%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930165815+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930165815+01'00') /Title (The Medieval Kitchen: A Social History with Recipes) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4047 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Medieval Kitchen: A Social History with Recipes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is possible today to admire reconstructions of medieval kitchens at several historical monuments across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. Many of these displays have been carefully researched and tend to provide a fascinating insight into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of everyday life in the Middle Ages. The subject has, however, not received an equal level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention in the historical literature and I was looking forward to reading a whole monograph dedicated to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval kitchen. Once I had the opportunity to delve into this nicely produced book I soon realised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, that it was not quite what I had expected. This is not a book about the ?kitchen?, intended in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common English meaning as the room where food is prepared, but it is rather about diet and food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption. The word ?kitchen? is here intended to mean ?cuisine?, a more rarely used, but ? according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Oxford English Dictionary ? not incorrect interpretation of the term. My discovery mildly disappointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me, not because of a lack of interest in the subject, but rather because, unlike the kitchen interpreted as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room, a rich literature already exists on medieval food consumption \(this is summarised in chapter ten of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book\). In reviewing this book I have therefore focused on the extent to which it adds something new and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original to the current published output.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is beautifully illustrated with almost 200 pictures, many in colour; all are vivid representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1449)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 11 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannele Klemettil)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861899098)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.reaktionbooks.co.uk/reaktion/display.asp?ISB=9781861899088&DS=The%20Medieval%20Kitchen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Umberto Albarella)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7735 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval life, many well-known, but others less so. It consists of three main components ? the main text, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of helpful insets included in each chapter to focus on specific themes, and a final section of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested recipes in medieval style. The main text comprises ten chapters, which, in addition to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction and a conclusion, deal with the production and \(mainly\) consumption of bread \(chapter two\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vegetables \(three\), meat \(four\), fish \(five\), sauces and spices \(six\), dairy products and eggs \(seven\), desserts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(eight\) and beverages \(nine\). Over 60 suggested recipes are described at the end; they include a list of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingredients and some preparation instructions. The chronological focus is on the late Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(c.1300?1550\), and the area covered is supposed to encompass the whole of Europe. The author is Finnish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertook her doctoral studies in the Netherlands, and lives in England, therefore providing the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationality this book could benefit from. The book was originally written \(but not published\) in Finnish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated into English by Anne Strauss and then further edited by the author herself. Although she originally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote the book in her native language it is clear that Klemettil is very proficient in English as ? at least to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eyes of this non-native English speaker reviewer ? nothing in the prose betrays the fact that the text was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated. The writing flows nicely and it is very clear and accessible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book relies mainly on documentary evidence, though iconographic sources are also considered. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the intention, expressed in the introductory chapter \(p. 8\), to integrate the historical data with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological evidence. This, however, remains mainly a hypothetical aspiration, as references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological data in the book are few and far. The handful of examples in which the archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is mentioned are all focused on the Baltic area and all that is provided is the odd reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurrence of some animal or plant remains found at archaeological sites, rather than any interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their presence there. These results are also without citations\(an issue on which I will return later\) and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering that the only archaeological reference provided in the reading list is a PhD thesis \(!\) on medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and post-medieval Turku \(Finland\), I must assume that this is the only archaeological source that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted. It does therefore seem that the inclusion of archaeology in the book only represents a small token )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gesture ? severely limited in scope and geographic range ? towards another discipline. This is partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable, as the author is a historian by background, and clearly more at ease with the deciphering of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old texts rather than the material remains of our past. It is, however, important to make clear to the potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader that, despite what claimed in the introduction, this is a book in which the archaeological evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plays a negligible part.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The need to integrate history and archaeology partly stems from the fact that the two sources have their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaps and biases and they can thus be complementary. The documentary evidence clearly privileges accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the life of the upper classes and has limited information about foodstuffs that were not sold and purchased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and therefore did not make theirway in household accounts. Wild plants, mushrooms and vegetables from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the garden could belong to this category, as well as any other food that was produced as part of a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient economy \(which was much more likely to typify the lower classes\). The author is aware of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue and warns us, from time to time, of such potential biases. The vast archaeological literature on food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption in the Middle Ages can contribute to fill some of these gaps, but for such accounts the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will have to look elsewhere.