%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140919153317+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140919153317+01'00') /Title (War, Agriculture, and Food: Rural Europe from the 1930s to the 1950s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3706 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War, Agriculture, and Food: Rural Europe from the 1930s to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1950s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When comparing European agriculture in the early 1960s with that existing before the First World War, two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal differences are evident. Firstly, the productivity of agriculture in the 1960s was considerably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher, principally as the consequence of the intensive use of modern technologies such as modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machinery, fertilisers, pesticides or hybrid seeds. Secondly, agriculture in Western countries was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by deep-seated state intervention, in sharp contrast to the market mechanisms which guided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision-making of economic agents prior to 1914. In the case of the countries of Central and Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, forming part of the Soviet bloc, public intervention was almost total, to the point at which in almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of them private agriculture had either disappeared or was marginal. High productivity \(thanks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological progress\) and far-reaching state intervention thus became the two fundamental characteristics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of European agriculture in this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems obvious, therefore, that between 1914 and 1950 fundamental changes were produced in European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1445)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 4 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Brassley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yves Segers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leen Van Molle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415522168)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(268pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.abebooks.co.uk/Agriculture-Food-Routledge/8649862420/bd)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vicente Pinilla)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7085 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture which, nevertheless, have received little attention from agricultural historians, in comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the interest aroused by the transformations of the 19th century or those after the Second World War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period studied here is relatively ?obscure? in research terms, a black box within which a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exogenous shocks profoundly affected agriculture. In general, it could be said that until now this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either has not been systematically researched by agricultural historians from a comparative perspective, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these have preferred national studies, which on many occasions have not observed happenings in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The First World War, the Depression of the 1930s, the Second World War and the subsequent reconstruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted an accumulation of events which not only caused millions of Europeans to lose their lives, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffer a severe deterioration in their levels of welfare, but also profoundly changed Continental society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its economy, and therefore the existence of its inhabitants. It is thus by no means strange that agriculture was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also profoundly affected by all these factors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given this context, this book not only fills a historiographical vacuum, but also, principally, opens a door to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic research from a European perspective of events in the agricultural sector between 1914 and 1955. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Its principal merit is, therefore, to begin to provide us with a large number of answers to basic questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as: What events were the principal drivers of these changes? What was the type of interventions which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place? How were the diverse interest groups confronted and articulated to produce different results? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What elements were common and particular in agriculture in the different European countries during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation process? Yet the book not only provides us with contributions to construct answers to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions, but also throws up new questions, and as such is an incentive for further research which aims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct a common European rural history for the inter-war period. This is because the book emphasises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, although each national case was different, in all of them there are common elements which led to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European agriculture following a trajectory in which many elements were shared.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is structured in four parts \(plus an introduction and some necessary conclusions\), and uses well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined themes, although some chapters in fact cover more than one of these.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part, ?The international perspective?, begins with a study by Giovanni Federico in which, from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European perspective, the effects of the Second World War on agricultural production are compared to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the First World War. Although in the short run the fall in production was similar, from a long term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective it is clear that after 1945 growth was considerably greater, as a consequence of the acceleration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in growth in total factor productivity. In Federico?s opinion, this acceleration was linked to European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural policies of intervention, which began in the 1930s and intensified during the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the subsequent reconstruction, which concluded in the European Common Agricultural Policy \(CAP\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great questions of whether these policies have jointly been beneficial or otherwise are posed and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible answers are suggested, although the author indicates that more research is necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second article, by Paul Brassley, evaluates the impact on agricultural trade of the Second World War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As expected, the war severely affected this trade, especially that of grains, which in the case of coarse grains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fell by more than a half between 1939 and 1944. This decline in trade had important consequences for food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption. The dangers of shortage were resolved in very different ways. In Great Britain, greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic production and dietary change maintained levels similar to those of the pre-war period. Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was led to invade the Soviet Union, at least partly from the desire to have access to its food production and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force, as with other occupied countries, obligatory exports for the consumption of the German population. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the war, the United States became once more a considerable exporter of agricultural products, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the countries of Continental Europe pursued self-sufficiency in order to avoid being harmed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future by unexpected falls in trade such as those occurring during the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book, ?State regulation and agricultural policy?, concentrates on studying the impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the change in agricultural policies and their transformation following the end of the war. John Martin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernst Langthaler tackle in their chapter the cases of Great Britain and German-annexed Austria. In both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries the differences were considerable, although as the authors stress, not so extreme as has been stated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7415 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hitherto. Great Britain may be considered to be a successful case in which state intervention, organised to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure food supply during the war, permitted an increase of production in difficult times \(especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the import of inputs\). By contrast, in Austria, exhaustive state control was unable to impede a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain fall in production, although it fomented technological change. In both cases it seems clear that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural development of the post-war period was strongly influenced by the policies and systems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime intervention, as would be demonstrated by the British Agriculture Act of 1947.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Spain, studied by Juan Pan-Montojo, the period 1935?55 marks the transition from a liberal to a regulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector. What is interesting is that the first Francoist agricultural policy proved to be a complete failure, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production levels fell following the war and took almost 20 years, an unheard-of figure in Europe, to recover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its pre-war level. These poor results are explained on the one hand by an exhaustive intervention in basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products, since fixing artificially low purchase prices by the state discouraged production or redirected it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the black market. On the other, the fall in imports of fertilisers and other inputs \(in some cases, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as working beasts, this was also due to their destruction during the Civil War\) also caused falls in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production. The agricultural policy followed by Franco?s dictatorship, which in the 1940s was strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired by the example of Italian Fascism, interrupted the important agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformations which had been occurring in Spain prior to the war. The magnitude of the problems faced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country obliged the modification of the agricultural policies in the direction of promoting technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change at the beginning of the 1950s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This part ends with a chapter by Zsuzsanna Varga, who describes how the Hungarian state had already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begun to intervene in the agricultural sector in the 1930s, due to the problems caused by the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Depression, with price subsidies for the principal products, regulation of the cultivation of others and links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1931 to the German market, through the German-Hungarian trade agreement. The war, especially after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1941, posed serious problems for the Hungarian government, which had to balance rising external demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Germany against increasing internal needs. Intervention became more intensive, although its results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were meagre. This impelled even more exhaustive intervention, on occasions violent, which the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation considerably reinforced. The interesting element of the Hungarian case is that the intervention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures during the war years continued to be applied by Communist governments to ensure food supply. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Obviously, collectivisation, developed from 1950 onwards, marked an important change in Hungarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural policies, as state intervention became total regulation of the sector. The fall in production this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced led to the correction and softening of intervention after 1953 by the Nagy government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paradoxically, the repression of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 did not change the foregoing liberalising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures, but rather made Hungarian agriculture a rare economic sector in a communist country in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market forces acted, at least partially.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third part of the book, ?The state-farmer relationship?, opens with a study by Mogens R. Nissen on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly interesting, and doubtless also unique, case of Denmark. This is worthy of emphasis because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural intervention under the German occupation, succeeded, principally through the price system, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining high levels of production in order to supply Germany with food, and sizeable profits for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmers. In this way, the profits accumulated during the war permitted significant modernising investments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the decade following the end of the war. Mechanisation and the rationalization of animal production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the principal beneficiaries of investment. War profits were not distributed uniformly among all farmers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medium-sized farms gained more than other Danish farms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter in this section, by Peter Moser and Tony Varley, displays a notable contrast between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods, time periods and forms in which corporative strategies were developed in Ireland and Switzerland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the Swiss case, the problems of food supply in the final years of the First World War generated a food and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural policy whose principal objective was the reorientation of agricultural production towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic market and the food requirements of the population. The food security of the country became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal objective of agricultural policy, and to achieve this agricultural modernisation was promoted. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of this policy led to important interactions between the state, educational and scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, and actors in civil society, especially the Swiss Farmers? Union \(SFU\). The Irish case followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very different path, since the government attempted to promote agricultural modernisation by bypassing, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7041 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and frequently conflicting with, agricultural organisations, which in contrast to Switzerland received no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional recognition to participate in the establishment of agricultural policies until 1964. During the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War and the post-war period in Switzerland, the sacrifice of the autonomy of farmers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow government directives and ensure food supply, was compensated for by policies which deliberately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equalled farmers? income to that of qualified workers in rural areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Swedish experience, analysed by Cariin Martin, also displays a trajectory in which public intervention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with corporative relationships which bring Switzerland to mind, was high from the early 1930s. In this case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was once more the First World War, and government passivity faced with food problems, which produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an agreement in 1933 between the Social Democrats and the Agricultural Party when the Great Depression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to price falls. This agreement is considered to be one of the founding pillars of the Swedish welfare state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ensured guaranteed prices for milk, which would later be extended to other products. The policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established