%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150824072637+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150824072637+01'00') /Title (Sugar and Spice: Grocers and Groceries in Provincial England, 1650-1830) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4120 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sugar and Spice: Grocers and Groceries in Provincial England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1650-1830)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the long 18th century imported foodstuffs came to play a central role in the everyday experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British people. Women sipped tea in parlours and drawing rooms, while men walked out to coffee houses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking snuff as they strode, before returning home later to enjoy a dinner of savoury dishes and sweet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delicacies laced with sugar and spice. It is these ?new? imported products that form the primary focus of Jon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stobart?s )] TJ ET BT 81.680 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sugar and Spice: Grocers and Groceries in Provincial England, 1650?1830)] TJ ET BT 448.316 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Rather than the diner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or drinker, however, Stobart largely focuses on the people from which contemporaries purchased such goods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the grocers whose increasingly complicated supply networks allowed them to sell a range of imported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods to an ever-widening group of consumers. Stobart tells a global story through a particular lens, in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demonstrate how the supply of goods such as tobacco, tea, coffee and chocolate shaped the retail practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and spaces of early modern Britain. By focusing upon the particular in the global, Stobart convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasserts the need for more studies which explore the localised processes that lie at the heart of global trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sugar and Spice)] TJ ET BT 112.676 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focuses upon two main research questions. First, it notes how historians have primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked the trade in novel food goods to the rise of Britain as a commercial and imperial power. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1453)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 17 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Stobart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199577927)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199577927.do#.UefCDo04sb0)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7379 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognizes that historians have understood that the consumption of these goods transformed many aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British cultural and social life, from meal times to gender identity. In assessing these historiographical trends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stobart seeks to question whether groceries can bear such a heavy explanatory load. Secondly, and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in reaction to the historiographical responsibility given to imported foodstuffs, Stobart asks: what were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday practicalities of selling, buying and consuming such goods? Less a business history, than a history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of consumption, Stobart?s focus on processes allows him to reassess the usefulness of frameworks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with novelty, luxury and utility. By focusing on supply chains, selling practices and consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviours, Stobart demonstrates how contemporary ideas of empire and trade complicated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorization of ?luxury? goods. In his engaging analysis Stobart shows the multiple meanings that goods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as sugar and spice simultaneously claimed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his first chapter Stobart outlines the development of the grocery trade prior to 1650. In its early history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Pepperers? Guild \(chartered in 1180\) controlled and managed vendors who sold a range of spices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confectionary. Generally selling in gross, by 1373 such sellers had formed a new guild ? the Company of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grossers. Yet the existence of such Guilds and Companies alludes to a greater degree of definition than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grocers could claim in the late middle ages and early modern period. Significant to Stobart?s investigation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is the way in which grocers obtained supplies of imported foodstuffs. Even in the 15th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large provincial grocers could supply their customers with a range of spices. During the 16th and 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, specialized London grocers were increasingly able to supply their provincial counterparts with new, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-perishable goods. Sugar, tobacco, spices and dried fruit became items of central importance to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grocery trade. Prior to 1650, Stobart asserts, the grocery trade was a vibrant and widespread entity, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplied imported goods to customers well before Jan de Vries classic ?industrious revolution? period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly for Stobart then, although not ?modern? the grocery trade in this period ably incorporated new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods into their stock.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two explores the new goods of the early modern period ? sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea and chocolate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the third quarter of the 18th century tea, sugar and tobacco were central to the lives of a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people. How then did consumers acquire these new goods? Did they do so through grocers or were other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retailers better placed to sell such consumables? By analyzing the stock listed in probate inventories and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradesmen?s lists for 133 provincial shops selling groceries, Stobart demonstrates that it was only from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second half of the 18th century that the grocer became the dominant supplier of tea and coffee to provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers. Only once prices had fallen and demand had broadened did the grocery trade expand with more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shops being set up and more grocers predominantly supplying a variety of goods such as tea, coffee, sugar, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spices and tobacco. Before that point other outlets were the natural retailers of these goods. Coffee houses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sold tea leaves and coffee beans, while shoppers could also buy coffee and tea from apothecaries, chinaware )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealers, milliners, booksellers and even drapers. In buying goods imported from China, Turkey, Virginia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamaica and Carolina customers bought into a range of meanings. Stobart highlights how, in the probate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventories he studied such goods are often listed by provenance as well as substance. Although such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis might have been more suitable for inclusion in chapter seven, Stobart?s inclusion of such questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here challenges the reader to begin to understand the complex meaning newly imported goods held in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives of 18th-century consumers. Stobart highlights the layers of meaning constructed not just through place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of provenance but also through place of production and supply. Nevertheless, Stobart?s assertion that 18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century consumers were aware of both provenance and production is open to question. How do we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that consumers were aware and through what means did they become so? I agree with Stobart that goods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to be understood as representing the ?exotic?, empire and connections closer to home ? how then might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers have managed such multi-layered meanings?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three questions how grocers obtained these imported goods. How did individual provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shopkeepers link into supply chains? In the 17th and early 18th centuries, provincial shopkeepers traded with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London dealers, regional wholesalers and manufacturers to procure imported foodstuffs such as tea. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century moved on and grocers emerged as an increasingly identifiable and prosperous group, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to benefit from ever-more complicated supply networks. Between 1756 and 1777 for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abraham Dent, a grocer operating in Kirkby Stephen, Westmorland dealt with 190 suppliers in 49 different )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations. While Dent used a small number of regular suppliers ? relationships marked by their longevity ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was also able to negotiate and trade elsewhere as circumstances prescribed. When dealers began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employ printed price lists for commodities such as tea after the Commutation Act of 1784, these networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifted once more. Substantially lowering the tax on teas, the Act almost stopped smuggling overnight and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a major impact upon the supply chains of provincial grocers. Despite the importance of smuggling in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 18th century Stobart gives little room to this form of trade and grocer?s relationship to it. In reading the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter I was keen to learn whether grocers became involved in the illicit trade and if so, how they built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships within it. After 1784, the more transparent system of prices adopted by dealers benefitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial shopkeepers, allowing them a stronger negotiating position and a more prominent place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial retail markets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four questions where grocery shops were located in provincial towns and cities and in doing so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sugar and Spice)] TJ ET BT 112.676 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( changes its focus from supply to demand, teasing out the customer?s relationship to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grocer?s trade. Between the 1760s and 1780s, grocers were usually located in the core retail area of urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres. By the 1820s, chapter fours tells us, grocers had become more dispersed with only one quarter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grocers found on the main retail streets of provincial towns and cities. Increasingly grocers became located )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on popular arterial routes, which allowed them to sell to shoppers coming into the centre as well as those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the suburban districts. Customers then increasingly shaped how grocers operated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like other types of retailers, grocers appealed to shoppers through implementing increasingly sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designs and layouts in their retail spaces, as chapter five explores. By the mid 18th century it became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common for grocers to fit out their shops with a counter, shelves and drawers. Working in combination these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fittings allowed grocers to separate and store their products, aiding access through organization. They also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided spaces in which to display goods, which until the development of branded packaging in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, were visually unappealing. Stobart demonstrates how grocers worked around this problem by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hanging candles and arranging loaves of sugar, baskets and boxes on counters. Stobart further argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than following London trends, provincial grocers looked to neighbours and direct competitors when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing their displays. The idea of local trends in shop displays seems compelling and I wanted to learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more about how and when localized methods of display developed. Did certain areas have particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual forms of display? What emerges from Stobart?s research is the sense, less of innovative display )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods and more that grocers were keen to establish ideas of competence in the minds of their customers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As guardians of specialist knowledge and ?gatekeepers? to a world of goods, shopkeepers needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish customer trust. They did this, Stobart reveals, not only through organized displays and ordered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stocks but also through sociability. Tea could be tasted and parlours would be open ? customers visited not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only to purchase but also to make use of the social space of the grocery shop.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter six of the book Stobart explores ideas of service and trust further. He examines when and if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grocers moved from a traditional ?service-oriented? model of business based on trust and credit to ?new? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices based on cash sales and fixed prices. In doing so, Stobart explores one of the major research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions at the heart of this book: did new global goods change retail practices? Stobart begins his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration by examining the practices that grocers enacted within the shop. To do this Stobart is forced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retread some of the themes explored in chapter five and an amalgamation of the two chapters would perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been useful. Grocers employed their skills in directing consumers through a range of choices, advising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and recommending were necessary and making products such as tea available for tasting by having a kettle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the shop. Trust and confidence were important when questions of purity and weight were entered upon. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were also of significance for credit. Stobart demonstrates, however, that rather than a linear change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a traditional regime based on service and credit to one based on fixed prices and ready money, changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to grocers? practices were patchy and contingent. Credit regimes continued, even as fixed process emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ready money was part of the system from the 17th century. Significantly, questions of integrity and trust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained important throughout the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside marketing goods and themselves within shop spaces, retailers also relied upon printed forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertisements ? newspaper notices and more frequently trade cards. How then, chapter seven asks, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grocers choose to depict imported foodstuffs in these forms? In contrast to Troy Bickham, who argued for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7547 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of examining grocers? trade cards to illuminate how 18th-century consumers related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, Stobart reminds historians of the need to explore the multiple cues contained in these visually-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arresting printed forms. At the same time Stobart asserts the importance of reading the rich visual images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included on trade cards alongside the typical mundane notices that made up newspaper advertisements. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing so he demonstrates the importance of reading products such as tea as simultaneously everyday and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exotic in the 18th century. Stobart suggests that as tea became increasingly familiar and prevalent during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century, grocers used images of distant lands, ships and ports to reaffirm the exotic and valuable nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such goods. In contrast newspaper notices were much more mundane, focusing on questions of supply, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality, price and retailer location. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who then were such advertising strategies aimed at? Who purchased groceries? When and how? Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containing no mention of labourers, daybooks belonging to provincial grocers reveal that a wide variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people bought groceries from fixed shops including both the wealthy and relatively poor. These consumers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to buy a range of goods of different qualities, with even those lower down the social scale purchasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small quantities of high grade tea. The purchase of occasional ?treats? suggests that shoppers valued high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grade goods for their physical qualities. Regular shopping also took place, particularly where freshness was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of concern, with tea bought at frequent intervals to guarantee fresh supplies. Stobart reveals that different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the household shared in these shopping tasks, with husbands, wives, children, neighbours and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants all involved. The purchase of certain products was liable to gender preferences, with female account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holders more likely to purchase tea and sugar while their male counterparts focused on tobacco and to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser extent coffee \(which they often consumed in coffee houses rather than the home\). What becomes clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Stobart?s research is that although less shaped by the browse-bargain model of shopping, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing groceries did involve skill, with consumers buying particular goods from certain providers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to maximize on value and quality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once purchased, households consumed groceries within the home. In chapter nine Stobart uses English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recipe books to explore how such consumption took place. How were groceries used in the production of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meals? Were certain goods viewed and consumed as novelties and luxuries? How were certain groceries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelated within domestic routines? Using English recipe books, Stobart tracks the introduction of ?new? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groceries into the culinary lexicon. In his analysis Stobart finds that recipe books do reveal changes in tastes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 17th and 18th century pepper grew as a general and specific seasoning. Similarly, nutmeg emerged as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a central feature of English cooking and sugar remained in frequent and enduring use. Nevertheless, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increased use of new groceries, recipes with explicit links to imperial spaces such as India formed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small percentage of those contained in the books Stobart studied. Other geographical and cultural reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points were of much greater importance, with France continuing to hold much ground in culinary terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stobart?s final chapter explores the material culture linked to new foodstuffs. Rather than re-treading the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-worn ground of tea cups Stobart chooses instead to explore the ownership of a wider set of items linked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the consumption of groceries within the home: tea tables, sugar bowls, pepper boxes, casters and snuff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boxes. Stobart seeks to reveal more about the public use of such objects by using probate inventories to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where items such as salt, pepper and spice boxes, tea kettles and coffee pots were placed within the home. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Can probate inventories allow historians to convincingly situate mobile items within the geography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home? Little appears to be revealed by such an analysis ? spice boxes are in kitchens alongside tea kettles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while coffee and chocolate pots are more widely dispersed in different rooms. What is revealed though is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how old and new goods placed alongside each other. Homes were amalgamations of both old and new. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stobart?s book explores many different aspects of the grocery trade and in taking such a broad view of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance to cultural, social and economic life during the long eighteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 441.284 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sugar and Spice)] TJ ET BT 519.944 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a considerable contribution to our understanding of the everyday practicalities of selling, buying and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consuming such goods. We learn from whom grocers obtained supplies, where they were located, what they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sold and how, the skills they developed and those they expected from consumers, how they presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves and their goods through their shop displays and trade cards, what consumers consumed, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and why. Although ostensibly outside the bounds of this far-reaching survey, I was keen to learn more about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the resources that retailers and consumers had at their disposable to understand how products such as tea, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coffee, tobacco and sugar were grown and harvested. Stobart states that consumers ?knew where sugar and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tobacco were grown and they were aware of the production systems that operated in the colonies; but other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervening places and processes layered additional meanings onto goods? \(p. 61\). Did all consumers know? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How did they know about such systems? In what terms were such production systems described and how did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this change over time? Exploring these sources may also have added to Stobart?s later discussion around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of certain goods and their representation upon trade cards.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside wanting to learn more about the production of new groceries, I was also keen to understand in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater depth the ways in which grocers operated as businesses. Who set up as grocers? Did they tend to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have links to importers? Did they tend to have knowledge of imported foodstuffs, perhaps from previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvements in global and imperial trade? How did grocers conceive of these goods? Did they use them in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own households? Who worked in grocery shops? What was the role of the grocer?s family? Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not central to Stobart?s explicit focus, much could have been learned about their place in supply networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how this effected the goods they sold and how they sold them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Production, supply networks, retail practices and spaces, advertising and consumption all shaped what goods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as tea, tobacco and spices were and could be. By situating these goods within complex and overlapping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks of meaning and practice, Stobart demonstrates how rather than just understood as new and novel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury or useful necessity, imported foodstuffs were often simultaneously regarded as exotic and mundane. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, Stobart argues that buying and selling new groceries alongside established goods tempered their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact, integrating them into other regimes of value and meaning. At times this engaging book is overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupied with answering the historiographical questions laid by others rather than breaking new ground, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless it becomes clear that Stobart offers an important contribution to the field of consumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history through his insistence that goods can only be understood within the complex processes that supplied, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sold and purchased them. Stobart ably demonstrates that only when understanding these processes as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interlinking and mutually dependent can such rich histories of consumption and retailing emerge.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 427.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 410.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 410.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1453)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 408.681 m 328.316 408.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 383.704 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/49019)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 408.9955 328.3157 420.8755 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1453) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000004835 00000 n 0000004944 00000 n 0000005054 00000 n 0000005163 00000 n 0000008724 00000 n 0000008852 00000 n 0000008936 00000 n 0000009001 00000 n 0000016433 00000 n 0000016498 00000 n 0000023987 00000 n 0000024052 00000 n 0000031652 00000 n 0000031736 00000 n 0000035836 00000 n 0000035964 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36060 %%EOF