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12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auckland University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.press.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/home/notices/template/notice_item.jsp?cid=534884)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auckland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca Priestley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781869407278)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auckland University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.press.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/home/browse-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books/notices/notices/template/notice_item.jsp?cid=475902)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auckland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roderic Alley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter 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.#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7376 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Controversies over nuclear issues are no strangers to New Zealand. To some this is a surprise. Often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded in the northern hemisphere as a country both remote and insular \(one of ?eternal Sundays? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playwright Alan Bennett has written\), it is a locality that at times jolts with a seismic unpredictability. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what happened in 1984 when an incoming Labour government, headed by the ebullient and unusual David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lange, introduced a ban on nuclear ship visiting. Yet in doing so it also sought to remain within a joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence arrangement which included Australia and the United States \(ANZUS\). Here the Americans insisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, to maintain a doctrine of extended nuclear deterrence, its ?neither confirm nor deny? policy about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which of its visiting ship carried nuclear weapons had to remain non-negotiable. In the event, New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand?s ban on nuclear ship visiting, its desire to remain in ANZUS, and the American neither confirm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor deny policy became points on a circle that was never squared; indeed quicker than most, Lange soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated that reality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attempts to buy time and possibly manage this contradiction were made through attempts to arrange a visit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a vessel, the USS )] TJ ET BT 135.344 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Buchanan)] TJ ET BT 184.004 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which, to all intents and purposes, was neither nuclear armed nor propelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although possibly with a capacity to deploy nuclear tipped depth charges. With Lange not saying no, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual accommodation seemed in the offing, only to be uprooted in early 1985 when Lange?s Labour Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erupted in uproar over a ship visit deemed certain to buckle an anti-nuclear policy just taken to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electorate. Somewhat naively, this policy was grounded on an assumption that ANZUS membership could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coexist undisturbed with a nuclear ban. Full appreciation of just how deeply the United States remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wedded to a neither confirm nor deny policy, intrinsic to a nuclear deterrence posture permitting no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise became readily apparent. When the )] TJ ET BT 268.952 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Buchanan)] TJ ET BT 317.612 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( visit was cancelled, recriminations flew thick and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fast: the Americans and their ever patient American Secretary of State George Shultz feeling publically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humiliated by Lange?s retraction of the ship visit invitation; Australian Prime Minister Hawke openly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparaging of Lange?s sincerity; and other governments, including Japan, now worried that the virus of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclearism could disturb security ties to the United States. Yet within the opposition to what the misguided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealanders were up to some nuances did exist. For the British, including Prime Minister Thatcher, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rift was more a matter of sorrow than of anger. Perhaps a period of quiet reflection was called for, wondered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Secretary Howe out loud, permitting the immediate crisis to blow over and allow these wayward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antipodeans to come to their senses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While not as committed to nuclear disarmament as rising backbencher Helen Clark \(later the Labour leader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Prime Minister\), Lange now rode a wave of popular anti-nuclear sentiment. This was invigorated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local resentment at American retaliation that included cutting defence, intelligence, and high level political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consultation which, eventually, led to a formal suspension of obligations to New Zealand under ANZUS. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lange?s finest hour was the March 1985 Oxford Union debate where, with oratorical panache, he won on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motion asserting the moral indefensibility of nuclear weapons. Only gradually were relations between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States and New Zealand restored, Washington?s deepest mistrust persisting until 1989 when Lange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left the premiership. Yet into the post-Cold War era the anti-nuclear policy prospered to enjoy broad cross )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party support, while in retirement George Shultz became a committed nuclear weapons abolitionist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As head of the Prime Minister?s Department, and a diplomat of considerable standing, Gerald Hensley was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an eye in the storm of these tumultuous events. All the events just described he deciphers with consummate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill. In another life he would have made an excellent historian. Like a number of his senior colleagues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding positions of foreign relations responsibility, including Frank Corner, Bryce Harland and Denis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLean \(the latter two now deceased\), Hensley was incensed by the breach with the United States. For he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his sympathetic colleagues, this was simply something that should never have happened .To these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent figures - controversially in the case of McLean as a serving official voicing public opposition - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of patient relationship building with Washington had been recklessly squandered by David Lange?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissimulation and disorganised handling of the entire episode.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not surprisingly critics disagreed: what had the much vaunted access to the highest tables in Washington )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually produced of tangible benefit to New Zealand? Was it New Zealand?s reluctant participation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(futile Vietnam War? Was it an absent American signature to this country?s long sought Comprehensive Test )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7325 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ban Treaty? Considering the damage the United States sustained with its nuclear weapons testing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Micronesia, how fully had the United States cooperated with a New Zealand?s key goal of orderly Pacific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonisation? The mixed answers to all such questions did nothing to allay the professional hurts sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Wellington?s most pro-American diplomats. The good old days of first name familiarity with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington?s movers and shakers, it seemed, were now gone forever.