%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416170508+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416170508+01'00') /Title (Eating the Enlightenment: Food and the Sciences in Paris, 1670-1760) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4139 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eating the Enlightenment: Food and the Sciences in Paris, 1670-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1760)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over 40 years ago, Robert Darnton proposed to evaluate the Enlightenment from its authors? perspectives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, he observed, they were ?men of flesh and blood, who wanted to fill their bellies, house their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families, and make their way in the world?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.312 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.312 207.777 m 256.304 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 256.304 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But with what did they fill their bellies, and when, and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much? And what significance did these ?enlightened? authors give to the act of eating or preparing food? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did they perceive that enlightenment affected eating, or vice versa? On these matters, Darnton remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mute. The task falls to E. C. Spary, who promises to reveal how the high ideals of Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialized in the sciences and commerce dedicated to food production, preparation, and digestion. Do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look for recipes here ? instead, the author establishes that her subject is ?the public construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledgeable expertise? regarding food \(p. 4\). She investigates who became food experts in Paris during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th century, and what were their claims to authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We 21st-century moderns have witnessed a similar transformation in food authority in the past generation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The expansion of celebrity chefs? influence through television shows, cookbooks, magazines and product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endorsements means they vie for authority over what we eat and in what quantities with medical doctors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1442)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 June, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emma Spary)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226768861)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/E/bo13412962.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Davis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 242.3117 208.0915 256.3037 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7522 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutritionists, and public policy analysts. Recently, the Food Network?s reigning queen of southern American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cuisine, Paula Deen made a shame-faced admission that she had been diagnosed with type-two diabetes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requiring her to abandon her signature sugar- and butter-laden diet for Greek yogurt and unsweetened tea. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Kingdom, celebrity chef Jamie Oliver has taken on the monumental task of reforming school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lunches and initiating fast-food devotees into the wonders of home-cooked meals with his )] TJ ET BT 468.296 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiative, television show, and cookbook. Both Deen and Oliver contribute to a culinary public sphere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowded with experts extolling contradictory advice that seems to change daily: soy prevents cancer ? eat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more tofu! No, soy disrupts hormones ? don?t eat tofu! It?s enough to make one wish for simpler days, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eating the Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 156.680 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reminds us that those simpler days likely never existed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What experts shaped enlightened eating in the 18th century? Spary introduces us to physicians, chemists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university faculty, cookbook authors, guild masters, theologians, renowned hosts and diners, all of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made claims to alimentary expertise. However, over the course of this century, some professions won that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, while others lost ground. While Spary provides illuminating detail on contemporary debates, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes difficult to see the consequences of the contests that she describes. The book?s six substantive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters address four alimentary sites: digestion, coffee, liqueurs, and diet. This reviewer would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated a brief discussion of why these particular topics provide such a good entry into enlightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eating. Why digestion but not mastication or excretion? Why coffee, not chocolate? Why liqueurs, not wine? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacking the author?s rationale, the choices can seem random and only tangentially related to each other. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many readers, reading this book may feel like entering in the middle of a conversation. Spary assumes a high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of familiarity with key figures and institutions. It will come as a relief to experts in these fields, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt, to sidestep some of the predictable tales of 18th-century medicine or French culinary lore. But it may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put off many interested amateurs, as the text assumes a wide-ranging knowledge of theology, economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, and political philosophy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spary situates this research at the intersection of several historiographical fields. First, it contributes to book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, a field that has sought to ground accounts of European Enlightenment in the more mundane realities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of producing and circulating texts. Second, it references the history of consumption, which has highlighted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?consumer revolution? in the urban centers of early modern Europe. Third, Spary participates in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends in the history of science. Following the lead of such scholars as Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she combats a ?great man? approach to the history of science by exploring how networks of individuals from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse backgrounds created scientific knowledge through decades of debate. Applying Bruno Latour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful critique of the scientific method to food reveals how ?