%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416023905+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416023905+01'00') /Title (Playing the Great Game: Britain, War and Politics in Afghanistan since 1839) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4356 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Playing the Great Game: Britain, War and Politics in Afghanistan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(since 1839)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historical literature on Afghanistan and the various armed conflicts fought on its soil has greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased in recent years, due to the tragic events following the American-led invasion of the country in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 2001. Indeed, the ongoing war against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Central Asia has generated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast output of popular and scholarly works on previous Afghan military campaigns, openly designed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educate both the public and political authorities on the risks and opportunities facing NATO forces in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex region of the world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.660 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.660 165.009 m 187.652 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 187.652 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These works are often entertaining and well written, presenting an easy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read but accurate depiction of recent Afghan history and claiming to offer valuable political or military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?lessons? to the current effort of the international community in Kabul and Kandahar. Edmund?s Yorke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Playing the Great Game)] TJ ET BT 151.664 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pertains clearly to this kind of ?didactic? literature, analysing in detail the four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major conflicts fought by Britain in Afghanistan since 1839 and emphasizing the role of ?excessive political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interference or simply political negligence? in the conduct of these bitter wars in the heart of Asia \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is the product of almost 40 years of research on the subject and opens with a short introduction by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brigadier Ed Butler, former commander of British forces in Helmand Province in 2006, who uses his direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1443)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 4 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund Yorke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780709091967)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Hale)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.halebooks.com/display.asp?K=9780709091967&sf1=sort_date&st1=20120701%3A20120601&sf2=lcode&st2=67351&sp1=and%20not&sort=sort_date&pge=hale&ds=Hale%20New%20Titles&m=3&dc=16)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simone Pelizza)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.6597 165.3235 187.6517 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8050 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of Afghan warfare to reinforce Yorke?s argument in favour of a clearer understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic and political blunders made by Britain in her previous military adventures on the Hindu Kush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountains. He remarks, for example, the persistence of sheer political ignorance on the complex ?tribal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tapestry? of Afghan society and the need to involve local civilians in the economic reconstruction of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, seen as the only way to resolve ?this latest, intractable Great Game? in Central Asia \(p. 7\). Yorke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concurs with these general considerations, and he aims in his study to not neglect the ?Afghan voice? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various Anglo-Afghan conflicts, and to reveal the crucial role played by ?Afghan collaborators, allies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading communities? in the success or failure of British military campaigns in the region from the mid 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century to these days. This is done clearly to underline ?the importance of the Afghan people themselves? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the creation of a new ?democratic Afghanistan? in the near future \(pp. 11?12\). He also proposes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss Britain?s wars in Afghanistan in the international context of their own time, highlighting the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic struggle between Britain and Russia for the control of Central Asia and its negative impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British civil-military relations during the various Afghan campaigns. Indeed, he believes that the inability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British politicians to ?sufficiently resource and manage? these conflicts, driven often by strict geopolitical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons, explains quite well some of the humiliating setbacks suffered by British troops in Afghanistan in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last two centuries, including the recent difficulties faced by Brigadier Butler?s men in Helmand Province \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10?11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus Yorke presents his work as ?a revisionist interpretation? of the main campaigns of the four Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afghan wars, hoping to shed ?fresh new light? upon these tragic and often controversial events \(p. 11\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this ambitious goal is never fully realized in the text, which remains instead generally stuck in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional forms of imperial military history, full of spectacular battles and romantic examples of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroism under fire. Far from being properly valorised, the ?Afghan voice? ends up quite marginalised in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular kind of narrative, mainly focused on the discussion of British martial virtues \(or tactical mistakes\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while even the interesting perspective on diplomatic conflicts and civil-military relations suffers some sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relapse in the central part of the book, partially obscured by the \(critical\) narrative of Lord Roberts? Afghan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victories in 1878?80. It does not seem to be a problem of sources, because Yorke uses with great skill a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable range of different archival materials in support of his analysis, including court martial minutes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimental records, private diaries of Indian sepoys, and oral interviews with serving British officers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afghanistan. It seems instead to be a problem of balance, because conventional military events like sieges or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battles are too often prioritised in place of other important cultural and political considerations, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key role of local Afghan collaborators in the British war effort or the constant conflict between London and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simla on the definition of British strategic policies toward Central Asia. This clearly limits the efficacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yorke?s revisionist approach, making his book more traditional than originally intended. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To be fair, )] TJ ET BT 87.332 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Playing the Great Game )] TJ ET BT 207.980 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starts very well, with a detailed and thoroughgoing analysis of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Afghan War \(1838?42\) modelled on the classic scholarly works of J. A. Norris and M. A. Yapp.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.252 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.252 286.371 m 544.244 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After having briefly introduced the complex geographical and ethnic landscape of Afghanistan, Yorke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully highlights Britain?s fears of Russian expansionism in Central Asia after the Napoleonic Wars, seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a direct threat to her Indian possessions, which resulted in various diplomatic attempts to include the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unstable but independent Afghan kingdom in the British sphere of influence in South Asia. The failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these attempts finally prompted Lord Auckland, the Governor General of India, to launch in 1838 a massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion of the country under the direct control of ambitious political officers like Alexander Burnes and Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William MacNaghten. The main political goal of the campaign was to replace the current Amir Dost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mohammad, considered too ?philo-Russian?, with the dethroned prince Shah Shuja Durrani, who was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friend and protg of Ranjit Singh, the powerful Sikh emperor allied to the British in north-west India. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well noted by Yorke, the British invasion was from the beginning ?fraught with )] TJ ET BT 419.312 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(political)] TJ ET BT 459.320 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( let alone physical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties? \(p. 33\), including the potentially hostile attitude of local peoples and inadequate logistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplies, and it resulted in a long terrible march of British and Indian troops across the deserts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountains of Sind and southern Afghanistan marked by hundreds of deaths from cholera, dysentery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sunstroke, and ?sheer exhaustion? \(p. 36\). Constantly harassed by bands of robbers and plunderers, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invading army was able to survive only thanks to the vital support of local Afghan traders, who profited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapaciously of the situation, applying ?exorbitant prices? to their provisions and reducing several British )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.2517 286.6855 544.2437 298.5655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7791 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers near to ?bankruptcy? \(p. 45\) ?The British exploiters became the exploited?, observes Yorke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poignantly \(p. 42\), and this dynamic interaction between Afghan civilians and British soldiers ? constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by ambivalent feelings of cooperation and distrust ? is one of the most intriguing and innovative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of his book, analysed quite well in all the first three chapters devoted to the fateful events of 1838?42.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a vital intercourse between Britons and Afghans reached new dramatic heights after the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation of Kabul in September 1839, which reinstalled Shah Shuja on the Afghan throne after over three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of ?bitter exile? \(p. 57\). Indeed, the early military successes of British troops against Dost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mohammed?s forces gave way to a dangerous period of political overconfidence and logistical overstretch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggravated by the faulty leadership of Burnes and MacNaghten, who antagonized with their arrogant attitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only local Afghan chiefs but even the vast majority of British military officers serving in Afghanistan. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burnes? sexual affairs with Afghan women proved particularly outrageous for the people of Kabul, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exasperated already by Shah Shuja?s corrupt government and by the cut of public subsidies coming from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian government, and it is then no wonder that he became the first victim of the great insurrection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 1841, which put the local British garrison under the weak leadership of Major-General William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elphinstone in a very desperate situation, isolated and surrounded by 1000s of furious armed rebels. Making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective use of the original journals of Lady Florentia Sale, one of the key civil witnesses of those tragic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events, Yorke analyses in detail the gradual collapse of the garrison?s morale and command structure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined both by Elphinstone?s tactical blunders and by MacNaghten?s political intrigues with rebel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders, which paved the way to its final catastrophic retreat from the city in January 1842, popularly known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as one of the greatest military disasters of the Victorian era. Indeed, the large part of the retreating column )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was literally slaughtered by the rebels on the road to Jalalabad, with ?scores of frozen, demoralized [Indian] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sepoys? deserting their units in the vain hope of salvation \(p. 135\). Although the British later avenged this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humiliating defeat with a brutal ?retribution? campaign led by Generals Nott and Pollock, which resulted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the death of hundreds of Afghan villagers and the destruction of the Grand Bazaar of Kabul, the damage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s position in Afghanistan was clearly irreversible. In the end, Dost Mohammed was restored to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afghan throne, marking the complete defeat of Lord Auckland?s ?regime change? policy, while the partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?loss of British prestige? in the region after the conflict probably contributed to the outbreak of the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mutiny of 1857, adding another negative legacy to the tragic events of the early 1840s \(p. 228\) Ironically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dost