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attracting most local publicity since its publication has been the author?s valid claim that Lange lied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming he had no prior knowledge of the planned ship visit pending the eve of its cancellation. Here he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to circulate relevant papers to senior colleagues, did not discuss the issue in Cabinet and, to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters worse for his luckless Deputy Geoffrey Palmer, departed on an official visit to the remote Pacific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands of Tokelau where communications were problematic in the extreme. This sojourn occurred just as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis was erupting. Well described is the book?s confirmation that, to even his most loyal supporters, Lange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained an enigma ? highly intelligent, devastatingly articulate, disarmingly humorous, gun shy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confrontation, yet sufficiently disorganised to allow unseen events a chance to create new opportunities. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oddly enough that is what happened: in 1985 the French bombed the Greenpeace vessel )] TJ ET BT 457.940 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rainbow Warrior)] TJ ET BT 542.948 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auckland harbour, a year later a serious nuclear accident occurred at Chernobyl, while Gorbachev fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged to set in train the events that helped bring down the Berlin Wall and conclude the Cold War. Within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five years, the New Zealand stance had become more plausible, less isolated and, with Lange?s departure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less idiosyncratic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet for Hensley, American and Australian mistrust of New Zealand?s management of security issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted. Here his detailed, assiduous recounting of key diplomatic and political exchanges is built upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to a range of files, and an extensive range of interviews conducted with key individuals. Interestingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, Helen Clark refused to provide an interview as did Lange?s widow, Margaret Pope. Both women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were highly significant, the former in mobilising the Labour caucus to insist on the ship ban, the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly assisting Lange by shaping some of his most important speeches on the issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book has been written with an eye to history: something to stand as the true record of what actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened. Indeed it is, but perhaps in more ways than the author intended. Future historians well removed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the fire and brimstone of these events, will find this an excellent source for deciphering the internecine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic public and bureaucratic politics that helped shape these events. It provides an excellent case study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what can go wrong when a Prime Minister?s senior officials find themselves operating as if watching a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign film without subtitles. Future analysts will puzzle over why Hensley, as Head of the Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister?s Department, did not make it his business to see that details of the planned Buchanan visit were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulated in advance to relevant Ministers and their senior advisers. Or was it that he and those most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxious to avoid an outright rift with the Americans, believed that should they do so leaks would soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppurate to threaten the planned visit? Lange was not alone it would seem in keeping these plans under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wraps until the visit was sufficiently in train as an irreversible)] TJ ET BT 330.644 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( fait accompli)] TJ ET BT 396.644 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While an essential narrative, this account is not the full story. Nowhere does the book adequately describe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growing frustration that developed within New Zealand over failure to end nuclear weapons testing. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1963 petition calling for a Southern Hemisphere nuclear-free zone had previously gathered over 80,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signatures, one of the largest in current memory. That momentum did not dissipate. To growing anger, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France detonated 41 atmospheric tests in the Pacific between 1966 and 1974, with a further 148 conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underground until their cessation in 1996. Opposition voiced by the government abroad built from local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community catchments of protest. Resentment over the testing of nuclear weapons extended to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation across and, as importantly, within states through euphemistically termed processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modernisation?. An unbridled nuclear arms race, Lange told an early 1985 Wellington audience, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?thoroughly alarming?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unsung and unmentioned in this study were countless voluntary activities, organised by a wide variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local and professional bodies, and designed to end nuclear testing and foster actual nuclear disarmament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through whatever local means were available. With some inevitability that pointed to a ban on nuclear ship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visiting. This accumulation of public pressure had to go somewhere. The protest activity concerned did not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7011 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute what this book describes as ?hard left? anti-Americanism?, so much such as a condemnation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear weaponry regardless of ownership. Certainly the author is correct in discerning some anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americanism driving the anti-nuclear protest, but this was less emotive froth than a sour reflection upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam War?s painful lessons and hardening disbelief in Washington?s claims of ?trust us, we know what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are doing?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was the key contagion concern, worries in evident capitals from Tokyo to Madrid that broad segments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of public opposition might disavow nuclear deterrence as a realistic or legitimate option for their essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence. New Zealand?s sovereign act of nuclear delegitimisation came with the 1987 Nuclear Free Zone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disarmament and Arms Control Act. Of greatest irritation to the United States was its clause 9 stating that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Prime Minister ?may only grant approval? for the entry of foreign warship into internal New Zealand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waters if satisfied such ships were not carrying any nuclear explosive device. This was obviously a flat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repudiation of the neither confirm nor deny policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is difficult to avoid the tone off embitterment that the author maintains towards New Zealand?s rupture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the United States. Yet if not sooner, then probably later it was a collision waiting to happen, indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Shultz indicated that at some stage New Zealand would have to expect visiting ships would carry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear weapons. But for Hensley and indeed many others that price was worth paying to stay on board as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solid, Western-aligned team player. Hence revealing is a concluding passage \(p.299\), namely: ?However )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enticing the dreams of being free and leading the world in anti-nuclearism, the independent foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant in practice opposition to American influence. Playing on fears of being a nuclear target alarmed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant number of people and gave a small but dedicated anti-American group the chance to detach New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand from its alliance and for a time unsettle its customary pro-Western orientation?