and the mechanisms of cooperation with agricultural organisations would be reinforced against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problems generated by the war. Control of foreign trade, food rationing and an attractive pricing policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiated between state, farmers and consumers, which covered the costs of production and stimulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, were the most important measures implemented. Last but not least, the aim of equal living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions for farmers and comparable categories of labour began to be developed since 1941. The influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the measures taken during the war on subsequent policy is evident, if we take into account that the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme of agricultural policy approved by Parliament in 1947, and maintained in its fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles until 1991, was based on the studies by an Agricultural Committee named in 1942, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented its conclusions in 1946. This policy was based on two principles: improved farming productivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and improved general welfare. The two were connected, since the improvement in agricultural incomes was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not merely based on higher prices, but also in greater efficiency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third part ends with a study in which Brian Short reviews the interactions during the war between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and farmers in Great Britain, with special attention to the War Ags, local committees to which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central government delegated the implementation of its agricultural policies. The study underlines how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmers ?accustomed themselves? during the special circumstances of the war to state intervention, while at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time technological and scientific advances played a decisive role in the improvement of production. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The action of the War Ags thus became a precursor of the development of post-war agriculture, marked by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher productivity, guaranteed prices and higher incomes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final part of the book, ?Rural identities?, begins with the chapter by Gesine Gerhard, which deals with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the marginal role of the Nazi years in the long process of agricultural change which Germany underwent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the end of the 19th century until 1955, when a modern agriculture with a small role in the economy as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole was already consolidated. The war is seen as an interlude from change rather than the accelerator of it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazism, nevertheless, meant an important rupture in the crucial and highly extensive role which the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed in agriculture, through price fixing and market regulation. Post-war policies diverged between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two Germanys. In the East collectivisation began in 1952 and was completed in 1960. In West Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market and price regulation was established in 1950, but agricultural policy had its keystone in the approval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1955 of the so-called Green Law, which was intended to ensure farmers equal participation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic recovery. As well as intervention in prices and incomes, the state fomented agricultural research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and education and offered incentives to favour modernisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clare Griffiths analyses the perception of farmers in the post-war years in Great Britain. Their enhanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation, with respect to 1939, was related to their role on the home front and their contribution to the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort. In this way, the Agriculture Act of 1947 can be seen as a reward for previous efforts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same theme is approached by Edouard Lynch for France. In this case the conclusion is different, since, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly due to the Occupation, an agricultural consensus constructed in the Third Republic and blessed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vichy regime, was broken. The black market and food rationing, in addition to the perception that farmers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were benefiting from the exceptional situation of wartime and the post-war period, generated increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension between town and country.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3541 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, the book underlines that the convergence of agricultural policies which the CAP achieved, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1957 until the early 1990s, was clearly determined by the events of the inter-war period. Whether this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence was the First World War \(Switzerland and Sweden\), the Great Depression \(Hungary, Sweden\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascist ideology \(Spain\) or the Second World War \(the remaining countries\), in all cases agricultural laissez-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faire was buried in these years. The events described and the problems they caused, such as price instability, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low incomes, reduced imports, fluctuations in supply or direct food insufficiency, led to a consensus in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the state played an important role in stabilising prices and markets and increasing farmers? incomes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This policy convergence made it easier for the CAP to be, in addition to a customs union, the first common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy of European Union countries, while countries such as Switzerland which have not joined it have not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed radically different policies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There have also been notable differences. In general, policies of stimulation of production through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guaranteed prices or interaction with research centres and universities have produced results which are much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more interesting from the point of view of agricultural modernisation. The most ?democratic? policies, based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the establishment of consensuses around ?national objectives?, as in Switzerland, Sweden and Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, also produced better results than authoritarian or repressive policies \(Spain, Hungary, Germany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria\). The paths taken were thus not identical but instead were profoundly conditioned by national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, this book tackles an interesting subject in an appropriate way, bringing together varied cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which help explain both the diversity and the common experience of European countries. It is to the credit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editors that their selections, the questions they have posed to the authors, and their efforts to seek in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-war years the seeds of post-war policies, have produced a soundly structured book.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 458.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 440.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 440.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1445)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 439.449 m 328.316 439.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 414.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 400.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/46777)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 439.7635 328.3157 451.6435 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1445) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004418 00000 n 0000004527 00000 n 0000004637 00000 n 0000004746 00000 n 0000008307 00000 n 0000008435 00000 n 0000008519 00000 n 0000008584 00000 n 0000015722 00000 n 0000015787 00000 n 0000023255 00000 n 0000023320 00000 n 0000030414 00000 n 0000030498 00000 n 0000034092 00000 n 0000034220 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34316 %%EOF