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.992 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.992 243.603 m 182.984 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.984 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There the reader will discover that, although the archaeological evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supports some of the claims made by historians, in other cases it alerts us to the danger of relying on a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of evidence. For instance the claim made in this book that ?pork was the most common type of meat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumed? \(p. 63\) will in many areas be contradicted by archaeological data that provides information on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relative representation of different types of livestock. The claim that in Italy ?beef had to be brought in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from abroad? \(p. 63\) will also be seen with great scepticism by archaeologists who will have studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innumerable cattle bones from archaeological sites across the region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At its onset the book appears to have a core message to provide. Basically, the author claims that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notorious eating excesses of the medieval upper classes have been exaggerated and that there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abundance of food \(apart from times of famine\) available to all social classes, including the peasantry. In her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own words, ?a peasant in the Middle Ages did not eat a great deal worse than his master landlord? \(p. 11\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?under normal circumstances the difference between the diet of lesser noblemen and that of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labourers was not particularly significant? \(p. 13\). It is worth highlighting the caution of the author in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.9917 243.9175 182.9837 255.7975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8398 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving open the possibility that the diet of the highest echelons of the society may indeed have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially different. Even so, the basic argument is interesting and not entirely uncontroversial, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been worth exploring it further. This is, however, a problematic aspect of this book on two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different levels, which are both worth exploring in some detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first problem is that an editorial choice was made not to include in-text references. This means that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the fact that there are no reasons to believe that the book is less than thoroughly researched, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no opportunity to verify that there are any solid foundations behind any statements that are made. This does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessarily weaken Klemettil?s argument, but leaves it in the realm of generic opinions. Whether her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement is justified or not, we cannot say, as no verifiable evidence is presented in its support. To make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things even more complicated there is some important literature on diet in the Middle Ages which does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily contradict Klemettil?s argument, but does not support it either. For instance Montanari?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the medieval peasantry in Italy )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.988 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.988 626.259 m 213.980 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.980 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Dyer?s work on the life of the lower classes in England )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.252 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.252 626.259 m 520.244 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide useful insights in the everyday struggle for survival that could characterise the less well-off from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval society. At the other end of the social spectrum, Woolgar?s account of the diet of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 74.360 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 74.360 583.491 m 88.352 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 88.352 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Harvey?s complementary evidence of the clergy )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.940 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.940 583.491 m 360.932 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.932 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( indicate that a sustained wealth of food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources, beyond those that could ever be afforded by the lower classes, was indeed possible. Sumptuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banquets comprised of an endless list of exotic and unusual food items only represented occasional events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the everyday consumption of food by the upper classes seems unlikely to have been modest, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included a remarkable amount of meat. This is another area in which the oversight of the archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence appears painfully evident. Results from excavations of high status sites, such as castles and manor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses, indicate that venison was regularly consumed, while deer bones are rare in towns and villages. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same applies for several species of wild birds and freshwater fish, whose procurement was also restricted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.008 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.008 469.443 m 86.000 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second issue with Klemettil?s point is that, after having stated in the introductory chapter that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were no substantial differences in the type of food consumption across medieval society, this claim fizzles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in the rest of the book, where the presented evidence can even be used to contradict the original point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance, at different points in the book it is stated that some food items ? spices being the most obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example \(p. 90\) - would have to be imported and, as such, they were expensive and therefore only affordable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the wealthy few. This must have unquestionably contributed to a different taste in the cuisine of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social classes. Some foods \(varying obviously across geographic areas\) also appear to have been identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the poor; these include porridge \(p. 41\), pasta \(p. 44\), cabbage, beans and lentils \(p. 53\). The overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more meaty diet of the rich is also recognised at various points in the book \(for example, pp. 51, 54, 63\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooking practices also varied and it is for instance pointed out that roasting on an open fire was mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practiced in the kitchens of the upper classes, and ?the handling of roasts was part of the education of upper-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class youths? \(p. 72\). The great cost of fresh fish \(pp.78, 80\) also means that preserved fish was all peasants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could generally afford, while oysters, like today, were regarded to be a luxury item \(p. 82\). Returning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spices, it is interesting to read that the poor had their own surrogates, such as juniper berries and garlic \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(92\), while imported spices such as pepper, saffron, ginger and cinnamon were generally beyond their reach. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fruits and nuts were also often imported, particularly in northern countries, raising thus their cost and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making them difficult to afford for the peasantry who, in the north at least, had to be content with apples and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pears \(p. 117\). Almond milk is mentioned throughout the book as an important cookery item but, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the high cost of almonds in countries where they could not be produced locally, it is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine it being much used in the cuisine of the lower classes. In short, plenty of evidence is provided that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestive of substantial differences in the diet of rich and poor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the book is slightly biased towards evidence from northern countries, this is at the same time its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength, as literature in Finnish is made available to a readership who would by and large find such sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaccessible. Remarkably, the story that emerges from the Nordic countries is not that different from the rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Europe, though northern regions would have had a smaller range of local products than the South. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late medieval period Europe lived in an economic climate that was already much affected by market forces. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trade was widespread, and those who could afford them had access to a great variety of products. As a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 199.9877 626.5735 213.9797 638.4535 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.2517 626.5735 520.2437 638.4535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 74.3597 583.8055 88.3517 595.6855 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.9397 583.8055 360.9317 595.6855 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 72.0077 469.7575 85.9997 481.6375 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6684 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence, across Europe there were remarkable similarities in the diet of the upper classes \(p. 28\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that in order to identify regional cuisines it may be more promising to look at the food habits of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower classes. Both historical and archaeological research on medieval diet requires greater efforts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international comparisons and this book provides some interesting leads that have the potential to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all I consider this book to cover part of the same ground as other ?semi-popular? volumes on past food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(habits, but it also has a sufficient element of originality to make it stand out from the existing literature. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition of recipes at the end of the book is probably a marketing strategy devised to make the book more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing to the general public, and they probably add little of interest to the more academically inclined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader. The lack of references \(apart from a generic reading list at the end\), the insufficient integration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different lines of evidence and the oversight of some major academic literature on the topic \(admittedly vast\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are probably the major shortcomings of the book. In sum, if one is looking for a book on medieval diet that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has nice pictures, many interesting anecdotes and a fluent and readable prose, this volume is ideal. For an in-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth and authoritative analysis of food consumption in the Middle Ages it is, however, necessary to look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition,)] TJ ET BT 291.680 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Christopher Woolgar, Dale Serjeantson and Tony )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waldron \(Oxford, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.652 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.652 503.715 m 238.640 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massimo Montanari, )] TJ ET BT 167.012 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Alimentazione Contadina nell?Alto Medioeveo)] TJ ET BT 404.672 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Napoli, 1979\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.328 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.328 489.459 m 538.316 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Dyer, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages. Social Change in England )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c.1200?1520,)] TJ ET BT 129.344 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.664 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.664 460.947 m 280.652 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Woolgar, )] TJ ET BT 171.668 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Household in Late Medieval England,)] TJ ET BT 406.652 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.956 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.956 446.691 m 556.616 446.691 l S BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 432.435 m 90.344 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Harvey, )] TJ ET BT 146.312 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living and Dying in England 1100?1540: the Monastic Experience,)] TJ ET BT 472.616 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 403.923 m 118.004 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Umberto Albarella and Simon Davis, )] TJ ET BT 245.996 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mammals and Birds from Launceston Castle, Cornwall: Decline )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Status and the Rise of Agriculture,)] TJ ET BT 241.688 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(York, 1996\); Naomi Sykes, )] TJ ET BT 384.008 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Norman Conquest: A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zooarchaeological Perspective,)] TJ ET BT 217.328 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2007\); Richard Thomas, )] TJ ET BT 384.968 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Animals, Economy and Status: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Integrating Zooarchaeological and Historical Data in the Study of Dudley Castle, West Midlands )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(c.1100?1750\), )] TJ ET BT 140.336 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.984 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.984 332.643 m 269.972 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1225718.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 277.875 m 293.336 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.336 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 274.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 256.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 256.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1449)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 255.369 m 328.316 255.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 230.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/45086)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1225718.ece)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6517 504.0295 238.6397 515.9095 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.3277 489.7735 538.3157 501.6535 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6637 461.2615 280.6517 473.1415 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.9557 447.0055 556.6157 458.8855 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 432.7495 90.3437 444.6295 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 404.2375 118.0037 416.1175 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.9837 332.9575 269.9717 344.8375 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 278.1895 293.3357 290.0695 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1225718.ece) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 255.6835 328.3157 267.5635 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1449) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004735 00000 n 0000004844 00000 n 0000004954 00000 n 0000005063 00000 n 0000008624 00000 n 0000008752 00000 n 0000008836 00000 n 0000008920 00000 n 0000016708 00000 n 0000016738 00000 n 0000016866 00000 n 0000016902 00000 n 0000017014 00000 n 0000025465 00000 n 0000025495 00000 n 0000025623 00000 n 0000025659 00000 n 0000025689 00000 n 0000025817 00000 n 0000025853 00000 n 0000025883 00000 n 0000026009 00000 n 0000026045 00000 n 0000026075 00000 n 0000026203 00000 n 0000026239 00000 n 0000026269 00000 n 0000026395 00000 n 0000026431 00000 n 0000026571 00000 n 0000033308 00000 n 0000033436 00000 n 0000033491 00000 n 0000033619 00000 n 0000033674 00000 n 0000033802 00000 n 0000033857 00000 n 0000033985 00000 n 0000034040 00000 n 0000034166 00000 n 0000034221 00000 n 0000034348 00000 n 0000034403 00000 n 0000034531 00000 n 0000034586 00000 n 0000034713 00000 n 0000034819 00000 n 0000034947 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35043 %%EOF