[f]ood practices, like scientific truth claims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can become ?black-boxed? within cultures and thereby hard to reverse? \(p. 296\). Recovering 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alimentary debates promises to open the box, enabling us to imagine other possible truths created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative authorities. Lastly, Spary engages with French culinary history, rooting culinary transformations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in broader social and intellectual movements. The research is truly comprehensive, resulting in a scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus that is a testament to the author?s interdisciplinarity and rigor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early 18th-century debates over digestion mobilized some of the leading lights of the Parisian medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faculty to develop arguments of how the human body took nourishment from food. These physiological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models then provided the foundation for ideals of consumption that influenced economic, political, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological theories. Spary contrasts the dominant chemical account against a compelling new hydraulic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of digestion. Iatrochemical models of the human body ?postulated the existence of multiple ferments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the body, controlling the various stages of digestion in the stomach, intestines, and bloodstream? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated in the early years of the 18th century \(p. 21\). In contrast, the hydraulic account of trituration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?portrayed the body as a continuous network of pulsating vessels? \(p. 29\). Motion characterized this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of bodily functions. Food moving through the digestive tract became chyle, chyle moved into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the blood, ?and blood into a subtle vapor able to penetrate the brain substance? \(p. 29\). These different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts postulated very different results from food choices, and imagined very different sources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigestion. However, digestion did not simply concern the body. Spary demonstrates how authors drew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral, social, and political conclusions from their proposals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, both iatrochemical and triturationist models investigated how the ?natural laws? presumed to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7682 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(govern digestion accorded with Catholic dietary law. In 1709, the physician Philippe Hecquet relied on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triturationist account of digestion to argue that the lean foods \(no meat or animal fats\) required by Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dietary law on Fridays and during Lent were ideally suited to nourishment of the human machine. Spary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes that Hecquet, ?presented lean foods and vegetarianism as elements of a great reformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic lifestyles, a return to an original purity of soul and body? \(p. 25\). Spary finds convincing evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linking Hecquet to Jansenist circles that supported the general reform of French Catholicism conceived of as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a return to early Christian simplicity and piety. Extending this critique from the individual to the social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hecqeut?s text also can be read as a condemnation of French elites? consumption of luxury goods and exotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicolas Andry de Boisregard attacked Hecquet?s thesis on both physiological and theological grounds. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iatrochemical account of digestion imagined that lean foods ? such as beans, grains, and fibrous vegetables ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased the bad ferments within the digestive system. There could be no doubt, argued Andry, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of Lent weakened the body and disordered its usual ferments. But this was the point, theologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking. Spary notes that Andry ?argued that God had ordained the Lenten period precisely in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humble the body by weakening it? \(p. 31\). Spary links Andry with the Molinists, those Catholics who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocated a more moderate reform of the Church by stressing ?good works and self-denial? rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jansenists? emphasis on individual piety and salvation through faith \(p. 24\). Somewhat paradoxically within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Most Christian? French king?s domains, rigorous adherence to Catholic dietary law became entwined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with opposition politics through the 1750s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spary next evaluates debates over coffee as a key site in the production of Enlightened knowledge. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what would a history of the Enlightenment be without reference to coffee? Spary digs past the facile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasantries regarding how many cups Voltaire swilled to survey the economic and cultural transformations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that opened French society up to this exotic beverage. Coffee entered France in the 17th century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolized the new exclusive trade agreements negotiated between Louis XIV and the Ottoman Empire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The French extended cultivation of coffee to their American colonies, resulting in cheaper beans perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as inferior to the Arabica varieties available through Ottoman trade. As a result, over the course of 50 years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coffee went from an exotic luxury comestible to a relatively cheap beverage accessible to nearly everyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the urban marketplace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coffee required specialized equipment to optimally roast, grind, and filter the beans for consumption, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting in the proliferation of cafs throughout European capitals. The development of cafs and caf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture has featured prominently in Enlightenment historiography, particularly since the publication of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jurgen Habermas?s thesis establishing the coffeehouse alongside salons, academies, and Freemason lodges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as sites of the 18th-century public sphere.