%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021053330+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021053330+01'00') /Title (Sen Lemass: Democratic Dictator) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4380 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sen Lemass: Democratic Dictator)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bryce Evans has written an iconoclastic study of Sen Lemass \(1900-71\), who is often considered to be one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most influential politicians in independent Ireland. Lemass fought in the 1916 Rising, participated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War of Independence and Civil War \(1918?23\) and was a founder member of Fianna Fil in 1926, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained the largest political party from 1932 until 2011. He served as Minister for Industry and Commerce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in successive de Valera governments before succeeding to the leadership in 1959. He was Taoiseach \(Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister\) from 1959?66 and is reckoned to be the architect of modern Ireland. Previous studies of Lemass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been overwhelmingly positive, but Evans?s work is more critical and revisionist.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.632 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.632 172.137 m 461.624 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.624 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there has been an over-emphasis on the period when Lemass was Taoiseach and a ?Whiggish? tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see his earlier career through the lens of this period of change and modernisation. Evans also identifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unsavoury? aspects in Lemass?s political life, suggesting that there is evidence for a lack of ethics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some corruption. While claiming that he has no intention to perform a ?hatchet job? on his subject, the sub )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title ?democratic dictator? without a question mark provides a hostage to fortune. Despite this, Evans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a challenge to previous contributions and Lemass is presented as a more ambiguous, less liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perhaps less modern figure than some versions of his life would have it. It is also a more negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of Lemass, though it seems to this reviewer that Evans?s does not satisfactorily make the case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1447)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 11 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bryce Evans)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848891227)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.collinspress.ie/sean-lemass.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cork)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Girvin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.6317 172.4515 461.6237 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7601 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lemass the dictator.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not surprising that there will be gaps in the life of a politician who protected his privacy and left few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal papers. Evans provides a nuanced assessment of Lemass?s role in the 1916 Rising, describing it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?life changing? experience for him. He concludes that Lemass was an ?active but fringe member of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IRA? rather than a central figure and on the evidence available unlikely to have been a member of Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins?s murder squad. He also questions Garvin?s view that Lemass distanced himself from the romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarism associated with the Rising, citing his role in the War of Independence and the Civil War as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter evidence. His decision to oppose the Treaty was in conflict with majority opinion and rested on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key assumption of republican ideology for the rest of the decade: that ?the majority have no right to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong?. Evans provides a detailed discussion of the murder of Lemass?s brother Noel by Free State agents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserting that Emmet Dalton, a close confidant of Michael Collins, who had been recently killed by anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treaty forces, was implicated in the murder. To my mind the evidence here is inconclusive \(or not proven in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scottish sense\) but the author does introduce some important questions that require further research. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Evans this tragic event was the making of Lemass, helping him rise up the republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His brother?s murder certainly helped Lemass to progress politically in 1923 and 1924, but Evans assertion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was an opportunist ignores Lemass?s hard work and application for the republican cause. The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-reaches himself here and neglects to establish the political context in which Lemass was operating in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these difficult years. One consequence is that Evans gives scant attention to a series of articles written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lemass in 1925 for the main republican paper )] TJ ET BT 257.972 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Phoblacht)] TJ ET BT 323.636 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He misses the key points in these articles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fails to note the internal debate generated by them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.968 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.968 485.955 m 290.960 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.960 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Lemass was arguing for a new departure and one that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would bring republicans in from their self-imposed exile outside the political system. An alternative reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this period is possible which is more nuanced than Evans?s. Lemass was by 1925 working full time in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional political environment, where principles were matters to kill or die for \(as his brother among others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had experienced\). Evans also makes little of Lemass?s 1925 call to end abstention from the Dil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Parliament\), a risky move even then. He ignores the significance of the Boundary Commission \(December )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1925\) for those realistic republicans such as de Valera and Lemass who recognised that the Free State was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stabilising and republican abstention could do little about this. Nor does he ask why Lemass developed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical socio-economic strategy between 1924 and 1926. It is true that Lemass ?had no experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic politics? by 1923 yet he displayed a degree of flexibility during these difficult years while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining committed to his political principles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The challenge for Lemass \(and others\) was how to accommodate the new state, remain steadfast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican principles and politically challenge the prevailing conservative consensus. Lemass recognised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that violence would not achieve republican aims as the state had proved more effective than republicans at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using force. Even on Evans?s reading he was sceptical of the IRA?s claim to be the ?real? government of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Moreover, the state had achieved legitimacy and even those who were critical of the Treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemned de Valera, Sinn Fein and later Fianna Fil for perpetuating the situation by refusing to enter the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dil. Lemass?s actions reflect the unease among republicans about recognising the state and this unease does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not disappear after the split in Sinn Fein and the formation of Fianna Fil in 1926. Lemass was one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founder members of Fianna Fil, becoming the honorary secretary and later director of elections. According )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Evans account this ?enabled him to accumulate the political power he craved? because ?his hunger for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power could not be fulfilled within Sinn Fin?, yet little evidence is provided to show that Lemass was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power hungry. When he discusses Lemass?s contribution to building up the new party, Evans draws the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader?s attention to his purported ?sexism? or his lack of sympathy for ?rural? sensibilities rather than to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very real achievement that it constituted. In this way every achievement is qualified and downgraded. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is room for debate on these issues, such as the claim that Lemass was not prepared to take on the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church, but they are asserted here rather than demonstrated. Some of the sources used are open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question. The author might have treated the opinions of Kevin Boland, a fierce critic of Fianna Fil after he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resigned from the party, with greater caution and scepticism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans makes a number of substantive points about Lemass in respect of the period up to 1932 when Fianna )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.9677 486.2695 290.9597 498.1495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8214 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fil emerged as the largest party and formed its first government. He corrects Garvin?s claim that Lemass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was sympathetic to free trade by the late 1920s suggesting persuasively that he was anti-liberal in economics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and protectionist in policy terms. He also argues that Lemass had had become more conservative but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained impatient with democracy. There is little evidence for Lemass?s conservatism at this time but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude to democracy is of significance. Evans rejects benign interpretations of Lemass?s declaration that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fianna Fil was a ?slightly constitutional party?, detecting a deeper scepticism with democratic constraints )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among Fianna Fil members. There is considerable strength in this charge as Fianna Fil remained an anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system party and an anti-constitutional one prior to 1932. This does not make the party anti-democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily and its stance might be compared to that of Charles de Gaulle and his political movement in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fourth Republic. The party questioned the legitimacy of the state and retained close relations with the IRA. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the first acts of the new government in 1932 was to release jailed IRA members. However, Evans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does satisfactorily explain why an anti-system party became the key element in the Irish political system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1930s and reinforced liberal democratic constitutionalism. The most remarkable aspect of Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1920s and 1930s is not that there is evidence for authoritarianism, clericalism or illiberal attitudes, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it survived as a democracy at all. Virtually every other secessionist state that emerged after the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War ceased to be democratic by 1939 and in most cases this was a result of nationalists or the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking power. Indeed, it is easy to miss how seriously divided Ireland was in 1932 and 1933. Evans offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partial account of the 1933 election, describing Lemass as a ?conspirator? and accusing him of ?shaking up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War tensions?. This takes little account of the feverish nature of the election, with the IRA and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fianna Fil members disrupting opposition meeting with the cry of ?no free speech for traitors?. This led in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn to the establishment of a right wing \(and later Fascist\) counter movement by the opposition. Not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were both sides inflammatory but they mobilised in large numbers. Yet, the tensions were resolved in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic fashion and both government and opposition recognised the need for restraint and some degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cooperation. This helped to consolidate the democratic process by 1938.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.956 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.956 467.187 m 407.948 467.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This evaluation of Lemass is incomplete because Evans does not adequately establish the wider context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, when he highlights the weakening of Fianna Fail?s social radicalism, he does not appreciate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive nature of the government?s welfare and economic policies. There are certainly comparisons with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New Deal in the United States, if on a smaller scale, and similarities with Scandinavian social democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are also possible. Fianna Fil achieved a considerable amount by 1938 and did so while maintaining fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and monetary stability without incurring debt. This was achieved in the middle of a major crisis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism while maintaining living standards at reasonably high levels. Instead of noting these achievements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans spends considerable space describing Lemass?s ambitious plans to build a new ministerial office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(block to consolidate his department. Lemass effectively transformed the Irish economy and did so in the face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of formidable internal and external obstacles. It is arguable that protectionism, state intervention in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and the welfare reforms helped to stabilise Ireland in the face of this crisis and did so while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidating democracy. This is not to suggest that every policy was justified; the economic war with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Kingdom and the clash with cattle farmers were self-inflicted wounds for ideological reasons from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the economy was slow to recover.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.640 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.640 255.603 m 243.632 255.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.632 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These issues do not seem central to Evans study, though he does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concede that ?the macroeconomic changes Lemass was able to secure in this decade appear all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable?. He might also have spent more time assessing the differences between the radical Lemass and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conservative Sen MacEntee at Finance, as this remains an unresolved matter.