%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818074252+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818074252+01'00') /Title (The Great Persuasion: Reinventing Free Markets since the Depression) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4059 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Great Persuasion: Reinventing Free Markets since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Depression)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The social and economic landscape of the United States shifted significantly after the financial crash of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008. The ensuing downturn led both businesses and consumers to face severe restrictions on their access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit. The subprime mortgage crisis changed the nature of home ownership for many Americans. Growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates and unemployment figures became the subjects of intense political debate. Alongside these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(macroeconomic developments, populist movements on both right and left ? the Tea Party and Occupy Wall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Street, respectively ? responded vigorously, and, in some cases, intemperately, to the nation?s chastened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiscal circumstances. These developments left intellectuals and political pundits wondering whether the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?culture wars? ? which were said to have structured public debate around issues such as abortion, gun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control, gay rights and creationism ? had been complicated by the re-emergence of a more basic fault line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centred on the efficacy and morality of an economic system dedicated to the idea of the ?free market?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What were the intellectual phenomena that allowed North American and Western European politicians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop an almost unquestioning faith in the benevolence of financial deregulation before the onset of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis? This question animates )] TJ ET BT 181.340 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Persuasion)] TJ ET BT 287.336 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Angus Burgin?s exceptional transatlantic history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1441)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angus Burgin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674058132)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674058132&content=bios)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nick Witham)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7287 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?free market advocacy? during the 20th century. To tell his story, Burgin returns to the early years of another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global economic slump, that of the 1930s, and demonstrates how, in its extended aftermath, an industrious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed group of intellectuals sought to ?reconstitute the theory and practice of capitalism? in the face of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable opposition to their ideas \(p. 5\). Burgin deftly weaves three separate yet intertwined narratives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, two of which are biographical, and one institutional. He fleshes out the signal contributions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economists Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman, but also places these formidable figures within an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional framework: that of the Mont Plerin Society, a group established by intellectuals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businessmen in 1947 to advocate against government intervention in the economies of the Western world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Persuasion)] TJ ET BT 140.012 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s approach to intellectual history is therefore rooted in the conviction that academics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocating for free market ideas significantly impacted policy debates on both sides of the Atlantic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Burgin avoids plotting a linear narrative of the evolution of free market ideas and their subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence. Instead, he is fully aware of historical contingency, and perceptively points out the roads not taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and opportunities missed in the development of free market advocacy during the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book starts by identifying the clusters of intellectuals amongst whom opposition to the Depression-era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate of government intervention originated. For example, the faculty at the London School of Economics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1930s included Lionel Robbins, and, most notably, Friedrich Hayek, who became the period?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?leading theoretical opponent? of the Cambridge-based John Maynard Keynes \(p. 25\). Meanwhile, a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constellation of free market ideas emerged at the University of Chicago, where Frank Knight, Henry Simons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Jacob Viner all became associated with vigorous opposition to the economic policies of Franklin D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosevelt?s New Deal administrations. London and Chicago were therefore the generative institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts for free market advocacy. However, there was no clear philosophical or political agreement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the intellectuals who made up this emerging transatlantic network, which points to the first of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major contingencies highlighted by Burgin in the early stages of his book. Whilst Hayek became associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a radical defence of the market mechanism, those at Chicago preached a doctrine of ?moderation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation and restraint? \(p. 41\). It was out of this debate that the idea of ?neoliberalism? emerged. The term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has become an academic buzzword in recent years, and is most frequently used by opponents of free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas to characterise a philosophical orientation towards unrestricted implementation of the market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanism. However, as it was first used during discussions of journalist Walter Lippmann?s influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book )] TJ ET BT 61.016 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Good Society )] TJ ET BT 149.336 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1944\), the term took on a strikingly different valance: it implied a ?radically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructed liberal doctrine,? which, instead of returning to the laissez faire conditions of the late 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, would establish a middle ground between an irresponsibly deregulated market and complete state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control \(pp. 72?3\). Based on a detailed reconstruction of this linguistic context, Burgin ultimately suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?neoliberalism? that became paradigmatic in the Anglo-American policy arena in the 1970s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1980s looked very different from the ?neoliberalism? of the late 1930s and 1940s. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the latter must resist the temptation of assumed continuities, and the history of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former must do more to account for the theoretical divergence between the two \(p. 82\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In historicising the concept of neoliberalism, Burgin not only tells a fascinating story, but also cautions those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to understand the intellectual underpinnings of contemporary free market ideology to employ the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term in full knowledge of its original usage and subsequent shifts in meaning within British and American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second contingency pointed out by Burgin in the opening chapters of )] TJ ET BT 389.972 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Persuasion)] TJ ET BT 495.968 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role free market intellectuals perceived for themselves in the public sphere. Even as his reputation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key opponent of Keynesianism grew during the 1930s, Hayek remained reluctant to intervene directly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy discussions. Those working in Chicago shared this reticence, and were at pains to chastise their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents for ?blurring the boundaries? between ?economic ideas? and ?political philosophy? \(p. 46\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction was rooted in the belief that the power of economics as a discipline came from its resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularisation. Even as Hayek turned away from purely economic questions and towards the construction of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7967 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the overarching philosophical ?world view? that would culminate in )] TJ ET BT 364.304 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Road to Serfdom)] TJ ET BT 465.968 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1945\), he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distanced himself from the ?pressing political problems of the day?, and instead ?oriented his work toward a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-term goal of generating ideological change? \(p. 51\). During the 1930s and 1940s, then, free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocates proved reluctant to engage in tangible advocacy in contexts other than those provided by academia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The transition from scholarly isolation to public engagement was facilitated by the foundation of the Mont )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plerin Society. Initially conceived as a middle ground between a learned association and an explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political grouping, Hayek imagined the society developing into a single transatlantic forum ?whose members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be bound together by common convictions,? in the hope of developing a coherent economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy that could then be publicised \(pp. 94?5\). As Burgin notes, in early Cold War American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual culture, conservative ideas were often seen as irrational, and were assumed to have no place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mainstream. However, the intellectuals associated with the Mont Plerin Society patiently demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that whilst they were not at the centre of public debates during the 1950s, they were far from irrational, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united as they were around the common goal of constructing ?institutions that bridged the divide between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic theories and processes of political change? \(p. 122\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were assisted in achieving this goal by the provision of funding from a series of sympathetic charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations. For example, the Volker Fund and the Earhart and Relm Foundations provided a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial assistance for the Mont Plerin Society, most importantly reimbursing travel expenses for members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who crossed the Atlantic to attend the organisation?s annual meetings. In doing so, these groups showed ?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary faith in the capacity of abstract ideas to generate substantive political change?, and therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matched Hayek and his colleagues? belief that free market advocacy was best pursued as a long-term project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 127\). The involvement of well-endowed charitable bodies also helped to link the Mont Plerin Society to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the burgeoning American conservative movement. This was most apparent in the interactions that took place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the late 1950s and early 1960s between various members of the organisation and figures involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the conservative magazine )] TJ ET BT 188.648 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Review.)] TJ ET BT 271.316 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Its editor, William F. Buckley, Jr., who took up an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly visible place in the American public sphere during the 1960s, aligned himself with the rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of free market advocacy by opposing what he saw as the overweening reach of the New Deal state \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(138?40\). His sympathy for the Mont Plerin Society was shared by another rising star of the conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual movement, Russell Kirk, whose seminal )] TJ ET BT 287.336 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Conservative Mind)] TJ ET BT 399.992 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1953\) rejected the apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?crisis of modernity? caused by the left?s faith in ?abstract designs? and its ?hasty approach to social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change? \(p. 141\). In making these links, Burgin brings his research into fruitful conversation with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourishing body of recent scholarship on American conservatism by scholars such as Corey Robin, Jennifer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burns and Kim Phillips-Fein.