%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 56 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416052447+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416052447+01'00') /Title (The Demon Of Writing: Powers and Failures of Paperwork) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4192 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Demon Of Writing: Powers and Failures of Paperwork)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians can only feel ambivalent about bureaucracy. ?Admin? tends to get in the way of those two core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities that define a university, research and teaching. Some of it might be necessary and benign: seminars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(require registers, after all. But we huff and puff about some of its other manifestations: TRAC returns; PDR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms; annual programme reviews; research plans; and QAA-correct paper trails relating to module )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation and student feedback. Meanwhile, every five or six years ? or so it seems ? senior management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teams initiate university-wide ?restructuring programmes? in yet another quest for administrative efficiency, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which never quite arrives. Bureaucracy is not something that normally thrills historians; far from it in fact. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet, without it, without bureaucracy, us historians would have a good deal fewer sources to go on, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very things we )] TJ ET BT 107.672 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(do)] TJ ET BT 119.672 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( get excited about: committee minutes; official inquiries; inspectors? reports; registration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents; birth and death certificates; audits and accounts; serial-numbered letters, memos, files, forms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dossiers ? All archives are monuments to officialdom, more or less.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is especially so for historians of modern Europe, for as Ben Kafka argues in )] TJ ET BT 425.276 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Demon of Writing)] TJ ET BT 532.940 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the French Revolution may have given birth to celebrations of national sovereignty and Declarations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Rights of Man, it also spawned a monster that in subsequent centuries would be presented as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1440)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben Kafka)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781935408260)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zone Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.zonebooks.org/titles/KAFK_DEM.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Crook)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8262 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insidious, all-pervasive foe of freedom-loving peoples everywhere: )] TJ ET BT 359.276 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la bureaucratie)] TJ ET BT 433.604 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; or what Karl Marx once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubbed the ?bureaucratic medium?. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity ? Bureaucracy! One can hardly imagine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parisian radicals slaying aristocrats and storming castles in the name of ?paperwork?, Kafka?s generic term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the day-to-day currency of desk-bound functionaries. But as Kafka describes in his opening chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where he recounts the sorry fate of an aggrieved )] TJ ET BT 268.268 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 336.584 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( bureaucrat, Edme-tienne Morizot, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution gave rise to a new culture of paper-chasing, premised on the democratic desire for public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accountability and the logistical demands of running a nation. Article 15 of the Declaration of the Rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Man and of the Citizen \(1789\) was quite explicit about the matter: ?Society has the right to ask all public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents to give an accounting of their administration? \(pp. 43?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was one of the last articles to be debated by the Constituent Assembly and among the least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial. With little in the way of drama or debate, ?paperwork had become a technology of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation? \(p. 44\), inserted into the constitutional fabric of a fledgling sovereign nation. The trouble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was it didn?t work especially well. Enter Morizot. Having been shrugged off and given the run-around by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former employers, whom he accused of unfair dismissal, he expected more from the new order of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accountability. He was sorely disappointed. His particular case, as collected in an individual dossier, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the 19,356 submitted to the Reports Committee during the first two years of the Revolution. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee was not workshy: during the same two years, it authored almost 14,000 letters \(p. 45\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, rather, was that it was overworked, lost and confused amidst a proliferation of equally urgent cases. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aggrieved, frustrated, Morizot dashed into print, penning pamphlets and letters regarding his plight, two of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which \(in 1792 and 1793\) appeared in Jean-Paul Marat?s radical journal, )] TJ ET BT 386.600 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Ami du peuple)] TJ ET BT 468.596 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. And then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing: we still don?t know quite what happened to poor old Edme-tienne Morizot, a bureaucrat defeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by bureaucracy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacques-Louis David?s well-known painting \(1793\) of Marat, slain in the bath yet clutching a piece of paper, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captures the \(often comic\) tragedy that Kafka seeks to explore in this short yet suitably joyful and character-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven book regarding the ?powers and failures? of bureaucracy. On the one hand, Rousseau?s dream of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing, democratic self-presence of citizens, pure in their unified will and deliberations; on the other, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rude eruption of the political-logistical necessity of paperwork, in all its vulgar, maddening materiality.