Mohammed proved a sincere ally of Britain on this occasion, refusing to side with the mutineers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining a strict military neutrality for all the period of the insurrection. For many British officers such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision was crucial for the fate of the rebellion, allowing their forces to recover from initial tactical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setbacks and preventing any serious ?embarrassment? along the turbulent Indian-Afghan frontier \(p. 229\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1878, however, war broke out again between Britain and Afghanistan, nurtured by the steady advance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian power in Central Asia. Fearing a growth of Russian political influence in Kabul, the new Viceroy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, Lord Lytton, decided to compel Amir Sher Ali to accept a permanent diplomatic British mission at his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court, designed to informally control Afghan foreign policy and to prevent any possible Russian thrust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward the Indian frontier. When Sher Ali refused Lytton?s proposals, the ambitious Viceroy literally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?bullied? the Disraeli?s Cabinet into starting a military campaign against Afghanistan, using the ?insolent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reply? sent by the Amir to Lytton?s arrogant political claims \(pp. 234?5\). As well pointed out by Yorke, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following war was completely ?unnecessary? and it resulted again in a terrible high ?price? in human lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for both countries \(p. 235\). Led by talented commanding officers like Lieutenant-General Donald Stewart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Major-General Frederick Roberts, British troops easily defeated Sher Ali?s forces, forcing the unlucky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amir to comply to Lytton?s requests, but the British diplomatic mission in Kabul led by Sir Pierre Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavagnari was later massacred by an angry mob of mutinous soldiers, provoking another British military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion of Afghanistan in 1879. In retaliation for Cavagnari?s murder, Lytton gave to his military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanders ?one of the most draconian and indiscriminate sets of instructions? in the history of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire, virtually contemplating ?total war? against the entire Afghan people \(p. 259\). These instructions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were pedantically applied by Roberts throughout his military operations on the Hindu Kush, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outrage of British public opinion at home and the dissent of political officers on the field, and it resulted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the summary execution of 100s of civilians, together with the indiscriminate burning of local villages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the widespread torture of suspect enemy soldiers. Needless to say, all this aimless violence provoked the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7675 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of ?a full-scale )] TJ ET BT 153.308 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jihad)] TJ ET BT 177.980 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 272\) against British troops, which Roberts was barely able to survive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thanks to his tactical skill and the vital help of Afghan collaborators like the Hazara and the Qizilbash, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly provided key intelligence and logistical support to their British allies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, this important example of cooperation between Afghan civilians and British soldiers is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly sketched in Yorke?s narrative, which focuses instead too much on Roberts? battles and tactical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manoeuvres, partially neglecting the political and cultural dimension of the conflict. Indeed, the participation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Hazara and Qizilbash inthe war should have been treated more extensively in the book, enlightening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical complexity of Anglo-Afghan confrontations and finally offering that local perspective on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic initially claimed by the author as one of the main aspects of his revisionist interpretation. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great public debate over Roberts? ?retributive? policies in Afghanistan should also have been discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in more detail, underlining the civil-military strain provoked by Lytton?s harsh directives on the conduct of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the campaign. The issue is worthy of attention, considering especially the current polemical debates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NATO operations in Afghanistan, and it could have provided another original perspective to the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizing the serious challenges posed by faraway ?small wars? to democratic states and the role played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the press in shaping modern political-military relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Second Anglo-Afghan War ended in 1880 with ?a political and territorial stalemate? \(p. 317\): a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amir, Abdur Rahman, was firmly established in Kabul thanks to huge British financial subsidies, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afghanistan continued to represent a serious problem for Britain, due to the general instability of the country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the constant threat of Russian expansion in Central Asia. Indeed, diplomatic tensions with St. Petersburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the region continued to dominate Britain?s foreign policy well into the First World War, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, and they reached new heights after the Bolshevik Revolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917?18, which threatened to spread Communist or anti-imperialist ideas in the Indian subcontinent.