%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724104621+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724104621+01'00') /Title (Prince Henry 'the Navigator'. A Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4024 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Prince Henry 'the Navigator'. A Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td 1.003 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Russell's )] TJ ET BT 108.849 344.603 Td 1.003 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry 'the Navigator')] TJ ET BT 215.314 344.603 Td 1.003 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one of those rare books which has had classic, or rather legendary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td 0.857 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(status even before it was published. It was no secret that Russell was long at work on a full biography of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td 0.473 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure whom he had already drastically redrawn in his Canning House lecture forty years ago \()] TJ ET BT 495.338 316.091 Td 0.473 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prince Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td 1.165 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Navigator)] TJ ET BT 101.517 301.835 Td 1.165 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Councils, 1960\), and in subsequent lectures and articles. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td 1.803 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(his first book, )] TJ ET BT 108.760 287.579 Td 1.803 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English intervention in Spain and Portugal in the time of Edward III and Richard II)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td 0.317 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1955\), pointed the way towards this interest in Henry, for both at the start and at the end of his new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td 0.613 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(book Russell makes much of Henry's English ancestry, through his mother Philippa of Lancaster, and of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td 0.301 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride in his membership of the Order of the Garter; and in both books his fine mastery of the sources and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the Spanish as well as the Portuguese dimensions are plain to see.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td 0.770 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortunately quite a few of Russell's earlier studies of Henry and his era were gathered together in a volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td 1.138 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Variorum Collected Studies entitled )] TJ ET BT 247.494 190.043 Td 1.138 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portugal, Spain and the African Atlantic. Chivalry and crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td 1.519 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(from John of Gaunt to Henry the Navigator )] TJ ET BT 258.159 175.787 Td 1.519 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 1995\). Here already was a title that gave away a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(good deal about Russell's understanding of Henry; as he says in the last words of his new book:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(144)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Russell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300082339)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Abulafia)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6875 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Gothic tomb he had designed, its representation of himself and everything else about it belonged )] TJ ET BT 522.284 770.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the later Middle Ages. So, when all is said and done, did he and all his works. The Henrican discoveries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the way the Prince explained and justified them, are seen to be an entirely medieval phenomenon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which, uniquely, the doctrines of the crusade and the ideology of chivalry came together to make possible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Prince Henry's direction, a major scientific contribution to European man's knowledge of the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world about him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.533 Td 0.211 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally, the image he presented of Henry in 1960 was not to the taste of a Portuguese rgime which sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.277 Td 1.949 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(to identify in the prince one of its greatest national heroes, the founder of Portugal's then still surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.021 Td 3.094 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, and a scholar who was \(it was often suggested\) for the art of navigation and the science of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.765 Td 0.611 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography what Leonardo was for the art of painting and the science of engineering. Indeed, even today the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.509 Td 0.844 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(era of the discoveries remains the foundation on which most Portuguese believe their national history rests. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.253 Td 1.383 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as for the Catalans a slightly earlier period is seen as the greatest period of national glory, so for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 586.997 Td 1.681 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese the end of the Middle Ages is a time both glorious and highly significant. It was also in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.741 Td 1.178 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, as the Portuguese insist with reasonable accuracy, that Portugal established its national boundaries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.485 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have hardly changed since the late Middle Ages, unlike those of every other European state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 505.973 Td 1.227 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(But those boundaries do not tell the whole story. Quite apart from the fact that they exclude the region of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.717 Td 2.166 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galicia, where a language close to Portuguese is spoken, they also do not coincide with the boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.461 Td 1.334 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Henry conceived for Portuguese power and influence. To the continental lands of Portugal must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.205 Td 0.761 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(added the uninhabited Atlantic islands discovered by his sea captains, colonised by Portuguese and Italians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 448.949 Td 0.230 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and made into major sources of wealth, particularly in the case of Madeira, and to some degree in the Azores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.693 Td 1.739 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well; this was mainly as a result of the development of the Atlantic sugar industry. Henry, as Russell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.437 Td 4.824 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, was well aware of the financial advantages of sugar production, and he had an uncanny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.181 Td 1.460 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the fact that Italian merchants were keen, in the early to mid-fifteenth century, to lessen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 391.925 Td 1.462 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(their dependence on eastern Mediterranean sugar and to exploit sources of sugar in western