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.292 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.292 400.419 m 543.284 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following Jacques Derrida?s philosophical lead and giving it a political twist, Kafka is interested in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing that thwarts but also makes possible practices of collective self-determination. Necessary, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabling; facilitating, yet frustrating: for Kafka bureaucracy is the ?trace? that inhabits/inhibits the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal democratic project. ?What is true of philosophy in general, I reasoned?, states Kafka in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, ?must be true of political philosophy or political theory in particular, which has always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred the voice of power over its written traces, the great discourses of kings and legislators over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure scrivenings of functionaries and clerks? \(p. 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bureaucracy )] TJ ET BT 97.652 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 126.644 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was nothing new at the end of the 18th century. Kafka notes a survey undertaken in 1770 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that suggested there were some 5,700 document depositories in France, largely in the hands of feudal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic and local authorities \(p. 33\). Furthermore, the irony that the Revolution only reworked rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminished the bureaucratic largesse of the Old Regime has been noted before. Alexis de Tocqueville )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised as much in his )] TJ ET BT 161.000 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Ancien Rgime et la Rvolution)] TJ ET BT 324.980 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in 1856; and Tocqueville?s stock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been growing ever since Franois Furet resurrected his thesis regarding the fate of the Revolution in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1970s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.012 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.012 188.835 m 100.004 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 100.004 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Kafka?s approach is different, and it is by no means a straightforward work of history, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed that is what it is. For his interest lies not just in the fact of bureaucracy, but also in how it functioned, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as it still does today, as a protean source of fantasy and perverse enjoyment. The book is, as Kafka sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in his introduction, partly an exercise in ?psychohistory?, in this case of ?the psychic life of paperwork? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 16\). Bureaucracy is as much myth as material reality, argues Kafka; and the two ? the materiality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy and its conceptual-fantastical fashioning ? should be grasped together, one stirring the other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More than this, bureaucratic myths, like all myths perhaps, as Kafka suggests, are about managing structural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions in how we are governed and govern ourselves \(p. 11\). ?The term became a vague expression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an even vaguer sense that something or someone, or many someones ?anyone or anything but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural contradictions of the liberal-democratic project as such ? had to be to blame for how much )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.2917 400.7335 543.2837 412.6135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.0117 189.1495 100.0037 201.0295 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7952 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paperwork was required not only to govern, but to be governed in the modern world? \(pp. 81?2\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curiously, Tocqueville wasn?t fond of the word ?bureaucracy?, for reasons explored by Kafka \(97?106\). Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others used the term, and it is significant, as Kafka points out, that it first was coined, half-jokingly, in 1764, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before coming into general use in the mid 19th century. ?There is no trace of the idea in Montesquieu, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Voltaire, Hume, Rousseau, Burke or even Hegel. Yet by the 1850s it was all the rage? \(p. 11\). Kafka?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal focus is France, but Britain was home to a similarly pathos-laden linguistic take off, as he notes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing \(p. 75\). In 1838, one writer suggested ?Bureaucracy? was ?a term recently borrowed [from France] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by English writers?, offering ?official despotism? as the closest translation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.964 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.964 683.283 m 408.956 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 408.956 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the 1840s it was used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonize the Francophile public servant Edwin Chadwick, one of the key architects of much-debated poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law and public health reforms. ?Was there ever a better bureaucrat than Mr Chadwick?? declared an editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Morning Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 160.352 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1847, this man who wants ?to regulate the world from his writing-desk?