%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828184743+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828184743+01'00') /Title (Imagining the King's Death: Figurative Treason, Fantasies of Regicide, 1793-1796) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4334 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Imagining the King's Death: Figurative Treason, Fantasies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Regicide, 1793-1796)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dreaming about the royal family is a recognized historical phenomenon. In 1972 )] TJ ET BT 424.952 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Masters devoted an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entire book to exploring it . Fifty per cent of the dreams he collected involved having tea with one or other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member of the family. A minor and darker aspect of the phenomenon is the premonition in dreams of royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaths. But imagining the king's death is a far more complex business than merely dreaming it, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagining the king's death is the project of the latest book by Professor John Barrell.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.808 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.808 264.801 m 453.800 264.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Barrell has been at the forefront of interdisciplinary history in recent years, equally at home in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields of poetry, painting, literature and history. His latest book, which involves all these disciplines, takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him also into the field of law. Oxford University Press have allowed him a generous length \(737 pages\) plus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19 illustrations and footnotes at the bottom of the page to pursue his investigations into the change in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition and understanding of treason in just three years \(1793-1796\) at the end of the eighteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No sign of publishers' 'dumbing down' here and God bless them for it. Professor Barrell has repaid them with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a work that is formidably scholarly but compulsively readable, meticulously researched \(55 pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography\) and subtly argued.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His book is divided into four sections, titled respectively 'Sad Stories' dealing with the fantasies of regicide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoked by the death of King Louis XVI, 'The Invention of Modern Treason' on the trials of radicals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers in 1794, 'Alarms and Diversions' on the threats to the safety of King George III, and 'Phantoms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imagination' on the debates surrounding the Treasonable Practices Act.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(145)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Barrell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(754pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffrey Richards)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.8077 265.1155 453.7997 276.9955 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8709 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In what has recently become a primary consideration for historians, he begins with a lucid and instructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of language, and the way in which it became a battleground, a subject that has previously been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in depth by)] TJ ET BT 133.004 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Steven Blakemore and Olivia Smith.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.332 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.332 754.563 m 326.324 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.324 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It all has a very topical ring. One work)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Political Dictionary for the Guinea-less Pigs)] TJ ET BT 260.012 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provided a glossary of words regularly used by the Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister, William Pitt, "to conceal the corrupt intentions of his government". We are here almost in New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour territory for which my Lancaster colleague )] TJ ET BT 280.280 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Norman Fairclough has just produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic analysis, claiming something similar.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.696 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.696 697.539 m 274.688 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many radicals in the 1790s claimed that the conflicts of the period ware at bottom conflicts over the precise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of words such as constitution, liberty and equality. The words at the heart of Barrell's discussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are 'imagination' and 'imaginary', words which were, he tells us, part of the common vocabulary of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion in the decade before the French Revolution. In the 1790s the word 'imagination' functioned as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('sign by which all the apprehensions and misapprehensions of the opponents of the revolution in France, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform at home, could be epitomised,' \(p.8\), or at least until 1798 when the alarms of loyalists which for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years had been represented by reformers as 'imaginary' were more generally allowed to have become based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on reality. 'Imagination' was a pejorative word, taken to mean something hysterical, unbalanced and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrational, and as such was applied to both supporters and opponents of revolution. Indeed the term was used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to attack both Edmund Burke's )] TJ ET BT 185.168 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reflections on the Revolution in France)] TJ ET BT 376.148 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Tom Paine's )] TJ ET BT 461.636 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rights of Man)] TJ ET BT 550.640 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Barrell's book, and in his contention, 'imagination' is the crucial linguistic pivot upon which a change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the treason laws takes places. The 1351 Statute of Treasons specified seven different offences which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounted to high treason. The first was 'when a man doth compass or imagine the death of our lord the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King'. In this context, both words mean to design or intend. By the 18th century 'imagine' had come to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on its modern meaning-to picture in the mind. The precise meaning of 'imagination' thus came to figure at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the centre of debates about treason in the 1790s as the government sought to extend the application of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treason charges to the radicals and reformers and they sought to resist this extension.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The object of the law's solicitude underwent a transformation during the reign of King George III as Linda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colley, )] TJ ET BT 72.020 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marilyn Morris and Simon Schama have all convincingly argued.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.984 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.984 390.675 m 400.976 390.