areas such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.669 Td 2.513 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Granada. So when a group of Venetians, including Henry's eventual chronicler Alvise da Mosto \(often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.413 Td 0.389 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrongly called Cadamosto, by Russell as well as by others\), called on the prince in the Algarve, Henry went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.157 Td 0.388 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of his way to show them examples of Madeiran sugar. And, as Russell surmises, Henry wanted to attract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.901 Td 3.155 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign capital; after all, sugar production was a complex process, involving elaborate machinery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.645 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensive labour. He did not close his Atlantic voyages to foreign navigators and merchants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.133 Td 2.156 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(As if founding the Atlantic sugar industry was not enough, Henry can also be blamed for founding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.877 Td 1.452 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic slave trade. In the early sixteenth century slaves and sugar would come together to form a tragic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.621 Td 1.783 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination, and Russell is understandably prepared to allow his own very justifiable feelings to intrude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.365 Td 1.457 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, when he describes the first public sale of African slaves at Lagos, on the Algarve, in 1444. This he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.109 Td 0.438 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(judiciously balances with a survey of the longer history of slave trading in the Mediterranean, particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.853 Td 0.630 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genoese hands. The horrors of the sale at Lagos, as mother and child were separated while Henry, mounted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.597 Td 2.666 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(on his horse looked on \(and in due course claimed his royal fifth of the slaves\) were not lost on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.341 Td 0.492 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicler Zurara, even though Zurara did not falter in his admiration for Prince Henry. This of course takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.085 Td 1.958 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to the heart of Russell's assessment of Henry. He is not, one might say, a very nice man. He proves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.829 Td 1.844 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of abandoning his brother to a ghastly death in a Moroccan prison, because Prince Henry is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.573 Td 1.944 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to honour an agreement to return the city of Ceuta to the Muslims, following the failure of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.317 Td 1.195 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedition to Tangier for which he carries much of the responsibility. His refusal to listen to good advice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.061 Td 0.719 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his preference for the advice of those in his entourage, is a character flaw that leads on this occasion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.805 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7996 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td 0.751 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet Russell's Henry is a man with a plan, or rather several interlocking plans: the achievement of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td 2.266 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(victories against the infidel. Even the settlement of uninhabited Madeira was at one point proclaimed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td 0.862 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory over the unbeliever, though to say this was to lose a sense of reality. Broadly, Henry's schemes can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td 0.552 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(be understood as four projects: one, to gain for himself the crown of Granada or at least a slice of Granadan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td 0.410 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory, was completely at odds with Castilian interests, though maybe that was why it appealed to a prince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td 1.188 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had an obsessive hatred of Castile. But even the parallel project of Portuguese expansion in Morocco )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td 0.561 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(was indirectly hostile to Castile, which had broadly agreed with the Catalans that Morocco should be within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td 0.417 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(its sphere of influence, while the kings of Aragon pursued Catalan objectives in eastern Algeria and Tunisia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td 1.832 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Portuguese plan to attack Ceuta in 1415 had to be kept secret not just so that the Marinid rulers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td 1.648 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morocco would not hear about it; at the time, there were rumours that Portugal was fitting out a fleet to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td 1.419 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(capture Mlaga, the major port in Nasrid Granada, or Gibraltar, the other Pillar of Hercules facing Ceuta. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 0.774 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, as any reader of L.P. Harvey's authoritative history of )] TJ ET BT 355.511 601.397 Td 0.774 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Later Islamic Spain, 1250-1500)] TJ ET BT 510.498 601.397 Td 0.774 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td 1.240 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\) will know, the delicate triangular relationship between Castile, Morocco and Granada was placed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td 0.547 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk by Portuguese intervention in Morocco. Ceuta was a prize that Muslim rulers of Spain had often sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td 1.570 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(to gain for themselves, just as the Moroccans had occasionally reached across to try to grab Algeciras or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibraltar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td 0.575 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The security of the Straits was a longstanding matter of concern, since on it depended the free movement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td 1.148 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian and Catalan shipping from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic; and, by this time, we can add as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td 1.452 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the free movement of Portuguese, Galician and Basque shipping from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td 0.237 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the first signs of Portuguese shipping in the Mediterranean, according to Heers [)] TJ ET BT 425.789 475.349 Td 0.237 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socit et conomie Gnes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td 2.375 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1979], date from the 1390s, while studies by Elisa Ferreira Priegue have