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.648 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.648 640.515 m 538.640 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.640 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1850s ratepayers raged against ?functionarism? and ?red-tapism?, whilst Charles Dickens presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers with the Circumlocution Office in his )] TJ ET BT 254.984 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Little Dorrit)] TJ ET BT 314.000 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1855?7\), perhaps the most enduring image of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labyrinthine bureaucratic evasion to emerge from the Victorian period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kafka has assembled an excellent cast through which to retell the story of bureaucracy as reality and fantasy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From Morizot in chapter one, we pass to Charles-Hippolyte Labussire in chapter two, the celebrated clerk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Committee of Public Safety?s Prisoner Bureau \(1793?5\). He was originally thought to have saved the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives of more than 200 prisoners by soaking and shredding their files, rolling them into pocket-sized balls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then throwing them into the Seine from the window of a public baths establishment. By 1927 he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being depicted in Abel Gance?s film, )] TJ ET BT 215.648 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Napolon)] TJ ET BT 262.316 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eating the dossiers, including that of one Josphine de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beauharnais. It seems he didn?t exist, however. He was a myth that demystified: ?Labussire revealed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerability at the basis of the national-security state. Not only was power resistible, it was water soluble?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for the auteur Gance, at least, edible as well \(p. 73\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last two chapters of four we encounter a series of more familiar figures, including Marx, Tocqueville, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balzac and Freud, as well as Roland Barthes, who, it turns out, proved an unusually able administrator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during a two-and-a-half year stint at the cole Pratique des Hautes tudes in the 1960s. It is in these two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters where Kafka gathers together the threads of the preceding two and fleshes out in more detail the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions that structured the birth of bureaucracy and our own obsessive tendencies. Besides the tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the desire for public accountability and minimal, unmediated government, bureaucracy empowered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unelected clerks, who in any case lacked social status \(pp. 80?1\). At a time when administrative reason and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity were judged necessary if the French nation was to survive, bureaucracy seemed only to generate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposite: obfuscation, anonymity and irrational pedantry. Another, which Kafka explores with the help of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx, is the disjuncture between centralized, bureaucratic paperwork on the one hand, and the life of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities on the other. One is rule-bound, statistical and general; the other is complex, particular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional. Marx thus posited a split between an ?actual reality? and ?a bureaucratic reality, which retains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority however much times may change? \(p. 116\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book does not aim to be comprehensive, and some readers may find Kafka?s range of material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat idiosyncratic; but this is by design, in what is an exploratory, essayistic work. From Barthes we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pass in the conclusion to a meditation on the ?techno-utopianism? of an IBM advert made in 1967 promising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to liberate employees from \(yet another\) ?paperwork explosion?: ?machines should work, people should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think?, went the tagline. Bureaucracy, Kafka reminds us, also gave rise to the dream of a world without it: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world where thinking and creating can take place without the drag of administering stuff. Still today we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strive for a paperless existence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally, some readers might be left reeling and dizzied by the way Kafka probes and prods texts and images. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the opening chapter Kafka borrows Marx?s famous metaphors to speak of a ?contradiction? between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(social\) ?relations? and \(technological\) ?forces? of bureaucracy with respect to a 1749 French manuscript on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police reform \(p. 22\). Elsewhere, he relies on a Lacanian subject defined by a constitutive lack, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy invariably fails to satisfy, as we grope for redress or exchange jokes about its arcane workings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter three\). In other places Kafka relies on more straightforward relations of text and context, in the vein )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.9637 683.5975 408.9557 695.4775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.6477 640.8295 538.6397 652.7095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8934 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of intellectual historiography. If anything, the book relies on a kind of ?i?ekian theoretical matrix, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approving nods here and there to Lacan, Marx and Freud ? and ?i?ek is invoked at one point \(p. 79\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coupled with a commitment to the philosophical truth of schisms and snags, and the reality of the Freudian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?preconscious? \(p. 16\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, what is bureaucracy? For Kafka, it is immensely powerful and immensely fragile. Real and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginary. We laugh at it; we hate it. Like Barthes we might take pleasure in bureaucratic routine; but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a monumental, time-consuming pain in the arse. Our investment in it is financial \(as taxpayers\) as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as fantastical; psychological as much as physical; critical as much as comic. And this seems to be Kafka?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point. ?Bureaucracy? is one of those empty, overdetermined signifiers whose mythological-ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vitality lies in just this: it means everything and nothing. We could perhaps say the same about its much-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vaunted opposite, that other overdetermined, fetishized signifier, ?freedom?. Put another way, to ask what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy is, in any ultimate sense, is to ask the wrong kind of question. To be precise about the matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one has to be playful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a timely book. Only this month former Tory chancellor Nigel Lawson spoke of the ?bureaucratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monstrosity? of the EU, the latest in a line of right-wing lamentations that places most of the blame for our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current ills at the door of ?Eurocrats?