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.364 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.364 329.139 m 189.356 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the author also demonstrates that the relationship between free market advocates and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservatives was not always harmonious. Hayek was angered by the populist tone of )] TJ ET BT 449.276 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Review)] TJ ET BT 528.944 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks on the public figures it opposed, and he used the appearance of Kirk at a Mont Plerin meeting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliver a speech entitled ?Why I am Not a Conservative?, which sought to delineate between his belief in ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear and principled philosophy of freedom? and the conservative concern with the protection of the status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quo \(p. 143\). Once again, such a cleavage demonstrates the contingencies in the development of free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas during the 20th century, and also highlights the impact Hayek and his associates had in helping to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create what Burgin describes as ?the foundational tension of post-war conservatism?, between free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism and social traditionalism \(p. 147\). As an institution, the Mont Plerin Society was therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental to the growth in popularity of free market ideas in the 20 years after it was founded. Indeed, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence grew to such an extent that between 1974 and 1991 seven out of 24 awardees of the Nobel Prize in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic Sciences were members \(p. 204\). However, the Society was also an unpredictable intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalyst: by the time its ideas were gaining traction in the public arena in the 1960s, they had altered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly when compared to those initially propounded during the Depression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This would become even more apparent with what Burgin describes as the ?invention? of Milton Friedman. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman was only 13 years younger than Hayek, and had been involved with the Mont Plerin Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since its inception. However, instead of taking the Great Depression as his starting point, Friedman belonged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a generation of intellectuals primarily influenced by the Cold War, and whose work was infused with a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.3637 329.4535 189.3557 341.3335 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7391 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusading interest in the ?dualisms? of geopolitical rivalry \(p. 154\). Instead of writing for a limited audience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman used the publication of his landmark work )] TJ ET BT 288.656 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capitalism and Freedom)] TJ ET BT 408.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1962\) to signal the beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?an aggressive offensive? on the terrain of public opinion \(p. 174\). He looked back to the 19th century as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American history?s best example of ?true free enterprise capitalism?, and embraced an inherently populist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political rhetoric, arguing that no matter what position she occupied in society, every individual was harmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by government intervention, and would consequently be helped by the implementation of unrestricted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets \(p. 177\). In this way, Friedman attempted to disarm his opponents on the left by describing himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as ?pro-business? ? which implied a class orientation ? but as ?pro-free market? ? a designation intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to transcend the limitations of social status \(pp. 192?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These positions, along with the resourceful methods Friedman used to propagate them, helped him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop significant influence in the public policy arena. This success was also due to the ingenious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplicity of his approach, which meant that virtually every contemporary policy problem had a free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution, at least in theory. Friedman argued for a ?negative income tax? that would cut rates for the poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of providing welfare; in the aftermath of Hurricane Agnes in 1972, he suggested that the recovery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation should be left to individuals and private charitable bodies; and in 1979 he saw his theories put into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice by the Federal Reserve, when its chairman, Paul Volcker, embraced monetarism. \(pp. 179?83\) He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also acted as an inspiration and advisor to presidential candidates Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporaries described Goldwater?s economic agenda during the 1964 election as ?pure Friedman?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Burgin notes that given the candidate?s crushing defeat at the hands of Lyndon B. Johnson, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a ?dubious entrance? into political life \(pp. 200?1\). Friedman continued to offer advice to political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office-seekers, and was more successful in 1980, when Ronald Reagan won a landslide victory against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incumbent Jimmy Carter on a platform that wholeheartedly embraced free market rhetoric. \(pp. 206?7\) This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all leads Burgin to note that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rise of Milton Friedman represents both the realization of Hayek?s dream of inspiring broad )] TJ ET BT 64.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular support for the benefits free markets have to offer, and the final failure of his ambition )] TJ ET BT 64.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to create a new social philosophy that would moderate the excesses of prior modes of market )] TJ ET BT 64.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocacy \(p. 185\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman?s rise therefore marked the culmination of a decades-long struggle, first to win a battle of ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then to carve out an influential space in the public sphere. The success of both of these projects was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testament not only to the tenacity of Hayek, Friedman, and those involved in the Mont Plerin Society, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to the inherent malleability of their ideas: when the vision of a nuanced middle ground between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrestricted markets and Keynesian regulation failed to develop traction, free market advocates proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing and able to rejuvenate the ideology of laissez faire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman?s role in this process leads Burgin to describe his rise to prominence as a ?world historical force?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing: ?we now live in an era in which economists have become our most influential philosophers ? No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure is more representative of this development than Milton Friedman? \(p. 155\). However, this hyperbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion is undercut by Burgin?s own careful reconstruction of the context in which Friedman?s thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became so influential. First, the author goes to great lengths to position Friedman in relation to a long and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffuse tradition of free market advocacy. Second, he convincingly argues that it is difficult to imagine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman?s influence extending so broadly without the intellectual sustenance provided by the Mont Plerin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society, not to mention the financial wherewithal offered by the Volker Fund and the Foundation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic Education. As such, one is left wondering whether these organisations would just as easily have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been able to launch another thrusting economist into the stratosphere of widespread public recognition. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue becomes even more apparent when we take the analysis of Princeton historian Daniel Rodgers into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account. In )] TJ ET BT 90.332 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Fracture)] TJ ET BT 166.988 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, his impressive overview of recent American intellectual history, Rodgers has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that Friedman?s ?prominence on the national scene? would have been ?unthinkable? without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflation crisis of the 1970s, as well as a parallel obsession with free market economics amongst legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars and journalists during a similar period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.328 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.328 53.043 m 276.320 53.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 276.320 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In spite of his obvious brilliance, then, was Friedman )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.3277 53.3575 276.3197 65.2375 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6886 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply in the right place at the right time? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An answer to this question may have been provided had Burgin paid more attention to the process by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free market ideas became popularised. One of the strongest sections of the book discusses the abridgement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by )] TJ ET BT 49.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reader?s Digest)] TJ ET BT 128.672 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Hayek?s )] TJ ET BT 188.984 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Road to Serfdom)] TJ ET BT 290.648 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In the process, Hayek is shown to have ?lost control? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his arguments, which, at the hands of editor DeWitt Wallace, were simplified to the extent that they took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a considerably more conservative meaning than their author intended \(pp. 87?9\). Whilst Burgin briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses the process by which Friedman sought to popularise his ideas using ?every available media?, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lectures and editorials to audiotaped discussions and a PBS documentary, he makes no reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economist?s ability to retain jurisdiction over the theoretical positions he sought to popularise \(p. 198\). Was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman so adept at managing his public persona that he remained in control of his intellectual legacy even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he became a household name? Or, was his thirst for public recognition such that he did not care that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of conservative figures were adopting his theories and putting their own, often idiosyncratic, spin on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them? In assessing the contribution of such a policy-oriented intellectual tradition, it might have been worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering whether Friedman would have been content with the legacies his advocacy came to inspire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 98.672 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Persuasion)] TJ ET BT 204.668 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a tremendous contribution to the intellectual history of 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism. The book?s range is dauntingly impressive, as Burgin moves smoothly between biographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional analysis, as well as between English and German source material. This means that the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfolding description of the impact of free market advocacy on the intellectual and political life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic world is both compelling and convincing. However, it is because of his keen eye for contingency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Burgin?s contribution is most satisfying. As he makes clear in the book?s conclusion, the passage from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscurity to widespread acceptance of free market ideas highlights that ?those who set themselves against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prevailing opinions of today can take comfort in the knowledge that discursive constraints are never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute, and often help create the conditions of their own decline? \(p. 217\). Contemporary proponents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives to the deregulatory status quo ? whether of a Keynesian or more radical stripe ? should find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some sustenance from this conclusion, in what is otherwise a gloomy narrative of intellectual defeat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corey Robin, )] TJ ET BT 131.684 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reactionary Mind: Conservatism from Edmund Burke to Sarah Palin)] TJ ET BT 485.996 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 2011\); Jennifer Burns, )] TJ ET BT 197.996 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right)] TJ ET BT 478.292 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 2011\); Kim Phillips-Fein, )] TJ ET BT 214.028 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conservative Movement from the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Deal to Reagan)] TJ ET BT 163.676 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.312 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.312 320.643 m 335.300 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Rodgers, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Fracture)] TJ ET BT 221.660 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 2011\), pp. 41?76.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.640 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.640 306.387 m 451.628 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economist's View)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2013/06/the-great-persuasion-reinventing-free-markets-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 225.363 m 556.604 225.363 l S BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since-the-depression.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 211.107 m 157.664 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 160.664 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 207.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 189.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 189.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1441)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 188.601 m 328.316 188.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/55812)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2013/06/the-great-persuasion-reinventing-free-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets-since-the-depression.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.3117 320.9575 335.2997 332.8375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.6397 306.7015 451.6277 318.5815 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 225.6775 556.6037 237.5575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2013/06/the-great-persuasion-reinventing-free-markets-since-the-depression.html) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 211.4215 157.6637 223.3015 ] >> endobj 35 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