much enlarged our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td 1.428 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of links between Galicia and the Mediterranean: )] TJ ET BT 350.710 446.837 Td 1.428 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fuentes para la exportacin gallega de la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td 1.096 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(segunda mitad del s. XV)] TJ ET BT 154.727 432.581 Td 1.096 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Santiago, 1984, and )] TJ ET BT 263.438 432.581 Td 1.096 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Galicia en el comercio martimo medieval)] TJ ET BT 471.885 432.581 Td 1.096 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Santiago, 1988\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td 0.378 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(And if the aim was to capture Ceuta's trade, including its gold trade, as some have argued, that was certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td 1.912 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(not achieved: business henceforth by-passed Ceuta entirely, and it became the garrison city which it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td 0.265 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained ever since; for although Portugal lost Ceuta in 1580 it was lost to Spain, of which it remains a part, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td 2.510 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not to the Moroccans. And even in the fifteenth century the running of Ceuta proved a massively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td 0.585 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive business; the main return was prestige, particularly for Henry, whose heroic role in the capture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td 0.348 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city was well known. Throughout Henry's career, Morocco continued to fascinate and attract Henry, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td 1.140 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(was present at the fall of Alccer-Ceguer, a not very important fortress between Ceuta and Tangier\) to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td 1.922 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese in 1458, as he had been at the fall of Ceuta forty-three years earlier. Equally, antagonism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td 0.335 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morocco presented commercial difficulties: the Atlantic coast was an important source of grain \(favoured by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td 1.569 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Genoese\), and Portugal too had need of food supplies; it also needed local Moroccan products for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade further down the African coast. All this is extremely well explained by Russell.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td 1.147 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third project concerned the Canary Islands. The Canaries were sometimes seen as a jumping off point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td 1.616 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(for penetration into Africa; and one of Henry's great obsessions, Russell reveals, was the conquest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td 1.906 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canary Islands. Russell deftly shows how the Canaries stand for many of Henry's faults and virtues. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td 0.258 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(displayed little understanding of the logistical problems involved in attacks on islands which, unlike Madeira )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td 0.196 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Azores had substantial warlike populations, though it was a clever move to win over some Gomerans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td 2.085 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Portuguese side and to let them help in slave raiding on other islands than La Gomera. Still, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td 0.596 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar priorities are there: an interest in the islands as a source of slaves; a wish, in conjunction with King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td 0.759 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duarte, to convince the papal curia to uphold Portuguese claims in the face of existing grants of the islands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td 0.476 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Castile; a wish to present the conquest of the islands as a crusade, while at the same time Henry was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td 0.457 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(too glad to entertain Gomeran princes in style, or even to use captive Canary islanders in a dance routine set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td 0.389 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(up in order to impress visiting dignitaries. Russell offers a very clear and well balanced account of the lively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td 2.876 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate which arose at the papal curia; the Portuguese sought to portray the Canary islanders as brute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td 1.186 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(savages, ignorant of letters and of civilised manners. But this can be set alongside another tradition, going )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7607 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td 2.592 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to a Portuguese expedition to the islands as early as approximately 1341 and to a report on that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td 1.104 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedition by Boccaccio, which portrays them as innocent beings living in a state of nature: knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td 1.820 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1341 expedition seems largely to have evaporated outside Italy by this time, though some Florentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td 0.350 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanists were still interested in it in the fifteenth century \(see T.J. Cachey, )] TJ ET BT 407.176 753.701 Td 0.350 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le isole fortunate)] TJ ET BT 492.548 753.701 Td 0.350 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Rome, 1995, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td 1.296 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and J.K. Hyde, )] TJ ET BT 112.554 739.445 Td 1.296 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literacy and its uses. Studies on late medieval Italy)] TJ ET BT 369.903 739.445 Td 1.296 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. Waley, Manchester, 1993, pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(199-202\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td 1.015 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(What all this points to, as Russell well knows, is that the west African expeditions which, in the very long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td 0.650 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(term, launched Portugal on the route to the Indies and to empire were only one part, and not the major part, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td 2.374 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the schemes of Prince Henry, the fourth of the four interlocking schemes outlined here. We see the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td 2.175 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional obsession with the need to find the sources of gold which were believed to fuel the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td 0.711 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(machine of Islam; this can be traced back to the visit of the king of Mali, Mansa Musa, to Cairo in the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 1.426 