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.976 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( King George III and Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlotte became the epitome of respectable bourgeois values, rejoicing in family life with their large family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and being painted with that family to stress domestic virtue. George III achieved that combination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary and the extraordinary that came to characterize the monarchy: the family as symbol of decent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class values \(modesty, duty, thrift, good works\) and the crown as symbol of the nation celebrated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular ritual and ceremonial. The fact that )] TJ ET BT 242.624 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 292.292 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could say when George III died in 1820 that 'It is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important truth that most of the qualities which George III possessed . were imitable and attainable by all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes of mankind' indicates how well-established was this view of the crown as domesticated and super-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.672 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.672 276.627 m 91.664 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.664 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This transformation in the image of monarchy served to enhance concern about threats to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life of the King, a concern reinforced by depictions of the last days of Louis XVI. For as Barrell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, illustrations, engravings and accounts of the events leading up to Louis' execution, the parting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his family and the preparation for death, consistently depict him as a father and imbue him and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family with private and domestic virtues. In these circumstances, it is difficult to accept him as anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than a blameless Christian martyr. It is worth reflecting that exactly the same process occurred around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts and depictions of the deaths of King Charles I and Czar Nicholas II of Russia, their errors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misdeeds submerged in an aura of violated domesticity. Barrell argues with considerable validity that in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period from 1788 to the mid-1790s, the institution of monarchy had become so heavily invested in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of sentiment that it heightened both the fears of loyalists and the fantasies of radicals. Barrell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully analyses a plethora of songs, poems, handbills and pamphlets inviting the readers to envisage the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death of kings. But he asks if regicidal imaginings meant a desire to establish a republic at once and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes - as other scholars have - that there was a distinct lack of unanimity in radical circles on the future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the monarchy. There were revolutionists who wanted the immediate violent overthrow of the monarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the established order. There were evolutionists who saw the republic as the eventual goal to be reached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after a long, slow process of popular education and enlightenment. There were transformationists who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that the monarchy should be retained but should become elective. There were millenarians who )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.3317 754.8775 326.3237 766.7575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.6957 697.8535 274.6877 709.7335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.9837 390.9895 400.9757 402.8695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6717 276.9415 91.6637 288.8215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7559 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed and expected that the reign of earthly monarchs would shortly be replaced by the kingdom of Christ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on earth. Barrell concludes that the majority of regicidal imaginings would carry the connotation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition of the monarchy. But they were, as he admits, 'a small number and largely confined to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolis' \(p. 124\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Two of the book is devoted to a detailed examination of the succession of treason trials in 1793-4, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal arguments advanced on both sides and the extensive pamphlet literature engendered. The leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical groups, such as the Society for Constitutional Information \(SCI\) and London Corresponding Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(LCS\), were pressing for constitutional reform, planning conventions and endorsing the views of Tom Paine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The government was particularly alarmed by a general convention of the Friends of the People in Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held in Edinburgh in 1793 and attended by delegates from the English radical societies. This convention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which deliberately modelled itself in style, structure and language on the French National Convention, led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charges being laid against seven men who were accused of planning 'to subvert the limited monarchy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free constitution of Britain, and to substitute in its place, by intimidation, force and violence, a republic or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy, as wild, as cruel, as despotic, and as abominable as that which at this moment desolates France'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were charged not with treason but with sedition, because the prosecution did not believe a treason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charge would stick. But the word treason occurs repeatedly throughout the proceedings and Barrell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that we are at the beginning here of the transformation of the nature of treason charges.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three of the defendants were found guilty and sentenced to fourteen years' transportation. But most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defendants in the subsequent trials, Thomas Walker in Lancaster, Thomas Hardy, John Thelwall and John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Horne Tooke in London were acquitted. But Barrell traces with infinite care every nuance and every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic shift as the government's lawyers seek to extend the meaning of 'imagining the King's death' to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompass any conspiracy to overthrow the constitution and the defence lawyers seek to resist this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension. It was the difficulty of making this extension that was to lead to the passing of the Treasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Practices Act in 1795, which superseded the 1351 Act, and redefined treason in the way the government had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been seeking to do in the trials.