%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141228073928+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141228073928+00'00') /Title (Defining Culinary Authority: the Transformation of Cooking in France, 1650-1830) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4304 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Defining Culinary Authority: the Transformation of Cooking in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(France, 1650-1830)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 18th- and 19th-century France, notions of gastronomic taste and fine dining undoubtedly developed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic, privileged, and wealthy social spheres. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the salons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurants of the Palais-Royal, and dining societies. However, this spatial exclusivity itself did not dictate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the culinary trends and aesthetics of the time. Jennifer J. Davis shifts the focus of culinary authority away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the affluent diners and onto the cooks and their books which helped to define French gastronomy. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of her meticulous scholarship on guilds and authorship, she reveals the great extent to which culinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates emerged from the growing prominence and fame of chefs in a more public space, rather than at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court. With numerous figures on the 18th-century readership of cookbooks, Davis not merely highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing obsession for reading about cooking, but also suggests that the celebrity chefs of the 19th-century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Marie-Antoine Carme, were indebted to the works of Menon, Franois Marin, and Vincent La Chapelle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appropriately entitled ?Taste in the kitchen?, the introduction emphasizes that the chefs themselves initiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transformation of cooking into an art. This evolution was not simply the work of a few aristocrats. Davis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore poses a critical question: Who were these cooks and what was their relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketplace at large? In addition to hosting meals, caterers and merchants provided readymade dishes to city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwellers, many of whom did not have their own kitchens. Citing Nicholas de Blgny?s )] TJ ET BT 453.980 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handy Book of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parisian Addresses)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1454)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 18 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Davis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780807145333)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louisiana State University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://lsupress.org/books/detail/defining-culinary-authority/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baton Rouge, LA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Max Shrem)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8168 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1692\), Davis points out that caterers served the working classes in cabarets, while they )] TJ ET BT 457.268 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also provided dishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the elite, everything from sauces and aspics to roasts and meat pies. During the 18th century, eating in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public was on the rise. As domestic servants began to earn a wage rather than room and board, they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venture into eating establishments and dine among soldiers and other day laborers. The clientele consisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly of men, but women were an essential part of food production in the guilds. Throughout this book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis indicates the contribution of women as cooks and artisans, and thus ?provides a corrective to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant narrative that prioritizes the genius of male chefs as the driving force of French cuisine? \(p. 11\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis?s work, the lack of female cookbook writers \(with the exception of Marie-Armande-Jeanne Gacon-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dufour\) is not an oversight, but rather a consequence of the marginalization of women that she carefully lays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out. While gender issues remain a palpable leitmotif, the most crucial and thought-provoking aspect of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study revolves around social and aesthetic issues pertaining to taste.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis begins by examining the changing culinary discourse on the artificial and the natural. During the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the ability to disguise foods represented skill and creativity. It also had a religious function. Chefs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disguised fish as meat during fast days. ?)] TJ ET BT 230.660 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disguise)] TJ ET BT 272.660 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( signified a cook?s skill, taste, and economy, as well as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in insulating consumers from the base origins of their meals? \(p. 22\). By 1674, L.S.R.?s )] TJ ET BT 480.644 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'Art de bien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(traiter )] TJ ET BT 67.688 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved the aesthetic emphasis away from artifice and quantity and instead toward a more refined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplicity. )] TJ ET BT 88.028 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Natural cuisine)] TJ ET BT 162.368 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( indicated two different types of cooking. It referred to the straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparation of local ingredients. However, at the same time, this )] TJ ET BT 344.960 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nouvelle cuisine)] TJ ET BT 422.612 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( involved complex culinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques that were based on scientific principles, which were in agreement with the laws of nature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Practitioners of natural cuisine praised simplicity and transparency in alimentary preparations? \(p. 39\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis provides an intriguing cultural history, explaining how the chefs of 18th-century aristocrats used their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high culinary rank to publish cook books that would revamp and redefine French gastronomy. In )] TJ ET BT 501.284 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cuisinier moderne)] TJ ET BT 121.004 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1735\), Vincent La Chapelle applies medical theories regarding health to his new cooking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles, advancing a link between cooks, doctors, and scientists. Like La Chapelle, Franois Marin raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the status of cooks by associating them with the medical field. At the end of this section, Davis cleverly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situates the chefs? focus on nature within a larger history on aesthetics by drawing from the Enlightenment?