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth century, during which he scattered so much gold in the streets that there was a bout of serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td 2.023 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflation. Moreover, as Russell is careful to observe \(with the help of contemporary portolan charts\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td 0.563 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(search for the Rio de Oro had a long pedigree, with particular honour being accorded on the map legends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td 0.262 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Majorcan Jaume Ferrer in the 1340's. He reappears aboard his vessel with monotonous regularity on later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated charts, such as the mid-fifteenth-century Este world map in Modena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td 0.442 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the attention switches to da Mosto's reports, and to the visual images that hung in da Mosto's memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td 1.038 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as hippos and giant palm trees, as well as the physical attributes of newly discovered peoples, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td 1.645 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(also reminded that what was being discovered was a world altogether different from those, Christian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td 3.670 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic, with which medieval Iberians were familiar. But there were certainly periods when African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td 1.963 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration was a secondary concern of Prince Henry; and, more to the point, his interest in it was less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td 1.665 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously guided by the wish to convert the native peoples than he liked people in Portugal and western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td 1.799 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe to think. All this is demonstrated by Russell with enormous skill; and any summary does not do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td 1.344 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice to the subtlety of his approach and the way he shows Henry's ideas developing and changing back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and forth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td 0.581 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russell is keen to disclaim any understanding of Henry's emotional life; the real man, he insist, is not easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td 0.782 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible. Yet in fact he has done much to make him so by revealing the depth of his commitment to holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td 1.001 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(war against Islam, the callousness of his approach to the violent seizure of slaves on the African coast, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td 0.611 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage he was keen to extend to his favourites, and his relationship to other members of the royal family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td 0.334 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as his nephew and heir Fernando. On his own entourage there will be more to be said, particularly once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td 0.351 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ivana Elbl of Trent University in Canada has completed her own study of Henry and his squires. For Russell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td 1.509 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(is often briefer on the social, economic and institutional setting than the subject deserves. He has tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td 2.212 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate as far as possible on Henry, though in the latter stages of the book we are treated to more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td 0.959 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive discussions of subjects such as slavery and what Alvise da Mosto saw on his journeys along the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td 1.433 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(coasts of west Africa. It is a pity that the background in Portugal itself is dealt with so briefly. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td 2.178 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting and relevant questions about how the Portuguese navy emerged, and what the role of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td 0.336 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(businessmen was in the emergence of Lisbon as significant centre of trade; for some, such as Jacques Heers \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td 0.962 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gnes au XVe sicle)] TJ ET BT 135.207 180.485 Td 0.962 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Paris, 1961\) the commercial ties between Italy and Portugal were weak, even though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td 1.042 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a significant community of Italians in Lisbon, quite well integrated into local business networks. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td 3.197 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Verlinden, on the other hand, tended to see the Italians as a major source of inspiration for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td 0.329 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese, and later for Castilian, methods of colonial exploitation \()] TJ ET BT 369.277 137.717 Td 0.329 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginnings of Modern Colonization)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td 1.881 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Ithaca, NY, 1970\). Particularly helpful in setting out the antecedents is a small study by Bailey Diffie, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td 2.352 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prelude to Empire)] TJ ET BT 127.376 109.205 Td 2.352 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lincoln, Nebraska, 1960\), which in fact Russell does not cite; Diffie insists on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td 1.225 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of several centuries of Portuguese fishing and commerce in explaining the career of Henry the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navigator.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td 0.288 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, it is interesting to compare Russell's approach here with that of the author of another book on Henry, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7392 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td 0.857 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(also published in 2000 \(though the book in question is a shorter version of a work first published in 1994\): )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td 2.578 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Verg-Franceschi's )] TJ ET BT 171.292 782.213 Td 2.578 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Un prince portugais)] TJ ET BT 273.781 782.213 Td 2.578 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2000\). Frankly, Verg-Franceschi's work is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td 1.468 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointing: it is extensively based on Zurara and da Mosto and it makes little attempt to challenge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td 1.391 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(classic view of Henry as a far-sighted patron of exploration and discovery; in fact, it repeats a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td 1.237 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(now exploded errors such as the view that a converted member of the Jewish Cresques family of Majorca )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td 