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The political context of all this is that the government claimed that the radical societies were secretly arming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and were now actively plotting the overthrow of monarchy and constitution. A secret committee of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Commons concluded that the leaders of the reform societies had been 'imagining the King's death', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the radical leaders were arrested. The question is how far were these fears justified? Barrell thinks the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fears were misplaced. The LCS had no more than 800 members and very few weapons. Many of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that there was a conspiracy thought it impracticable and doomed to failure. But Barrell depicts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government as seeking out occasions to give effect to the definition of treason. There was the 'Pop-Gun Plot', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a conspiracy by two LCS committee members to assassinate the King with an airgun capable of discharging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a poison arrow. Barrell believes that this was fabricated by disaffected LCS members and deliberately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated by William Pitt in order to 'literalize' his redefinition of the charge of treason. It was then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dropped when the case proved too flimsy. The pamphlets of millenarian prophet Richard Brothers, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predicted to death of George III, were another vehicle for 'imagining the King's death'. But Brothers was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrested and questioned by the Privy Council, certified insane and committed to a madhouse. Finally, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day of the state opening of parliament the King's coach was mobbed and shot at and after he had left it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed. This was the catalyst the government needed to put through the Seditious Meetings Bill, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulate public meetings such as those of the LCS and the popular debating societies, and the Treasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Practices Bill which effectively defined treason as any threat to the King, the throne, the realm or parliament. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These acts, argues Barrell, effectively tamed the radical authors and booksellers and terminated the debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the meaning of treason, which would 'never again be the subject of the kind of argument, fervent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventive, paradoxical, often flippant but always deadly serious, that had characterized so much political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal debate in the two years from January 1794 to December 1795' \(p. 603\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Barrell has given us what is probably a definitive analysis of the debates, legal arguments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets and literary squibs surrounding the treason debate. But what does it amount to in the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political context? There was a time when the great burst of radical activity in the 1780s and 1790s was seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in effect as an English revolution. It was )] TJ ET BT 230.984 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.P. Thompson in his enormously influential )] TJ ET BT 449.660 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 35.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Working Class )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7923 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1963\), who argued that the period from the 1790s to the 1830s, saw the emergence, )] TJ ET BT 441.272 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the wake of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution, of a working class consciousness that was radical, revolutionary and republican, hostile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to monarchy and aristocracy and committed to equal rights, representative institutions and popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.660 752.307 m 103.652 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.652 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That interpretation has been considerably modified in recent years. The radical activity is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now regarded by many, though not all, historians as far more limited in extent and effect. Thompson, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently admitted, underestimated the countervailing importance of religion, loyalty to the crown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotic hostility to the French within the working class. And )] TJ ET BT 333.008 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Craig Calhoun in )] TJ ET BT 418.676 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Question of Class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Struggle )] TJ ET BT 77.684 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1982\) challenged the whole basis of Thompson's argument by claiming with a good deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification that Thompson merely charted the rise and fall of the radical English artisan and not the making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the English working class at all.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.336 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.336 666.771 m 214.328 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 214.328 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Calhoun argued that many of the discontents Thompson saw as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations of radical class consciousness were better interpreted as affirmations of an older and tradition-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based populism, which was conservative rather than radical. How else was one to explain why a movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently so radical and republican should be appealing and petitioning so constantly to the King?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerald Newman has taken this even further and argued persuasively that the radical movement was divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that mainstream radicalism, populist, monarchist, anti-aristocrat, anti-foreign and anti-republican, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed from specifically English rather than French influences and was a movement not just for political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but moral, social and cultural reform, strongly nationalist and compatible with both the monarchy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican Church. The strand of the movement which was atheist, cosmopolitan, republican and Francophile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was therefore peripheral.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.632 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.632 526.467 m 167.624 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So it may well be that Barrell is dealing with a minority of a minority. It might be asked, as indeed )] TJ ET BT 510.320 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCalman, whose excellent book )] TJ ET BT 200.324 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Underworld )] TJ ET BT 302.324 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes up the story at the point at which Barrell stops, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does ask of himself:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why write about a circle of radicals whom a variety of historians have dismissed as harmless cranks or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destructive loonies? Certainly they were obscure, numerically few and sometimes silly. For most of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period they probably numbered around sixty dedicated activists, fanning out in post-war years to 200-300 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed followers and perhaps 2000-3000 attendees of meetings. Apart from some intermittent provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links, their influence was confined to the metropolis, and - like most London radical groups - they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronically fissiparous )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.000 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.000 347.907 m 152.000 347.