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates on the artistic ideal of the natural, in particular Denis Diderot?s )] TJ ET BT 379.616 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Salon de 1767)] TJ ET BT 448.280 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studying the history of culinary taste involves seriously considering the agents responsible for disseminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its codes. Accordingly, it is important to uncover the educational and judiciary pieces of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure that contributed to the development of gastronomy as a critical cultural field in France. The next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piece of this book examines the complex training of chefs during the 17th and18th centuries in aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes and through the guild system. Rather than just condemning the guilds? economically oppressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulatory organization, Davis carefully reveals the social characteristics of its workers ? their generational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, class, and gender ? by making sense of anecdotes from police reports and by analyzing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticeship contracts. The culinary trade included men from both the city and country who went to Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for training. Hierarchies within guilds were based on age, experience, and also sex. Unlike male laborers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were subject to a series of unjust rules that were financially prohibitive. For instance, widows were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not allowed to have apprentices. Furthermore, 18th-century police reports indicate that widows who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarried were investigated by pastry cook officials for continuing to practice catering. If they remarried, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they would be expected to withdraw from their business activities. Not surprisingly, the culinary guilds were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprised mostly of men. For instance: ?Of the eighty-nine mastership examinations conserved in Rouen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only one is that of a woman? \(p. 62\). Despite its sexism and mistreatment of apprentices, the guilds, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite kitchens, provided an education in all facets of the trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The organization of guilds certainly represented a useful governing body that influenced culinary taste, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that helped to ensure public health. Nonetheless, when compared to cookbook authors, they were less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective in putting forth and controlling new aesthetic standards in the kitchen. ?The cookbook author was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously creator, instructor, and judge of the culinary arts? \(p. 72\). Rather than attribute this culinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority to the relationship between cooks and their aristocratic employers, Davis points out the link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between chefs and the growing public sphere. Throughout the 18th century cooks were increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in issues that would address the culinary field at large, instead of writing for the elite. At the same )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8187 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, they were outlining their own tastes based on their own experiences. By studying the changing rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and by investigating book sales and reviews, Davis examines this developing authorship and democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution. The chef Menon appears at the core of this transition. In his )] TJ ET BT 374.960 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nouveau trait de la cuisine )] TJ ET BT 513.284 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1739\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he declares that he wrote the cookbook to help him remember certain recipes of his own. In other words, it?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an )] TJ ET BT 48.344 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aide-mmoire)] TJ ET BT 114.992 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( written for himself, and not for an elite patron \(p. 75\). Moreover, Menon's )] TJ ET BT 476.420 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Science du )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(matre d?htel cuisinier)] TJ ET BT 149.348 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1749\) proposed a ground-breaking view of the culinary arts as an extension of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arts and sciences. At the same time, he introduced core Enlightenment ideals into modern cuisine, namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific progress and the importance of reason.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the purposes of this study, Menon?s )] TJ ET BT 229.340 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La cuisine bourgeoise )] TJ ET BT 338.336 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1746\) is the most significant publication, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing both the popularity of cookbook reading and the interest in less extravagant cooking. It highlights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple domestic cuisine that would have been prepared by women, and ?newspaper reviews of later editions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to it as a text with universal appeal? \(p. 79\). Whereas previous scholars, such as Susan Pinkard and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Wheaton, associated the term ?bourgeoise? in this book?s title with middle-class cooking and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?conscious rejection of aristocratic luxury?, Davis reveals that the word ?bourgeois? connotes city dwellers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 79\). During the 17th and 18th centuries, it was used to describe specifically the urban elite. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she argues that the emphasis on simplicity and naturalness in )] TJ ET BT 329.324 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La cuisine bourgeoise )] TJ ET BT 438.320 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of aristocratic cooking. The conclusion drawn from this study should be eye-opening for food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. First of all, it rejects the notion that Menon?s book represents a decisive split between middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and aristocratic cuisine. In addition, her argument supports the belief that in France the culinary arts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were conceived in an urban environment and for city inhabitants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regardless of the urban-rural divide, police activity and the regulation of food production prove that cuisine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become a national concern. The pastry cooks? guild policed trading boundaries, because they viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as looking out for the social good. For instance, when it came to cooking utensils, copper pots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pans were discovered to cause a poisonous verdigris. The tin from the inside of the vessel occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melted and had to be reapplied. As a result of an increasing paranoia surrounding the toxic corrosion, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caterer?s guild conducted greater surveillance of merchants? kitchens. The guilds also attempted to enforce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic dietary rules. Pregnant women and those who were sick were exempt from laws against eating meat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during Lent. Davis reveals however that many people began to ignore those laws for reasons of ?personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health and individual taste? \(p. 100\). Her research shows that eating meat during Lent became fashionable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indicated a sense of cosmopolitanism: ?Elite French men and women prided themselves on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitan perspective that acknowledged the realities of religious differences in their world? \(p. 100\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, it?s by demonstrating the large extent to which people disobeyed the guilds? rules that Davis shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how gastronomy developed from the public sphere. By 1776, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, the finance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minister, put an end to the guild system, which he viewed as an impediment to free labor. Turgot?s Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edict for the Suppression of the Guilds helped to encourage the growth of a commercial public sphere. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissolution of the guilds thereby transferred culinary judgment to consumers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studying the sociopolitical effects of liberalizing the market, the last two chapters examine culinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority in post-revolutionary France. Without the guilds to ensure culinary training and regulate food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality, gastronomes ? men of letters ? ?sought to enforce new norms of good taste, social order, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective regulation within the liberal market? \(p. 113\). In early 19th-century France, gastronomic discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifted from cooks to educated connoisseurs of eating. The Dners du Vaudeville, a dining club which first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(met in August 1796, provided a structure for men, most of whom were vaudeville playwrights \(Piis, Radet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Deschamps\), to meet regularly and critique food. Among Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson and Julia Csergo, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis is one of the few scholars to rightly highlight the significance of such dining societies. In France?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culinary history, they represent the missing link between the feminine space of the salon and the masculine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domain of the restaurant. Furthermore, they indicate the spatial transition in fine dining from the private to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public sphere. Ferguson points out that although they were private gatherings, they were located in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open spaces. In her words: ?Even the eating societies that served as important points of culinary encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(met in restaurants where gastronomy was not simply on view but open to all corners?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.960 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.960 74.787 m 460.952 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.952 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Davis expands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon previous scholarship by identifying its links to gastronomic literature. In 1805, members of the Dners )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.9597 75.1015 460.9517 86.9815 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8053 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(du Vaudeville created a new group called Le Caveau Moderne, which published one of the first food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals, the )] TJ ET BT 96.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal des gourmands et des belles)] TJ ET BT 271.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Davis?s scholarship on dining societies makes me wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what degree ?culinary authority? developed out of a socially closed-off space. Concerning the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading up to the restaurant?s cultural domination in Paris, how do we make sense of the culinary ethics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion and inclusion? The history of the Socit du Caveau ? the formation of cabaret-like dining and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singing clubs ? shows that the words ?member-only? do not necessarily connote aristocratic elitism. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who is being excluded? And, what does this say about its sociopolitical objectives? After all, those dining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clubs have their roots in the Socit des Dners du Caveau, conceived by Crbillon fils, Alexis Piron, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Coll in 1733. Existing simultaneously with the renowned salons and )] TJ ET BT 409.340 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grands soupers)] TJ ET BT 483.008 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Paris, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century predecessors displaced the cultural sphere of the )] TJ ET BT 333.272 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(homme de lettres)] TJ ET BT 415.256 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, from the symbolically rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm of )] TJ ET BT 77.336 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(biensance)] TJ ET BT 130.652 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the socially inferior public space of )] TJ ET BT 318.620 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(traiteurs)] TJ ET BT 359.960 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, followed by restaurateurs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to the aforementioned dining societies, the modern-day journalistic genre of food and restaurant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews developed as a means to guide consumers in post-guild Paris. Grimod de La Reynire?s eight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes of the )] TJ ET BT 108.344 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Almanach des Gourmands )] TJ ET BT 238.664 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents the first example of such food criticism and ?must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed within this context of reformed labor laws and lax surveillance of culinary markets? \(p. 120\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Previously, food historians, like Rebecca Spang, sidelined Grimod as a reactionary anomaly and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apolitical eccentric. This oversight however says more about 20th-century scholarship than 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomy. Davis, on the other hand, is one of the first historians to provide an in-depth analysis of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews, closely examining the influence of the food critic in the commercial marketplace. Food writer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomes helped popularize eating establishments, and chefs in turn paid tribute by dedicating cookbooks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to them. Such is the case with Andr Viard?s )] TJ ET BT 253.316 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le cuisinier imperial)] TJ ET BT 353.984 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in 1806. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were chefs, like Antoine Beauvilliers, who protested the glorification of the food critic. A throwback to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Old Regime traditions, Beauvilliers dedicated)] TJ ET BT 253.664 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( L?art du cuisinier )] TJ ET BT 346.340 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the marquis de la Voppalire. Within this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typically masculine genre, female cookbook author Marie-Armande-Jeanne Gacon-Dufour dealt with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooking in a manual on household economy, )] TJ ET BT 251.996 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mauel complet de la matresse de maison. )] TJ ET BT 457.304 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evoking earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates on the artifice and the natural, her writings speak to the distaste for elaborate cooking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toward the end of the section on early 19th-century food writing, Davis situates Brillat-Savarin in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomic field as the ?scientific gastronome? \(p. 138\). She describes him as a defender of women, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison to Grimod who denigrates women by objectifying them as food. However, this assessment on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grimod?s view of women is not entirely convincing, in light of her previous statements in which she reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his praising of women in food establishments. In addition, it?s not entirely clear why Grimod is depicted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriarchal or conservative. In his positive review of the Marmite Perpetuelle, what makes his praises of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culinary tradition necessarily patriarchal? It would seem that when compared to 18th-century guilds, Grimod )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was much more in favor of women?s culinary involvement. True, Grimod?s )] TJ ET BT 402.284 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Almanach)] TJ ET BT 450.944 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is full of analogies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between women and good food. Yet, by establishing correspondences between these different accounts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualizing them, it becomes clear that Grimod?s favoring of food over women exposes on the one hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a scandalous rejection of sexual desire; hence a denial of nature that is hardly conservative. And, it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out his fascination with feminine appeal and libertine strategies of love. We cannot therefore dismiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his preference for food as a rejection of the feminine and misogyny; for it is in this comparison that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals the extent to which gastronomic discourse emerged from an 18th-century aristocratic culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seduction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last chapter, Davis reveals why and how cooks in the early 19th century attempted to legitimize their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority through scientific endeavors. Napoleon Bonaparte elevated the status of doctors and academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists by funding their research. Also, the Socit d?encouragement pour l?industrie nationale offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research opportunities for food artisans who worked with scientists to advance French industry. Davis states:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This association invested heavily in three diffuse projects that eventually infused the most basic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culinary processes with scientific awareness: new methods of food preservation to benefit the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation's armies and navies, new methods of stock preparation to sustain the nation's poor, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4535 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new methods of extracting gelatin from bones to improve hospital and military diets at little )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added expense \(p. 143\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thanks to this government sponsorship, Nicolas Appert was able to perfect his technique of preserving foods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in glass jars, winning him first prize in the Socit d?encouragement pour l?industrie nationale?s 1809 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition. Davis?s work is innovative in using a variety of sources ? records, cookbooks, and theater ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the complex gendered dynamics brought about by the high ranking of scientists in the kitchen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter begins by referencing the 1803 legislation banning women from practicing medicine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receiving a scientific education. Associating men with medicine and science, hospitals even believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male chefs provided more healthful and efficient meals. Davis references )] TJ ET BT 388.244 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le cuisinier de Buffon)] TJ ET BT 494.576 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vaudeville comedy from 1823 that pokes fun at the naturalist who hires a male chef to oversee his female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cook, simply because he is hosting scholars. Thankfully this association was just temporary: ?Cooks? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invocation of scientific authority was a project that was never fully accepted or achieved? \(p. 165\). That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said, the relegating of women to simple domestic cooking continues to play out in 21st-century France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Anne-Sophie Pic remains the only three-starred Michelin chef. Davis brings our attention to the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that if men were responsible for developing French gastronomy, it was partly because women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly deprived of the same chances. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Food scholars sometimes forget that the dining table is the site of interdisciplinarity, and as such, studying it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands various approaches. )] TJ ET BT 177.980 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defining Culinary Authority )] TJ ET BT 316.988 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents a major contribution to the field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culinary history, precisely because it reminds us of the multifaceted influences on culinary aesthetics. Davis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals the connections between science, literature, and cuisine by putting together and exploring different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types of documents. Her work corrects several misconceptions about key figures and developments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomic history, and it will prove to be a tremendous resource to scholars and cultural historians in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 381.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson, ?A cultural field in the making?)] TJ ET BT 358.988 381.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, French Food: On the Table On the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Page and in French Culture )] TJ ET BT 202.340 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Abingdon, 2001\), pp. 5?51, 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.660 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.660 365.667 m 410.648 365.667 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 350.335 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 332.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1454)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 331.161 m 328.316 331.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 306.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/55203)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.6597 365.9815 410.6477 377.8615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 331.4755 328.3157 343.3555 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1454) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000005027 00000 n 0000005136 00000 n 0000005246 00000 n 0000005355 00000 n 0000008916 00000 n 0000009044 00000 n 0000009128 00000 n 0000009193 00000 n 0000017414 00000 n 0000017498 00000 n 0000025738 00000 n 0000025768 00000 n 0000025894 00000 n 0000025930 00000 n 0000025995 00000 n 0000034101 00000 n 0000034192 00000 n 0000038780 00000 n 0000038908 00000 n 0000038963 00000 n 0000039091 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39187 %%EOF