%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075820+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075820+01'00') /Title (Turning the Tables: Restaurants and the Rise of the American Middle Class, 1880-1920) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4080 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Turning the Tables: Restaurants and the Rise of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Middle Class, 1880-1920)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this book Andrew Haley offers an innovative account of changes in restaurants and their customers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of dining out in America is not simply a story about increasing culinary options but rather one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that features frequent shifts in social class representation and cultural preference. Haley presents the results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of thorough research into where Americans ate, how dining was discussed in newspapers and magazines, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the search by moderately well-off people for interesting, affordable food. At the same time, however, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments and conclusions are wedded to a simplistic opposition between democracy and snobbery. Rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people are caricatured as fatuous toffs who might as well be wearing top hats and sporting monocles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalling the comedies of my 1950s youth \(the non-American reader will forgive these parochial examples\): )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatsworth Osborne Jr. from the Dobie Gillis television show, or Mr. Lodge from the Archie comic-strip. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Opposing them are bold middle-class diners presented as 'an unlikely group of cultural insurgents' \(p. 8\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battling against the Francophile aristocracy to win a place for coffee shops and chop suey.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result is an indispensable but puzzling, even frustrating, history of restaurants in the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1880 and 1920. Intriguing questions are posed in )] TJ ET BT 314.648 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turning the Tables)] TJ ET BT 405.992 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: What cuisines were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1451)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 18 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew P. Haley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780807834749)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of North Carolina Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.uncpress.unc.edu/browse/book_detail?title_id=1899)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapel Hill, NC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Freedman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7271 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestigious? Under what circumstances have women been welcomed at restaurants? What settings and what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of formality have tended to succeed commercially? )] TJ ET BT 317.936 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turning the Tables)] TJ ET BT 409.280 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is new because the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Haley calls the middle-class restaurant is indeed an important social-historical development, one which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has never before been discussed in such detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There had always been taverns and inns to cater to travelers, drinkers and others who did not regard dining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a destination experience. However, beginning in the 1830s fancy restaurants, with gracious service, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(menus and choices, served well-off diners whose tastes were modeled on those of France. Before 1880 there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was little in the way of mid-level eating establishments between elegant restaurants and bleak workingmen's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cafes or oyster bars. The decades after 1880 saw the proliferation of options for the growing managerial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional class whose members were uncomfortable in the over-refined atmosphere of Delmonico's, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who wanted something nicer than the rough and tumble of coarse eating houses. The new types of middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class establishments included what would now be called ethnic restaurants ? notably German, Italian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese eateries, but also steakhouses and light lunch spots especially favored by women \(or at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended for them\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haley emphasizes the conscious choices made by the middle class, taking issue, therefore, with those such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey Levenstein who see average Americans as easily manipulated by food corporations and nutritional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experts. Rather than attributing new tastes for lighter and more varied food to urbanization, gender roles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health campaigns or manufactured demand, Haley praises his middle-class diners for their egalitarian spirit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thoughtful opinions. Haley's middle class is not the passive object of schemes of health experts or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopolistic food companies to change consumption patterns; rather it consists of canny and alert customers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who change consumption and life-style according to their own desires. This is the major point of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Praising the American middle class and giving it more agency than other historians do, Haley presents its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members as admirable but rather severe people who consistently want restaurants that are home-like, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpretentious and economical. On the contrary, it seems to me, during the last 125 years Americans of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modest affluence have adored restaurants with flash and gimmicks including attractions such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretentiousness, ostentation, dancing, music, and exotic decor. They have patronized Tiki restaurants; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roadside establishments shaped like wigwams, coffee-pots or chickens; drive-ins served by car-hops on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roller skates; so-called continental restaurants with huge leatherette menus; Benihana of Tokyo \(featuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comical tableside Japanese chopping and cooking\); Outback Steakhouse \(pseudo-Australian bonhomie\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hooters \(scantily-clad waitresses \)... The patrons of these restaurants are seeking not simplicity but spectacle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at cheap prices and in a friendly, informal atmosphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the austere virtues of the middle class are exaggerated, so is the arrogance and Francophilia of the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their elegant restaurants. Haley asserts \(p. 12\) that before 1880 'only the elites dined out for pleasure' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this class distinguished itself by demonstrating the ability to order unfamiliar and expensive dishes. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, by 1880 restaurant menus were almost always in English and the names of dishes were only vaguely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French in the manner of Chicken fricassee. Prestige items such as oysters, terrapin or canvasback wild ducks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were as forthrightly American as anything served at the new establishments. Fine restaurants may not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a Walt Whitmanesque clientele, but the managerial and professional classes were already well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented among their customers before the Civil War. It is also worth pointing out that however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic the new middle-class eating places claimed to be, there were racial and other restrictions on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equality that were very slow to change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters, 'Terrapin la Maryland' and 'Playing at make believe: the failure of imitation' explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the snobbish French style and middle-class rejection of elite claims. According to Haley, the middle class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded the tastes of the wealthy as antithetical to the values of family, civility and love of plain food. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haley devotes almost no attention to one of the great innovations of the turn of the century, the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('lobster palaces' such as Rector's in New York. He thinks \(pp. 135?6\) these places with their crowds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacle and alluringly risqu ambience were simply another permutation of swank dining. In fact they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were considerably less exclusive than Delmonico's. They were noisy, borderline disreputable and wildly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular. The lobster palaces fit neither the image of stuffy socialites fussing about the proper cutlery nor of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7146 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modest, healthy, sober go-getters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of the confusion about the straight-laced versus the fun-loving middle class is the variety of restaurants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcibly fitted into the mould of supposedly middle-class standards. In chapter three, 'Catering to the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle stripe', the dining categories include lunchrooms, chophouses, table d'htes \(offering fixed-price )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-course meals\), department store establishments, ice cream parlors, tea shops, and coffee shops. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these catered to office workers, especially women who wanted respectable, clean places with minimal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcoholic offerings, others to courting couples or to families. Some featured music and fancy decor while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others were modernist and functional. They may all have attracted people who were neither rich nor poor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but their purpose and popularity had little to do with defying the opulence of the American Gilded Age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A subsequent chapter considers restaurants opened by immigrants and patronized largely by those outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the immigrant community. Here the first adopters were those referred to as 'Bohemians': artists, journalists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also reasonably well-off professionals who were the antithesis of the frugally respectable patrons of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Automat or of ladies' tea rooms. There has always been considerable diversity within the middle class.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The variety of ethnic restaurants remains to this day a defining characteristic of the American culinary scene. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The enthusiasm for experimentation among different kinds of cuisines began in this period. Here, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourth chapter of the book, the middle-class diner is presented as 'cosmopolitan' rather than as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary advocate of down-to-earth simplicity and respectability. This is fine insofar as it describes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for variety and a certain savoir faire, but there is a tension between experimentation and regression to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an American norm that Haley describes but does not seem to appreciate. Between 1890 and 1910, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Chinese and Italian establishments would become less exotic and increasingly bland and formulaic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The advantages of restaurants featuring foreign cuisine were cheapness, abundance and an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assortment of flavors both unfamiliar and appealing. As early as 1893, Haley has found, New Yorkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boasted that their city made up in diversity of cuisines what it lacked in gastronomic tradition. Haley admits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this experimentation was accompanied by a simultaneous tendency to favor the Americanization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic cuisine, but he does not discuss its implications or how it almost comically played out. The chop suey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(craze began just before 1900 and lasted into the 1920s as Chinese restaurants became stylized exotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destinations with oriental decor and familiar food. The fact that the newly opened Hotel Astor in New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had an 'Indian Rathskeller' \(p. 213\) is hardly an indication of growing sophistication. Just three pages earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Astor is introduced as an example of the hegemony of French cuisine in 1904 giving way to a less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretentious American menu in 1927. Haley assumes that the customers who patronized middle-class ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurants were knowledgeable gourmands: 'they had visited Chinatown and spoke knowingly about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungarian dining customs' \(p. 218\). The threatening allure of Chinatown and its association not only with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexpensive food but with opium and the white slave trade has been explored by historians of Asian-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America but here it's just a neighborhood visited with open-minded curiosity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haley demonstrates little sense of how tastes were shaped by restaurant owners or how authenticity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiarity to this day pull in different directions. Restaurant snobbery is very much alive among members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle class to this day, especially with regard to knowledge of foreign dining customs Haley writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about, but opinions are formed and reformed in a dynamic process. Yesterday's cutting-edge dish \(General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tso's Chicken, for example\) becomes today's inauthentic joke. Haley believes that there has been constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress in democratization of taste: the cosmopolitan temperament is vindicated today by the popularity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Olive Garden chain. This comes up against the already-mentioned difficulty of matching a supposedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unitary middle class with a complex set of mid-level restaurants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most intriguing chapter to my mind is on women and dining in this period, chapter six, 'Satisfying their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunger: middle class women and respectability'. Between 1880 and 1920 women more frequently dined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public places and many establishments catered to them, but the path to this was irregular and its indirection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows the complications of gender roles and perceptions. In the early 19th century there were provisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made in hotels for women traveling alone or in groups. A Ladies' Ordinary was set aside as a place for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectable women to dine and often had a separate entrance to avoid the dubious men and not-respectable )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7199 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women who congregated in the lobby. The food at these establishments was virtually the same as that served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Gentlemen's Ordinary. The latter was reserved for men; mixed couples would dine in the ladies' dining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This accommodation was by no means the rule, however, and at some restaurants such as Delmonico's, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unescorted women were not allowed at all before the 1880s, and for a time admitted only at lunch. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of Haley's period restaurants for women become more visible. Tea rooms were a feature of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, places that served light meals and that catered to ordinary women. The spread of clean, economical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reasonably pleasant lunch spots for women working in clerical jobs changed the urban landscape and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food options. Chains like Schrafft's and Childs provided sandwiches, salads, fare considered light or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminine, but also \(especially Schrafft's\) chocolates and ice-cream, thought to be appealing to women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat childish tastes. Both affluent shoppers and female office workers were attracted to such relaxing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unchallenging restaurants. Of course these were not defined as exclusively for women, but then as now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain restaurants and certain times \(lunch, generally\) were informally understood as gendered female.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As will be evident, Haley shows that several kinds of middle-class dining developed in the late 19th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 20th centuries. The restaurants were so disparate, however, that the only thing they have in common is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their marking off a space away from the opulent French establishment. Haley devotes a final chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('Ending Linguistic Disguises: The Decline of French Cuisine'\) to the replacement of the elite model by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal alternatives. He doubts that Delmonico's and other restaurants that closed after 1920 were simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of Prohibition \(the outlawing of the sale of alcohol which would last from 1919 to 1933\), but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credits the middle-class diner with their demise: 'The aristocratic restaurant had succumbed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitan, and the middle class now set the nation's table' \(p. 223\). This is a rather literal estimation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s, as if )] TJ ET BT 109.676 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Main Street )] TJ ET BT 169.004 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 189.332 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Babbitt)] TJ ET BT 224.672 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were all there was \(in fact Sinclair Lewis' heroine in the former, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carole Kennicott, gets into trouble out in Gopher Prairie, Minnesota, by serving her neighbors chow mein, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lychee nuts and ginger in syrup\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haley consistently underestimates American snobbery. French restaurants would again assume an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestioned sway in the mid 20th century beginning with the opening of New York's Le Pavillon in 1941. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No one ruled more autocratically or haughtily that its owner Henri Soul. The dominance of mid 20th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century French restaurants ended in the 1980s, but the evaluation of social class in dining flourishes still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if the measuring tools have changed. The middle classes at times have participated in a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse about the decadent profligacy of the rich, but more often they are interested in the elite as models, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as emblems of life-style fantasies and as trend-setters. One doesn't have to be a devot of French sociology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see that increasing one's cultural capital is a persistent feature of American life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following from this unwillingness to appreciate the enduring power of social positioning, Haley is inclined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to over-estimate the democratic agenda of middle-class diners. More than preoccupying themselves with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those socially above them, the middle classes chose restaurants based on attitudes towards those perceived as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inferiors ? the desire to avoid the rude, unclean atmosphere of lower-class haunts; concerns with neatness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hygiene and modernity; assurance of safe spaces for women; arrangements of the ethnic social order so that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service was trustworthy. The rise of the middle-class restaurant coincided with the increasingly firm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demarcation of racially segregated spaces and increasingly ferocious anti-immigrant sentiment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turning the Tables)] TJ ET BT 125.360 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an excellent piece of research whose interpretive framework quite clearly fits the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admittedly well-worn rubric 'raises more questions than it answers'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/415988.article)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 110.067 m 296.660 110.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.660 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paper)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.papermag.com/2012/04/andrew_haley_turning_the_tables.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 81.555 m 392.312 81.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 395.312 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 53.043 m 240.992 53.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 110.3815 296.6597 122.2615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/415988.article) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 81.8695 392.3117 93.7495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.papermag.com/2012/04/andrew_haley_turning_the_tables.php) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 53.3575 240.9917 65.2375 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33302) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 862 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1451)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 328.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/45084)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/415988.article)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.papermag.com/2012/04/andrew_haley_turning_the_tables.php)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33302)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 328.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1451) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000004808 00000 n 0000004917 00000 n 0000005027 00000 n 0000005136 00000 n 0000008697 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000008909 00000 n 0000008974 00000 n 0000016298 00000 n 0000016363 00000 n 0000023562 00000 n 0000023660 00000 n 0000030912 00000 n 0000031039 00000 n 0000031143 00000 n 0000031268 00000 n 0000031387 00000 n 0000031512 00000 n 0000031613 00000 n 0000031697 00000 n 0000032611 00000 n 0000032739 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32835 %%EOF