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.648 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.648 302.883 m 247.640 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 247.640 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Spary complements this existing scholarship, adding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about the incorporation of the )] TJ ET BT 239.324 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(limonadiers )] TJ ET BT 299.660 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guild in Paris, the master lemonade distillers who ran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cafs throughout the 18th century. She reviews the connections between specific cafs and social/intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circles, investigating how caf owners cultivated their learned patrons, and relied on intellectual reputations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to enhance business. However, many caf-goers dismissed cafs as sites of learning ? these public sites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitted ?Nobles & Commoners, well-formed & flat-faced Adolescents, wits & fools? without distinction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed one contemporary \(p. 116\). Sceptics argued that although literary debates might be rehearsed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?performative space? of the caf, no genuine advances in knowledge occurred there. Spary presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing evidence from three caf owners whose own participation in the Republic of Letters was fraught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with presumed conflicts of interest between art and science on the one hand, and commerce on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand. This fundamentally challenges a central tenet of the Habermasian thesis. In both French cafs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British coffeehouses, contemporaries perceived that the ?public? and commercial nature of these sites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually limited the possibilities for rational-critical discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scientific debates return to the forefront of analysis in a chapter dedicated to distillation. Contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advances in chemical theory transformed distillation processes and commercial distillers represented their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work as participating in a bold new science. The )] TJ ET BT 269.300 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(limonadiers)] TJ ET BT 326.636 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? guild sold a wide range of hot and cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beverages in addition to coffee in their cafs, including lemonade, chocolate, cider, brandy, and ices. House-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared liqueurs proved to be very popular among consumers, and represented the master limonadier?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 233.6477 303.1975 247.6397 315.0775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7227 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise in distillation, as well as human ingenuity in making use of Nature?s bounty. Spary juxtaposes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary distillation manuals with advertisements, and treatises in chemistry to advance her argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that liqueurs ?became the focus of debates over what it meant to be enlightened? \(p. 193\). Part of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is semantic ? the term )] TJ ET BT 189.992 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(esprit)] TJ ET BT 217.328 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( referred to both distilled spirits as well as mental spirit or wit ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries made much of the relationship between the two. But mostly, these sources testify to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive reach of the 18th-century ?chemical revolution? into daily life in European cities. Advances in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chemistry promised to transform food, drink, and medicine immediately and the master distillers provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to these new products.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Spary turns to a wide array of sources to establish the contours of 18th-century debates on diet. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigates ?how the models of learning, expertise, and embodiment expressed in cuisine and alimentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chemistry related to attempts to craft philosophical identity between the 1730s and the 1750s? \(p. 195\). What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the relationship between mind and body? What diet would best support cultivation of the mind and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the pursuit of reason? She surveys cookbooks, correspondence, and contemporary essays to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some important parameters of the philosophical diet. Coffee, naturally, figured prominently, but so too did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ideal of rational moderation. What this meant provided fodder for decades of debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delving into the correspondence of the Swiss physicians Tronchin and Tissot to their illustrious patients, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spary finds evidence for how medical ideals translated into dietary advice for men and women of letters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This population faced particular challenges, combining lack of exercise with anti-authoritarian attitudes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular rich food and drink at the tables of elite patrons. Indigestion was the writer?s central ailment as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result. Both Tissot and Tronchin advised their patients to cut down on coffee consumption, increase milk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption, and to generally adopt a policy of alimentary abstinence. Spary terms this an ?impoverished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of Nature? that warned against any food beyond the most basic necessities \(p. 252\). Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommendations revealed broader political and religious agendas, Spary argues, linking the abstemious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diets to Protestant theology and republican politics. However, the links between physiology and politics, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly established in the digestion debate, remain circumstantial in this chapter. Moreover, Spary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly established that an abstemious diet could point to Catholic reformist sentiments and anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutist politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the course of the 18th century, medical advice replaced religious dietary law for men and women of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters. This signals a monumental shift in French society, begging the question of urban secularism so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly addressed by the recent work of Reynald Abad and Stephane Van Damme. This reviewer would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have welcomed more direct analysis of this shift, which surely had profound consequences for what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eaten, when and in what quantities. Did an enlightened eater consider Catholic dietary law when dining, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismiss it as mere superstition? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spary?s admirable research into the history of food sciences opens many avenues for future inquiry. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader is particularly curious to determine if Spary?s research enhances or undermines the dominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography advancing French culinary exceptionalism. Was this story of enlightened eating unique to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris? To what degree did alimentary authorities shift in Vienna, Berlin, London or Philadelphia during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century? The Republic of Letters was a transnational phenomenon, and very few discoveries remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within national boundaries thanks to correspondence and publication networks. Did trituration fare better in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moscow than in Paris? Did Venetian or Roman artists and intellectuals embrace coffee with the same fervor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as their French counterparts, and did they draw similar conclusions about the political significance of meat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption during Lent? Spary has charted a powerful methodology for reexamining the history of food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and foodways that will have long lasting consequences throughout the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After surveying 18th-century debates over digestion, coffee, taste, and diet, Spary concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[u]ltimately, this book is less concerned with how enlightened eaters consumed food than with how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stomached learning? \(p. 295\). Physicians, pharmacists, chemists and even cooks and caf keepers struggled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to establish authority over new alimentary knowledge and new modes of knowledge production. Spary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains that her own use of the term ?enlightenment? derives from 18th-century usage in which it signalled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less ?membership of a coherent intellectual movement, but rather indicated that a person had publicly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 3683 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged expertise in some domain of knowledge? \(p. 3\). This definition throws the doors open, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering Voltaire and Rousseau?s regimens alongside those championed by their physicians and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooks. All who participated in the production and consumption of food and drink in 18th-century Paris, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who self-consciously referenced the novelty of their methods or the enlightenment of their practice, figure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this history of enlightened eating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Darnton, ?The High Enlightenment and the low-life of literature in pre-Revolutionary France?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 146.012 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 51 \(May 1971\), 81?115, 82.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.328 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.328 658.275 m 340.316 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jrgen Habermas, )] TJ ET BT 153.656 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry Into a Category of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bourgeois Society)] TJ ET BT 151.004 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1962; English ed., London, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.664 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.664 629.763 m 376.652 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 604.901 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LA Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://lareviewofbooks.org/article.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 574.995 m 215.996 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.996 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/books/eating-the-enlightenment-by-ec-spary/2001320.article)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 546.483 m 519.284 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 522.284 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Literary Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.exacteditions.com/browse/327/342/35493/3/31)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 517.971 m 317.348 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 320.348 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 514.639 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 496.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 496.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1442)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 495.465 m 328.316 495.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 470.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/45090)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://lareviewofbooks.org/article.php?id=1477&fulltext=1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.288 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/books/eating-the-enlightenment-by-ec-spary/2001320.article)] TJ ET BT 34.016 412.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.exacteditions.com/browse/327/342/35493/3/31)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.3277 658.5895 340.3157 670.4695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.6637 630.0775 376.6517 641.9575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 575.3095 215.9957 587.1895 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://lareviewofbooks.org/article.php?id=1477&fulltext=1) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 546.7975 519.2837 558.6775 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/books/eating-the-enlightenment-by-ec-spary/2001320.article) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 518.2855 317.3477 530.1655 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.exacteditions.com/browse/327/342/35493/3/31) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 495.7795 328.3157 507.6595 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1442) >> endobj xref 0 40 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000004857 00000 n 0000004966 00000 n 0000005076 00000 n 0000005185 00000 n 0000008746 00000 n 0000008874 00000 n 0000008958 00000 n 0000008987 00000 n 0000009115 00000 n 0000009151 00000 n 0000009216 00000 n 0000016791 00000 n 0000016875 00000 n 0000024610 00000 n 0000024640 00000 n 0000024768 00000 n 0000024804 00000 n 0000024869 00000 n 0000032149 00000 n 0000032268 00000 n 0000036004 00000 n 0000036132 00000 n 0000036187 00000 n 0000036315 00000 n 0000036370 00000 n 0000036497 00000 n 0000036606 00000 n 0000036733 00000 n 0000036881 00000 n 0000037008 00000 n 0000037114 00000 n 0000037242 00000 n trailer << /Size 40 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37338 %%EOF