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.932 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.932 212.835 m 440.924 212.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the most important sections of the book \(chapters three to four\) Evans presents a more detailed case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subtitle, ?democratic dictator?. Here he uses terms such as ?dictator?, ?illiberal? and authoritarian? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without explanation, leading inexorably to the title of chapter four, ?The great dictator?. There can be little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreement that Lemass accumulated considerable economic and political power by 1938. He weakened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the influence of the Department of Finance and expanded the role of the state significantly in the economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of his policies were anti-liberal in the strict sense that they ran counter to orthodox and conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic thinking, though they were endorsed by Keynes. The policies were also introduced with majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support in the Dil and included support from the Labour Party and active endorsement by the trade union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement; indeed trade union membership increased significantly during the 1930s. There is a charge that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lemass was high-handed and that this impatience alienated his cabinet colleagues and the business )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.9557 467.5015 407.9477 479.3815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.6397 255.9175 243.6317 267.7975 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.9317 213.1495 440.9237 225.0295 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7373 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. An assessment of the balance of opinion within Fianna Fil would suggest a more complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation. As a nationalist party, members were not united on socio-economic policy \(as might be the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a socialist party\) and radicalism on the national question did not translate into social radicalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Lemass was not alone in the cabinet advocating progressive policies; he had support from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important sections of the party and externally from the trade unions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In respect of the business community, it is important to distinguish between those well-established concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Guinness who remained opposed to government policy and the new industrial bourgeoisie who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefitted from protection. But Lemass had to be cautious, and it is disingenuous to suggest that ?dialogue? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with business would have prevented mistakes. Dialogue would have given Irish business veto power over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and Lemass resisted all such attempts. Once established, native Irish industrialists wanted to restrict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further entry to sectors that they dominated and resisted Lemass?s encouragement to invest in new areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry. The specific legislation introduced by the Department of Industry and commerce was crafted with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care by civil servants, though Lemass certainly maintained control over policy direction. There is scant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for authoritarianism in the departmental records; what is there is a commitment to transferring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control from non-nationals to nationals in as many sectors as possible. It is also important to assess how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific legislation was implemented. Evans agrees that the ?Conditions of Employment Act? 1936 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive and adds that section 16 allowed the Minister to restrict or prohibit the employment of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific sectors. He links this to legislation that forced women teachers to resign when they married, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglects to note that section 16 was never invoked by a Minister.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most comprehensive part of Evans work is the account of the Department of Supplies set up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coordinate the economy during the Emergency \(1939?45\). His research on the black market is original and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informative. He is extremely critical of Lemass?s attempts to control the black market during this period and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions Lemass?s application of moral and ethical economic principles to the organisation of supplies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Lemass?s actions were often coercive, a case can be made that his firm control over rationing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excess profits secured a more egalitarian outcome for most people \(as also proved to be the case in Britain\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In view of his attitude to Lemass, it is not surprising that Evans sides with the clericalist and medievalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommendations of the Commission on Vocational Organisation \(1943\). The Commission was corporatist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in intention and its report provided right-wing and clericalist thinkers with the opportunity to criticise not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just Lemass but the industrialisation project itself and more fundamentally the appropriateness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary democracy for Ireland. It is this latter threat that provoked the fierce criticism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission by virtually every senior member of the government. Evans makes much of Lemass?s cautious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude to the Church, yet fails to appreciate that the critique of the Commission and the confrontation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Lemass, de Valera and Archbishop McQuaid on the Youth Employment Commission were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful attempts to defend the secular state against clericalist intrusion. Evans provides a careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the harsh conditions in turf camps and the lack of official sympathy for those forced to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in them. His charge of coercion is supported by the experience of the construction corps during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emergency and the compulsory tillage programme. He might have added the 1941 Trade Union Act, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced by MacEntee but bearing the hall mark of Lemass. Less persuasive is the account of the debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on full employment, though he does argue persuasively that Lemass?s policies would have been so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disruptive as to destabilise rural Ireland if not the state itself. Even less persuasive is the attempt to make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case that Lemass had a ?certain lack of ethics? and may have been open to corruption due to his close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations to the business community and his love of gambling. The discussion is unconvincing and based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans is much less assured when he deals with post war Ireland \(1945?66\). The discussion on the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lemass?s radical initiatives 1944?8, the consequences of Fianna Fil?s defeat in 1948 and his search for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new dynamic economic policy during the 1950s is disappointing. It is all the more so as the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on this period remains sparse and would have benefitted from further research. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compounded by a weak and inconclusive chapter on Lemass when he served as Taoiseach 1959?66. Evans is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware of the challenges facing Lemass after de Valera retired, yet the main aim of this chapter appears to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a critique of Garvin?s belief that Lemass was a ?cultural revolutionary?. In pursuing this theme Evans misses )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 8724 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of the drive and enthusiasm that Lemass brought to the 1960s. This section is also flawed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of errors and a weak grasp of the literature.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.604 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.604 780.819 m 294.596 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.596 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nevertheless, Evans is right to draw attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities in Lemass?s world view, especially his commitment to state intervention, albeit in a free trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment. He also distinguishes between Lemass?s Keynesianism and the more conservative influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. K. Whitaker, the most outstanding civil servant of the period. The chapter would have benefitted from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater attention to Lemass?s achievements while Taoiseach. These were considerable and include economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, Northern Ireland, Europe and the Constitution. Surprisingly for a revisionist, the author accepts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncritically that Lemass was waiting for the chance to take Ireland into the EEC since 1957. Lemass?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude to Europe was more cautious and ambiguous than this suggests. Indeed, he was indecisive on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question up to 1961, insisting that Ireland would not join the EEC unless the UK did so. What this view also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglects is that Ireland would not have become a member of the EEC without Britain?s active support. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the consequences of this is that Evans does not question the claim by Lemass?s daughter that the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Germans were prepared to veto British membership unless they left Northern Ireland. A cursory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the official archives would have provided the author with a very different view of Ireland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic and political position in respect of its application for membership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this is an interesting and at times thought-provoking study, it is not the last word on Lemass or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political environment he helped to make. Indeed, it prompts many additional questions about Lemass, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fianna Fil and independent Ireland. I remain concerned at the use of terms such as dictator without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification, as well as the rather vague and unsubstantiated charges of corruption or lack of ethics. Some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence used is open to serious question and oral testimony \(collected 30?50 years after the event\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated uncritically. Despite this and the misgivings noted in the review it is a book worth engaging with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. J. Lee, ?Sean Lemass? in )] TJ ET BT 198.320 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland: 1945-70)] TJ ET BT 280.640 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. J. Lee \(Dublin, 1979\), pp. 27?37; Brian Farrell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chairman or Chief? The Role of Taoiseach in Irish Government)] TJ ET BT 372.344 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1971\); idem., )] TJ ET BT 486.008 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sen Lemass)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 1983\); Paul Bew and Henry Patterson, )] TJ ET BT 294.992 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sen Lemass and the Making of Modern Ireland )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1945?66)] TJ ET BT 106.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1982\); J. J. Lee, )] TJ ET BT 232.004 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland 1912?1985: Politics and Society)] TJ ET BT 426.656 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1989\); John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Horgan, )] TJ ET BT 106.004 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sen Lemass: The Enigmatic Patriot)] TJ ET BT 282.668 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1997\); Tom Garvin, )] TJ ET BT 428.324 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judging Lemass: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Measure of the Man)] TJ ET BT 161.000 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2009\); )] TJ ET BT 241.664 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lemass Era: Politics and Society in the Ireland of Sen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lemass)] TJ ET BT 100.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Brian Girvin and Gary Murphy \(Dublin, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.648 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.648 346.899 m 404.636 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farrell, )] TJ ET BT 102.008 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sen Lemass)] TJ ET BT 164.336 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.336 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.336 332.643 m 251.324 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Girvin, )] TJ ET BT 131.012 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Union to Union: Nationalism, Democracy and Religion in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 478.328 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002\), pp. 63?105.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.340 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.340 304.131 m 211.328 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Girvin, )] TJ ET BT 131.012 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between Two Worlds: Politics and Economy in Independent Ireland)] TJ ET BT 458.312 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1989\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80?130.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 275.619 m 156.332 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Feeney, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sen MacEntee: A Political Life)] TJ ET BT 285.656 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2009\), pp. 60?128.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.312 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.312 261.363 m 476.300 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example George Colley was a Catholic not a Protestant, and it was independent TDs who )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported Lemass?s government between 1961 and 1965, not the Labour Party.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.624 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.624 232.851 m 500.612 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 207.989 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.ie/entertainment/books-arts/review-sean-lemass-democratic-dictator-by-bryce-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 178.083 m 531.236 178.083 l S BT 34.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evans-26772903.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 163.827 m 138.344 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.344 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 160.495 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