapter which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the work of Robert Seymour, a ?jobbing? comic artist perhaps best known for his role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of Dickens? Pickwick Papers. The focus then moves from an individual to an event, or more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely to a series of social and cultural changes which vexed Seymour, his contemporaries and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences: the so-called ?march of intellect?. The final chapter of this part, and indeed the book, returns to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypes of dustmen: an old favourite of Maidment?s and a useful example of how comic tropes could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endure and evolve across and beyond the decades under discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contained within these chapters are a number of significant arguments. The emphasis on experimentation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comic productions from the 1820s foregrounds the centrality of commerce to the production of comic art. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medium and size, in a nod perhaps towards Jordanova )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.968 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.968 331.395 m 311.960 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 311.960 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, remain constantly, unconventionally and vitally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in view. And consumers are under Maidment's care far from passive agents grateful to receive comic art, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather they are active in making, remaking and reusing ? collectors might say mutilating ? the objects they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bought. All this Maidment argues, makes the period under discussion not merely a post-Georgian or pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Punch lull in the glorious history of British comic art, but instead a fascinating, turbulent and glorious period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unto itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is worth lingering on these arguments a little longer, to allow their import to percolate. On commerce, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maidment emphasises how pressure from consumers forced publishers and in turn comic artists to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment and innovate. The consequence is to downplay the role of individual comic artists as agents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical change. Thus on the comic artist Robert Seymour we read that 'however important the reputations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and popularity of his illustrations might have been to the success' of Seymour's publisher William Kidd that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Kidd depended on the relentless use of his brand name as a publisher to market his work' \(p. 156\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elsewhere shifts in taste are elevated above artistic preference, with flexibility to commercial demands as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to idiosyncratic style considered the key quality of a successful artist. As Maidment writes: 'If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptability had long been a characteristic of the jobbing artist and engraver, it was given a new intensity by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the developing marketplace, of the 1820s and 1830s' \(p. 80\). On occasion Maidment seems pained by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppression of artistic agency, reporting with some glee the revival of caricaturists names and their growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence from text after 1830. And yet commerce dictated that even when comic artists were afforded a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blank canvas, the size and format of that canvas was not of their own choosing: fold out pages, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a compromise necessitated by the popularity of pocket sized books \(p. 66\). In a sense the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.2837 655.0855 290.2757 666.9655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.9677 331.7095 311.9597 343.5895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 6721 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aforementioned Seymour exemplifies these themes. In order to adapt to the incorporation of comic art into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print culture Seymour made himself and his work as adaptable as possible, and yet, Maidment reminds us 'in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seymour's case even such versatility was not enough, tragically, to ensure survival' \(p. 172\). Unlike their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late-Georgian predecessors and in spite of their restless innovation and prodigious workloads, the artists of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this era proved more often than not to be commercial failures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the varied and changing physical appearance of comic art which introduced such instability to the lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of comic artists, Maidment attributes this dynamic decisively to novel patterns of consumption. He writes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to take advantage of the new mass readership being formulated at this time, comic art )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underwent a major change in scale \(essentially becoming smaller\), became widely associated )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a variety of circumambient text, adjusted to seriality as a major mode of distribution and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption, and learnt to use the monochrome linearity of the wood engraved vignette as a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously expressive, decorative and humorous medium \(p. 21\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus if work was not pocket-sized, it would often consist of large sheets filled with numerous miniaturised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scenes and figures. Here the old tradition of political caricature could endure, though in 1830s serials such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLean's Monthly Sheet of Caricatures or the Looking Glass it did so in smaller and wood-engraved form. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crucially, this shift from single-sheet single-scene caricature to single-sheet multi-scene caricature was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven by demand for more but rather for modularity. As Regency comic art integrated with text, typically in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the form of sheets bound into books, so modularity and choice became common features of comic art: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('same' book could then be bought with no, some or all of the accompanying illustrations, the illustrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be bought independently from a text, or the illustrations could be gradually bought and bound into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. These developments predate and in a sense foreshadowed a wave of publications from the 1820s which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('gave readers considerable authority over their reading experience' \(p. 33\). Foremost among these was 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrap': sheets of uncoloured caricatures designed to be cut up, customised, remounted and collected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maidment appears particularly enamoured by scraps, and not without reason. A 'rage for scraps' in the 1830s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, he argues, a critically undervalued aspect of British comic heritage, crucial not only because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplifies the need to reassess the stability 'of such categories as ?text?, ?illustration? and ?book? in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period' \(p. 33\) but also because this instability, coupled with the popularity of modularity and customisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disrupts our ability to read patterns of consumption through traditional barometers such as price, quality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we have seen, some early Victorians perceived in all this change the loss of a tradition of late-Georgian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Regency caricature. In a literal sense this was no phantom. The single sheet image, the one-time medium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de jour, was indeed all but discarded by the 1830s, its message retained by nostalgia for the freedoms of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier age, for obsolete trades such as dustmen, for the tropes of caricature. Maidment's triumph is to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through change to draw deep and persistent continuities between Georgian and Victorian comic modes, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use the period circa 1830?50 as a vibrant discursive and commercial bridge. The afterlives of a genre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prints known as 'miseries' are a case in point. Developed in the late-1790s to send-up the 'miseries' of urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living complained of by London's new and old money alike, by 1810 artists including George Cruikshank, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Woodward and Thomas Rowlandson as well as publishers as unrelated as Rudolph Ackermann and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Tegg had achieved significant commercial success with volumes explicitly advertised as 'miseries'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these publications the accidents common within urban settings were transposed and reinterpreted onto the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, travelling and society at large. Thus the 'Miseries of...' genre had been born, the apotheosis of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came with the spectacular commercial success of Ackermann, William Combe and Rowlandson's three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tours of Dr. Syntax \(1812?21\). It follows that after success came assimilation, and miniaturized miseries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a commonplace feature of the modular multi-image comic productions prevalent in the 1830s. Early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian anxieties saw this format renamed, albeit briefly, to 'nuisances', and yet the same familiar scenes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6380 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... raucous street cries, the importunities of street vendors, pedestrians being battered by passing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traffic, noisy dustman, and collisions between well dressed and filthy passers-by \(p. 57\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such persistence can be explained by more than mere nostalgia on the part of artists. Rather it is clear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer demand for 'miseries' spanned more than 30 years, suggesting a complex interaction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image, text and humour which bridged what have become the scholarly silos of Georgian and Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comic art. As Maidment writes, miseries demonstrate the existence of a nuanced 'dialogue between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity and change':)] TJ ET BT 64.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuity being provided by a shared vision of urban misadventure and inconvenience, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change by the relinquishing of the large scale single plate engraved image as the dominant )] TJ ET BT 64.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphic comic mode to be replaced by wood engraving \(p. 58\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 569.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not that the emergence of wood engraving or lithography would entirely supplant the copper plate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engraving. Using three contemporaneous satires on the 'march of intellect' as his focus for some pages \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(194?8\), Maidment argues once more that for all the fear of loss the tropes of Georgian satire endured. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only did this occur in those occasional reproductions from copper plates which most obviously resembled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 512.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work from earlier eras, but did so too in the modes of graphic production and presentation being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimented with during the 1820s and 1830s. In short, comic prints made in different ways may not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked the same but their meaning could often be comparable, drawn from the same Georgian tropes. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modal and tropic fluidity ensured that 'traditional' caricature would appear simultaneously and nostalgically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as miniaturised scraps, as prints which faithfully replicated both traditional form and content, and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable prints merely divested of all original form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comedy, caricature and the social order presents British comic art circa 1820?50 as an irreconcilably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and unstable corpus of work situated between two far more manageable corpora. This instability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made life hard for artists and publishers, leaving the historian few clear narratives to tell, few enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names to hook onto. And those whose names have rang out in 20th-century historiography, George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cruikshank and Robert Seymour, have done so largely as a result of activities outside of the purview of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book: by virtue of their connection to serial and mass-market literature. Thus bereft of consistent forms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrity names this period has been condescended to, rendered of lesser significance to that which preceded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it and that which would follow. And yet as Maidment argues such judgements critically undervalue the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of this period of comic art, a significance exemplified by the very same ceaseless innovation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruthless commercial environment and fluidity of personnel that has until now proven its scholarly downfall.