%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818083147+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818083147+01'00') /Title (Prisoners of Britain: German Civilian and Combatant Internees During the First World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4410 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Prisoners of Britain: German Civilian and Combatant Internees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(During the First World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?It is astonishing?, states Panikos Panayi in the opening sentence of his monograph, ?that almost a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the outbreak of the First World War, no academic study has yet appeared upon the experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German prisoners of war in Britain? \(p. 1\). Without question this book goes a considerable distance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plugging this rightly identified deficit in current First World War and POW historiography. To do so Panayi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertakes an ambitious canvass of the experiences of hundreds of thousands of German captives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detainees held in Britain during the conflict, their numbers having peaked at 115,950, comprising 24,522 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian and 91,428 military internees, in November 1918 \(p. 44\). These men, for Panayi shows that mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internment was almost exclusively a male experience, are split into three categories: German civilians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resident in Britain in 1914 who were subjected to increasing levels of control; German civilians seized by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British around the world, especially in the British Empire and on the high seas, who were transported for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detention in Britain; and German combatant POWs, captured on the Western Front and transferred to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Kingdom in increasing numbers \(especially post-1917\). Through inclusion of the last the book is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important development of Panayi?s 1991 monograph, )] TJ ET BT 294.992 66.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Enemy in Our Midst: Germans in Britain during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the First World War)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.684 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.684 50.961 m 148.676 50.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 148.676 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which concentrated solely on German civilian internment experiences. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1455)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 25 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panikos Panayi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719078347)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(342pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719078347)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Wilkinson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.6837 51.2755 148.6757 63.1555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7852 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorising German internees, Panayi illuminates a picture of multiple captivity experiences as opposed to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homogenous captivity narrative. He chiefly considers differences between civilian and combatant internee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences but he also flags the impact of class, age, level of education and religion on captive experiences. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, for example, we learn that the spatial confines of the camps weighed particularly heavily on ?older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class civilians used to their own space? while ?younger working-class Germans, especially those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had grown up in inner-city tenements? coped best with the circumstances of wired life \(p. 123\). German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian and combatant internees clearly faced different conditions in different British camps at different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods during the war. Each prisoner also brought his unique pre-captive experiences. Accordingly each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual reacted and responded in different ways. Hence, when men engaged in social activities in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camps, partially as a response to the boredom and monotony of life within, their backgrounds determined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities and activities in which they became involved \(p. 169\). There is still more to do in tracing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of inmate background on their First World War captivity experiences. For example, it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worth investigating how individuals and groups were challenged differently within the same camp context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how they sought to respond. The evident weight of source material available on the camp at Knockaloe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might make such an investigation possible in the case of German civilian internment experiences in Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, comparing findings trans-nationally, exploring for example the situation of parallel groups in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Germany, offers further understanding. Panayi, however, raises these considerations, stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internment experiences in the multiple and sets an agenda for further POW scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book follows a logical structure, beginning with an overview of material produced about First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War German captivity. The opening chapter introduces the German POW as an absent figure in the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war by outlining the phenomenon of POW amnesia, captivity narratives having been largely forgotten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in both academic and popular narratives produced about the conflict. Explanations, including the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing Germanophobia in post-war British society as well as the role of the Second World War in eclipsing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier internment experiences, are offered for this phenomenon. In this regard the introduction points to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bigger story, indicating the marginalisation of POW experiences more generally in the histories of wars.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.936 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.936 440.931 m 547.928 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 547.928 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may therefore be possible to attribute further reasons for this blanket marginalisation. These could include a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common disinclination amongst ex-POWs to talk about or publicise their experiences, based on internalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of shame, dishonour or guilt. Conversely it may be that a lack of appetite for POW narratives exists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the public of former belligerent nations, unless they are exciting tales of escape which resonate with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant constructions of heroic wartime exploits. Panayi, however, also shows that amnesia around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German internment experiences was only partial, noting attempts made in both Britain and Germany to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct narratives about German captivity experiences. He offers insight as to why some POW narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were heard, including how a POW voice was mobilized in post-war Germany via the creation of POW )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans? associations, this process pressurising the German state into giving captivity narratives some space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for memorialisation \(p. 20\). That process is striking given that it was not universal. For example, a parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national POW association did not form in Britain in the aftermath of war. The introduction ends with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succinct overview of existing scholarship on POWs and interned civilians. Panayi positions his approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside that of Alon Rachamimov?s study of captivity on the Eastern Front during the Great War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Stibbe?s exploration of British civilian internment in Ruhleben, 1914?18. These works have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common focus on the everyday lives of internees and are rooted in the tradition of ?history from below?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panayi?s book thus incorporates a wide range of what he terms ?official? and ?unofficial? sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing those available in German and English languages. Seeking ?individual stories? of internment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?through the eyes of those involved? \(p. 297\), he uses material produced by the internees, such as published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unpublished testimony, letters, diaries and other archival material. These, however, are combined with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?official? governmental reports, parliamentary debates, camp reports, material held by humanitarian groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and newspaper coverage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two explores the first stage of the captivity journey, showing the development of internment policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their immediate impact on those concerned. Focusing on the arrest, transportation and capture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three types interned by the British, Panayi offers a cleverly structured insight into how each category found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself behind barbed wire. Chapters three to six, comprising the core of the book, see the author?s wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consultation of sources pay dividends. Herein he explores the experiences of German civilian and combatant )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.9357 441.2455 547.9277 453.1255 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7928 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internees in Britain by tracing central elements of captive life. Chapter three begins with a necessary if in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places repetitive and formulaic outline of the creation, development and management of a captivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape in Britain. The camps, numbering over 600 by war?s end \(p. 83\), and embracing early )] TJ ET BT 499.916 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ad hoc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishments for non-combatants, the gargantuan Isle of Man camps, a variety of military installations, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working camps, are mapped. Chapter four explores the conditions experienced within, together with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on those interned. This involves consideration of the causes and prevalence of ?barbed wire disease?