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.000 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He answers his own question by saying that they are intrinsically interesting as a small but continuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary-republican underground, that they intersect with plebeian culture and with crime, and that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a fascinating sidelight on the rough/respectable cultural divide. Some though not all of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments apply to Barrell's subjects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But what is remarkable about the laws the government passed to remedy the defects in the treason laws is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their subsequent fate. The Seditious Meetings Act was due to run for only three years and it was rarely used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Treasonable Practices Act only until the death of George III, and it was never used. So was there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever a threat to the King and the constitution? Barrell argues that most of the threats were chimerical and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government deliberately exaggerated them in order to increase its powers. This was the view argued at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time by the radicals and the opposition. But the effects the government went to ensure the successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosecution of radicals suggests that they had real fears. It should not be forgotten that in France 'the Terror' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was raging, the King and Queen and great sections of the aristocracy had been beheaded and that it only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed one well-aimed bullet to put an end to the life of the British monarch. It would be criminally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irresponsible and complacent for the government to sit back and do nothing. There was a policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression which saw the Habeas Corpus Act suspended, 200 men prosecuted for sedition and the clutch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts passed to punish such sedition. But radicals and reformers were just as much victims of internal splits as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external attacks, and Pitt's repression was a far cry from 'The Terror' across the Channel. Reading Barrell's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account puts one in mind of the McCarthyite period in America. There was a policy of repression, liberals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed that there was no real threat but the release of information from post-Soviet Russia has revealed that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.6597 752.6215 103.6517 764.5015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.3357 667.0855 214.3277 678.9655 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.6317 526.7815 167.6237 538.6615 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.9997 348.2215 151.9997 360.1015 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 6473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while many of McCarthy's victims were innocent, some of the victims of the repression were genuinely spies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and subversives. It is easy enough to assume that the authorities are always in the wrong when they crack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down-but sometimes there really is a threat to the constitution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 706.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 676.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Masters,)] TJ ET BT 134.672 676.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Dreams About H.M. the Queen and Other Members of the Royal Family)] TJ ET BT 484.616 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blond and Briggs, 1972.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.688 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.688 660.531 m 235.676 660.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Blakemore, )] TJ ET BT 158.336 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burke and the Fall of Language: the French Revolution as Linguistic Event)] TJ ET BT 521.312 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover, NH, University Press of New England, 1988, and Olivia Smith, )] TJ ET BT 419.312 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Language )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1791-1819)] TJ ET BT 116.012 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1984.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.992 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.992 617.763 m 327.980 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Fairclough,)] TJ ET BT 161.336 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( New Labour, New Language?)] TJ ET BT 308.348 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, Routledge, 2000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.012 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.012 603.507 m 494.000 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837, New Haven and London: Yale University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1992; Marilyn Morris,)] TJ ET BT 203.012 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The British Monarchy and the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 443.324 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New Haven and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Yale University Press, 1998; Simon Schama, 'The domestication of majesty: royal family )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraiture, 1500-1850', )] TJ ET BT 180.824 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Interdisciplinary History 17 )] TJ ET BT 371.156 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Summer 1986\), pp. 155-183.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.812 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.812 546.483 m 553.808 546.483 l S BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 532.227 m 78.008 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colley, )] TJ ET BT 102.020 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(op.cit)] TJ ET BT 129.020 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. p. 232.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.020 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.020 517.971 m 222.008 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.P. Thompson,)] TJ ET BT 141.356 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 345.692 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1982.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.016 503.715 m 548.012 503.715 l S BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 78.008 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Thompson's modification, see Thompson,)] TJ ET BT 284.840 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Making)] TJ ET BT 324.500 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 916; Craig Calhoun, )] TJ ET BT 443.168 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Question of Class )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Struggle)] TJ ET BT 104.684 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Oxford, Blackwell, 1982.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.000 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.000 460.947 m 286.988 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerald Newman, )] TJ ET BT 148.988 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of English Nationalism, 1740-1830)] TJ ET BT 362.336 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1987.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 432.435 m 145.004 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iain McCalman, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Underworld: prophets, revolutionaries and pornographers, 1795-1840)] TJ ET BT 526.328 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.668 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.668 403.923 m 339.656 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