\(3\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coupled with the rise of a powerful pan-Islamic movement across South Asia and the Middle East, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed fears over the security of India led to the outbreak of a third Anglo-Afghan conflict in 1919, started )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the domestic troubles of the new Amir Amanullah, who had to proclaim a jihad against Britain to avoid a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general rebellion of tribal chiefs against his faltering political authority. Yorke describes quite well this short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and limited frontier war fought by Britain with extremely limited resources, due to the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demobilization of troops after the end of the Great War, and he also highlights in detail the ?continuing crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of morale? \(p. 347\) affecting British forces in Afghanistan, anxious to be repatriated and irritated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconclusive strategic policies of their superiors. In the end, Britain won all the battles but lost the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Amanullah was able to use the conflict as propaganda to win back the favour of several prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribal elders across the country. Moreover, the British government did not want to intervene directly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afghan affairs, due to the general decline of its political and military power after the World War, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made even some significant diplomatic concessions to the Amir at the peace table, including the formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandonment of any control over Afghanistan?s foreign policy. As Yorke points out, this hasty decision had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious consequences for the future of the British Raj, compelling Britain?s forces to fight ?another quarter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? of bitter campaigns on the North-West Frontier and allowing the development of a lawless tribal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area between India and Afghanistan open to the influence of Islamic fundamentalist ideas \(p. 355\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And such an area is one of the main theatres of operation of the current NATO campaign in Afghanistan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well outlined in the last chapter of the book. Thanks to his direct contacts with several British military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers serving in the region, Yorke is in fact able to reconstruct in detail all the main problems faced by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international coalition in its long struggle against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, including the widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption of the Karzai government and the complex ethnic nature of modern Afghan politics. Moreover, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights effectively the logistical weakness, political confusion, and strategic complacency of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces in Afghanistan, unable to develop long-term plans for the reconstruction of the country and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelled to follow blindly the aggressive policies of their American allies. This general lack of vision and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose, coupled with a faulty understanding of local cultural and political values, led to the disastrous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helmand campaign of 2006, which resulted in heavy casualties and in a humiliating retreat from the town of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Musa Qala after a series of failed negotiations with the Taliban. This last event finally compelled the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government to rethink substantially its patchy Afghan policy, adopting a more elaborate strategy of regional )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 4128 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stabilization and ethnic pacification. Despite some ?limited but significant progress? in this direction \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(399\), however, the situation still remains extremely precarious today, with the ongoing risk of a complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?political and military quagmire? not dissimilar from those of the previous Anglo-Afghan wars \(p. 406\). As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yorke emphatically concludes, ?there has never been and never will be a purely external military solution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Afghanistan problem?, and Britain should accept the main lessons of her long historical involvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central Asia and to adopt ?a long-term military containment, stabilization and development [policy]? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of a broad ?regionally based political solution? of the Afghan question \(p. 415\). One could hope that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a perceptive and constructive suggestion will not fall on deaf ears, avoiding the repetition of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloody political-military disasters of the past evoked in the pages of this complex and fascinating book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the ever-growing list of publications on the subject, see for example David Loyn, )] TJ ET BT 495.956 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Butcher and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bolt: Two Hundred Years of Foreign Engagement in Afghanistan)] TJ ET BT 378.020 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2008\); Jules Stewart, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Snow: Britain?s First Disaster in Afghanistan)] TJ ET BT 329.384 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud, 2008\); and Rodric Braithwaite, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan, 1979?1989)] TJ ET BT 310.028 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.352 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.352 572.739 m 445.340 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. A. Norris, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First Afghan War, 1838?1842)] TJ ET BT 291.680 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1967\); M. A. Yapp, )] TJ ET BT 455.660 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategies of British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(India: Britain, Iran, and Afghanistan, 1798?1850)] TJ ET BT 302.024 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford and New York, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.316 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.316 544.227 m 508.304 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the persistence of the Anglo-Russian ?Great Game? after 1907, see Jennifer Siegel, )] TJ ET BT 484.244 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Endgame: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, Russia and the Final Struggle for Central Asia)] TJ ET BT 328.376 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London and New York, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.344 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.344 515.715 m 537.332 515.715 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 500.383 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 482.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 482.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1443)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 481.209 m 328.316 481.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/53833)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.3517 573.0535 445.3397 584.9335 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.3157 544.5415 508.3037 556.4215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.3437 516.0295 537.3317 527.9095 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 481.5235 328.3157 493.4035 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1443) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000005082 00000 n 0000005191 00000 n 0000005301 00000 n 0000005410 00000 n 0000008971 00000 n 0000009099 00000 n 0000009183 00000 n 0000009212 00000 n 0000009340 00000 n 0000009376 00000 n 0000009460 00000 n 0000017563 00000 n 0000017593 00000 n 0000017721 00000 n 0000017757 00000 n 0000017822 00000 n 0000025666 00000 n 0000025731 00000 n 0000033459 00000 n 0000033564 00000 n 0000037745 00000 n 0000037873 00000 n 0000037928 00000 n 0000038056 00000 n 0000038111 00000 n 0000038239 00000 n 0000038275 00000 n 0000038403 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38499 %%EOF