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering the foregoing, it is remarkable that the New Zealand Labour Party was once more pro-nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than it main National Party rival. Newly elected in 1957, a Labour government announced that it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate the possibility of establishing nuclear power stations in New Zealand. This initiative would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more intense than that of the outgoing National government, a finding in Rebecca Priestley's lively and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informative study about the evolution of civil nuclear policy in New Zealand. With accuracy, fairness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill she traces how the enthusiasm for radioactive materials and nuclear energy, possibly beckoning a brave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new world, soured towards denial, even condemnation of these technologies. But why did that occur?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the outset, and into the 1920s, radium was promoted as health product marketed to New Zealanders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promising beauty and an invigoration of vitality. Initially public donations helping hospitals purchase radium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for cancer treatment had, by 1929, availed a greater supply per head than that existing in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom. Gradually, however, such overselling of radium use for medical and health purposes moderated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it took another 20 years before adequate standards of protection for local radiation use were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enacted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Internationally some New Zealand scientists played an active role in the initial development of British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American nuclear weapons. Later, the British were prepared to support uranium mining in the South Island )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the development of heavy water facilities in the North, both initiatives faltering towards eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection. Remarkably the country was seriously approached by Anthony Eden as British Prime Minister for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the Kermadec Islands to the north of the country as a possible nuclear weapons testing site. Before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual rejection, this 1955 proposal was taken seriously by Empire-loving Prime Minister, Sidney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holland. Here the study notes that official opposition to nuclear testing during this period emerged no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than gradually, a key turning point coming in 1962 when a huge upper atmospheric test conducted by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans in the north Pacific proved of such strength as to light up the night skies over distant Auckland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it came to local civil nuclear research and development, parsimony and caution by central authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailed. They were unwilling to outlay the resources required to fund either the science or infrastructure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required. Without tangible reward to the national economic interest, it was argued, such commitments were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not justified. This was despite vigorous, often internationally well connected lobbying by local scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures of standing such as the late Sir Ernest Marsden who emerges as a key figure in this story. That did )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5679 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not deny the establishment of some state-funded scientific research and institutions, such as the Institute of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nuclear Sciences under the Department of Scientific Research which produced internationally reputable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcomes, including advances in radioactive carbon dating. But for local physicists, keen to exploit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rutherford name of original New Zealand nuclear research, this was never enough. Even an American offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to stump up half the cost of establishing a local nuclear reactor went begging until its eventual withdrawal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The unwelcome arrival of nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific, firstly by the Americans, then the British, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and finally and most controversially by the French impeded but did not halt pressures for New Zealand to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop a nuclear-generated electricity industry capacity. In 1978, a Royal Commission of Inquiry into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear power generation in New Zealand concluded that this was not justified until the turn of the century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perhaps even later. This investigation with its wide array of submissions convey through these pages a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling picture of the contrasting interests and agendas - then prevailing - in New Zealand with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversies that still persist over future energy development. The final chapters traverse familiar ground, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with heightened protest over nuclear weapons testing, the rift with the United States over nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ship visiting, and the way in which New Zealand?s nuclear repudiation has become embedded within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fabric of national identity and external independence. However the book?s final sentence offers a salutary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warning that New Zealand?s current nuclear free status cannot be taken for granted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cogitasia)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://cogitasia.com/friendly-fire-the-definitive-account-of-the-united-states-new-zealand-anzus-breach/)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 514.467 m 533.540 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.540 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Listener \(Hensley\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.listener.co.nz/culture/books/book-review-friendly-fire-by-gerald-hensley/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 485.955 m 444.932 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.932 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radio New Zealand)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.radionz.co.nz/national/programmes/ninetonoon/audio/2531734/book-review-mad-on-radium-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 457.443 m 540.956 457.443 l S BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new-zealand-in-the-atomic-age)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 443.187 m 183.956 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 186.956 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sciblogs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://sciblogs.co.nz/code-for-life/2012/12/12/mad-on-radium/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 414.675 m 333.992 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.992 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Listener \(Priestley\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.listener.co.nz/culture/books/mad-on-radium-by-rebecca-priestley-review/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 386.163 m 444.260 386.163 l 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