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In seeing past decades of critical condescension,Comedy, Caricature and the Social Order is a book of few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missteps and plentiful insight. On occasion the Georgian print is unfairly represented as a flat and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undynamic comparative to the prints that followed, arguments are reinforced to the point of repetition, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digital sources are referenced with insufficient detail. But these are mere quibbles, for the book also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges text centric accounts of British culture between 1820 and 1850, it adds nuance and complexity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'mass' audience that emerged at this time, it shows how illustration and graphic satire played a role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making the novel reading habits of working people less threatening to the middle and upper classes, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues convincingly that Georgian graphic satire remained a strong influence into the 1850s: even finding its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way into the pages of Punch. But above all Comedy, Caricature and the Social Order is a book of huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warmth, a book littered with 'I's, a sense of passion for the subject matter, an acknowledgement to both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence and the limit of interpretation, and an openness to the process of research - to the finds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collecting which underpin the volume. And all this personality lends itself well to comic subject matter. Few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books manage to explore the comic and not only retain the comedy of the sources being explained but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(build on them. To quote Maidment in full flow:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 3476 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More menacing still, in 'The Suicide Punster; or, Wit reduced to Extremities', published in 1836 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Gilbert a Beckett's Comic Magazine, 'The Great Unmentionable' concluded a ghastly Hood-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like litany of puns with the following verse:'Tis over, madness seizes me; a knifeTo put an end )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to unto my puns and life!Yet, to be staked in the cross-roads, despair!Or should, perchance, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down yonder lime-pit there -Be that my art! I go; and should men comeUnto the spot I make )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my final home,Let them thus write my epitaph and crime,In life ridiculous, in death sub-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LIME!'Clearly punning and self-destruction were also closely allied \(p. 40?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Maidment's hands these puns come alive, any disdain toward this crudest of comic forms falls away, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the miscellaneous media which contained them are returned to something approximating their contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.050 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status. As they deserve to be, they become loved objects once more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 597.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 566.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 566.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class \(London, 1963\), p. 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.984 566.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.984 565.107 m 530.972 565.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 552.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 552.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See John Barrell, The Dark Side of the Landscape: the Rural Poor in English Painting, 1730?1840 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 537.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 537.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 536.595 m 212.324 536.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 523.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 523.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Kunzle, The Early Comic Strip: Narrative Strips and Picture Stories in the European Broadside )] TJ ET BT 64.016 509.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from c. 1450 to 1825 \(Berkeley, 1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.320 509.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.320 508.083 m 306.308 508.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 495.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 495.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ludmilla Jordanova, 'Image matters', The Historical Journal, 51, 3 \(2008\), 777?91.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.612 495.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.612 493.827 m 515.600 493.827 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 478.495 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 460.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 460.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1439)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 459.321 m 328.316 459.321 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 434.344 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 419.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/51529)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.9837 565.4215 530.9717 577.3015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 536.9095 212.3237 548.7895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.3197 508.3975 306.3077 520.2775 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.6117 494.1415 515.5997 506.0215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 459.6355 328.3157 471.5155 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1439) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000005171 00000 n 0000005280 00000 n 0000005390 00000 n 0000005499 00000 n 0000009060 00000 n 0000009188 00000 n 0000009272 00000 n 0000009301 00000 n 0000009429 00000 n 0000009465 00000 n 0000009494 00000 n 0000009622 00000 n 0000009658 00000 n 0000009749 00000 n 0000017497 00000 n 0000017527 00000 n 0000017655 00000 n 0000017691 00000 n 0000017721 00000 n 0000017849 00000 n 0000017885 00000 n 0000017950 00000 n 0000024724 00000 n 0000024789 00000 n 0000031222 00000 n 0000031334 00000 n 0000034863 00000 n 0000034991 00000 n 0000035046 00000 n 0000035174 00000 n 0000035229 00000 n 0000035357 00000 n 0000035412 00000 n 0000035540 00000 n 0000035595 00000 n 0000035723 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35819 %%EOF