0.728 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the prince's cartographer. Its author does not even cite Russell's earlier work on Henry \(though he does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td 0.341 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention )] TJ ET BT 76.693 710.933 Td 0.341 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Intervention)] TJ ET BT 196.702 710.933 Td 0.341 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(, mis-spelling Russell's name\). The only reason for dwelling on the work is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td 0.627 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Verg-Franceschi devotes some space to the antecedents \(such as the role of Portuguese fisheries in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td 1.229 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the fleet\) and to wider problems of navigation, issues which tend to be summarised rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td 1.450 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly in Russell's book. The obvious explanation is that Russell did not want to make a long book even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td 0.612 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer; on the other hand, there are certainly passages where cuts could have been made, because points are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td 0.255 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated within a page or two. Thus on pages 90 and 91 we are twice told that Zurara rejoices in the quantity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td 1.182 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of wood found on Madeira \(whose name means just that: wood\), so that it will be possible to take it back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td 0.763 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(home and build houses several stories high back home in Portugal. Da Mosto's interest in dragon's blood \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td 1.094 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(dye extracted from trees found in Madeira's neighbour Porto Santo, and in the Canaries\) is also mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td 0.403 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(twice not many pages apart. Clearly a book so long in the making has gone through many recensions, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td 0.298 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(some extent we can identify the different layers in the way the author returns to favourite themes and repeats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td 1.629 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(what are rarely anything but fascinating points. In any case, some room could have been found for more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td 1.001 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(material on the context. And, while Yale are to be congratulated on producing such a handsome volume at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td 1.088 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a reasonable price, it is also a pity that there are so many misprints; the last chapter seems especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td 0.842 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(riddled with them, and they should be corrected before a paperback edition is issued, which will, it is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td 0.712 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoped, also include the excellent colour illustrations. This problem, along with that of occasional repetition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td 1.311 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that Yale have not sustained the meticulous standard of copy editing characteristic of some other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading American university presses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td 2.467 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Verg-Franceschi accepts that the famous panel of St Vincent in Lisbon attributed to the painter Nuno )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td 0.194 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gonalves contains a portrait of Henry along with the rest of the court; and Yale have chosen this portrait for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td 0.916 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very attractive book cover. Russell is somewhat sceptical about this identification. Quite helpful here is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td 0.918 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(book by Anne Francis, )] TJ ET BT 150.006 373.301 Td 0.918 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyage of Re-discovery)] TJ ET BT 265.805 373.301 Td 0.918 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hicksville, NY, 1979\), which seeks to identify each of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td 1.646 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures in the painting without denying that there are infinite problems in so doing. But we can take this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td 0.548 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting as an emblem of the Henry problem. Not merely his portrait but the so-called School of Navigators )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td 0.650 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Sagres \(above all its 'wind rose', marked out on the ground in the Sagres complex\) and James of Majorca )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td 0.911 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(go up in smoke. Yet, far from being left with charred remains, Russell provides us with a living portrait of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td 0.968 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the career and obsessions of a man who, unwittingly - and that is the point - opened the way to the Indies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td 2.112 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The image favoured by modern Portuguese sculptors is of a far-sighted scientist gazing across the open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td 1.045 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ocean at the unknown - or not so unknown, because of course he can sense Portugal's destiny out there in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td 1.083 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Blue Sea. Now the hero's vision is narrowed. His human faults are identified. This is not merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td 1.092 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(henceforth the standard study of Henry; it is also a book with wide ramifications for the study of fifteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td 2.246 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Europe and for the study of the early phases of European expansion. And, on top of that, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td 1.604 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(immensely enjoyable and readable, a model of scholarly history, well based in the sources, which is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to a wider audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 156.991 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 139.211 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 139.211 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/144)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 137.817 m 322.316 137.817 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 112.840 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/769)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 138.1315 322.3157 150.0115 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/144) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000004704 00000 n 0000004813 00000 n 0000004923 00000 n 0000005032 00000 n 0000008593 00000 n 0000008721 00000 n 0000008805 00000 n 0000008870 00000 n 0000015798 00000 n 0000015863 00000 n 0000023912 00000 n 0000023977 00000 n 0000031637 00000 n 0000031721 00000 n 0000039166 00000 n 0000039294 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39389 %%EOF