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.636 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.636 557.235 m 229.628 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 229.628 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There was no mention of the enormous loss of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty we?ve witnessed in this country thanks to the rise of global corporations; no mention of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastating structural flaws of neo-liberal capitalism; in fact Lawson wants more of the same. Meanwhile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for UKIP is at an all-time high.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.668 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.668 514.467 m 236.660 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.660 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bureaucracy continues to perform sterling ideological work and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kafka?s book is the best yet for thinking about just this, past and present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, there remains that nagging thought: for all its failings, bureaucracy does make for abundant archives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remarkably, Tocqueville wrote of this in his )] TJ ET BT 251.996 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democracy in America)] TJ ET BT 363.296 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1835/40\), where, as Kafka notes, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fretted about what future historians would make of life there, in the absence of any French-style culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative writing. ?There is a sense in which public administration is oral and traditional?, wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tocqueville. ?Nothing is written, or if it is, the slightest gust of wind carries it off, like Sibylline leaves, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanish without recall? \(p. 99\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Vive la bureaucratie!? we might say, but not without a strong sense of Kafkaesque irony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 312.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau?s dream was punctured in other ways, of course. Democracy, it turned out, meant )] TJ ET BT 64.016 298.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(representative)] TJ ET BT 132.668 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( democracy and there was more one kind of ?citizen?. For a fuller discussion of these )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other problems see Jean Starobinski, )] TJ ET BT 262.988 283.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Transparency and Obstruction )] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([trans. Arthur Goldhammer] \(Chicago, IL, 1988\); and Pierre Rosanvallon, )] TJ ET BT 422.288 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Demands of Liberty: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civil Society in France since the Revolution)] TJ ET BT 275.324 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [trans. Arthur Goldhammer] \(Cambridge, MA, 2007\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 106.004 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 106.004 239.619 m 159.992 239.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 226.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franois Furet, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpreting the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 307.988 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [trans. Elborg Forster] \(Cambridge, 1981\); and see, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most recently, Lucien Jaume, )] TJ ET BT 207.992 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tocqueville: The Aristocratic Sources of Liberty)] TJ ET BT 440.312 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [trans. Arthur )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldhammer] \(Princeton, NJ, 2013\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.656 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.656 196.851 m 294.644 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 183.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxe Bannister, )] TJ ET BT 142.340 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Colonization and Coloured Tribes)] TJ ET BT 343.040 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1838\), p. 161.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.364 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.364 182.595 m 514.352 182.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 169.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in )] TJ ET BT 114.680 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Citizen, Part Two: Centralization or Local Representation: Health of Towns? Bill: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Opinion of the Public Journals)] TJ ET BT 212.684 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1848\), p. 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.008 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.008 154.083 m 377.996 154.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 141.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 113.684 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 7 May 2013 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.448 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/opinion/columnists/article3757562.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.448 139.827 m 520.784 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 523.784 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 537.776 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([accessed 13.5.2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.984 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.984 125.571 m 221.972 125.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 131.684 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13 May 2013 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.448 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2013/may/13/farage-factor-ukip-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.448 111.315 m 540.404 111.315 l S BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support-record)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 97.059 m 134.660 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 137.660 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 151.652 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 13.5.2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.388 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.388 97.059 m 319.376 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is most grateful to Dr. Crook for the thoughtful review, and to the editors for commissioning it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 45.941 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 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