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the adverse mental affects attributable to life in captivity \(pp. 123?8\). Chapter five explores the camps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as social entities, considering the religious, sporting, educational and leisure activities that were established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the accompanying social formation that evidently proved important in helping individuals to cope. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of relief agencies, including the Markel Committee, The YMCA and The Red Cross, in facilitating these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities is further explored. Chapter six sketches the developing policies and practices regarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment of POWs in Britain, giving due consideration to the importance of captive labour for the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war economy and for the prisoners themselves. Chapter seven shifts tack, adding another layer to Panayi?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis: he leaves the confines of the camps in order to consider the ways in which German internees were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen in both Britain and Germany during the war. The largely negative views constructed in medial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official discourses are balanced against positive manifestations of public opinion, including the charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to help internees that operated on an international, national \(in Britain and Germany\), regional, local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and familial level. The juxtaposition of the negative discourses which generated hatred against softer, human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions which resulted in kindness and intimacy between those categorised elsewhere as ?enemies? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking. In chapter eight the book comes full circle with a consideration of escapes, releases and returns to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show the various ways German internees? exited captivity. This rightly stresses that exit did not mark an end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the experience, the deportations suffered by many German civilians who had been long-time resident in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain before war?s outbreak revealing how First World War captivity could be a life changing experience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For most internees it was rarely as easy as leaving the camps and returning to one?s pre-captive life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the conclusion the meaning of internment in Britain during the First World War is considered on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of levels: the meaning of captivity for those who experienced it; the significance of incarceration as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state policy; and the importance of the internment of Germans in Britain as part of a broader picture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of persecution during the First World War and beyond. This approach results in both specific and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad, bold conclusions. The First World War is represented as a turning point in the history of mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internment and in the persecution of minorities. Therein Britain is confronted with an uncomfortable view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its history. Panayi argues that the internment of Germans in Britain was central in the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution in the 20th century, the British indulging in what he describes as a process of ?ethnic cleansing? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which saw perceived enemies identified, discriminated against, attacked, incarcerated and eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?eliminated? through mass deportations at the war?s end. In this view the processes of persecution that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established and legitimated by belligerents in the First World War pave the way for ?bloodier? events in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century \(p. 306\). Moreover the history of internment and persecution is given a contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance, Panayi connecting his findings with recent instances of the detention of perceived dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples on grounds of ?security?. These conclusions are hard hitting and persuasive, although it must be said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they are drawn substantially from the experiences of German civilian internees rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of captured combatants. Yet confronting the reader with what many might consider to be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncomfortable and unpalatable truth promises to further our understanding of the First World War and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact. Indeed, as Brian K. Feltman states in his exploration of atrocities committed by First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British soldiers when taking Germans? prisoner, ?the time has come to explore more fully the true nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great War, even if we may not like what we find?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.944 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.944 170.067 m 308.936 170.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall the work results in a thorough and hitherto unavailable canvass of German captivity experiences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain during the First World War. Its broadness results in both strengths and constraints. Without doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each chapter is impressive in its range. Hence in Chapter four a great deal about life in the camps is covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including: the mental and physical health of inmates; camp rules, regulations and routines; housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions; diet; postal systems; the absence of women; and internal crime. Chapter five similarly details a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plethora of activities, embracing everything from camp libraries to theatre shows, schooling to sports, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion to high culture as manifested in paintings, sculpture, music and literature produced by inmates. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.9437 170.3815 308.9357 182.2615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7701 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little known but fascinating elements also emerge. As examples it is revealed that a small number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German women resident in Britain were targeted, tried and imprisoned as suspected spies and saboteurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war \(pp. 94-5\) while specialist employment camps were established, such as the one at Cornwallis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Road, Islington, where POWs helped in the production of prosthetic limbs \(p. 209\). The broad canvass also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows one to appreciate the length as well as the breadth of captivity experiences endured by Germans in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, the first exchanges of German captives being mooted as early as October 1914, the final German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWs not leaving British custody until 1920 \(p. 276\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trade-off for covering so much ground is that the analysis of each element is sometimes necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited. Many understudied facets of captivity are included but in the space available not all are subjected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the level of deep critical analysis that they deserve. Readers will crave more. As a scholar who has focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on British military experiences of captivity in Germany, I would have liked more consideration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific effects of captivity on German servicemen. Combatants, whether they were Regulars, volunteers or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscripts, underwent deep psychological anguish because of their capture. This included an acute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological ?displacement of self?, capture marking men off from their pre-capture civilian roles and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, their male ?warrior? roles as defined by the war. The result, at least for some, were feelings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emasculation, failure, dishonour, shame, guilt, impotence and fear. Further anguish was experienced due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trials of life in captivity, not least the problems associated with having to work for the enemy, as was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common for all military POWs except officers. The effects of these elements also impacted on the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servicemen sought to cope. Hence some attempted to reassert combatant roles through escape or sabotage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while others made various attempts to re-connect with and re-negotiate their military identities behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wire. The German military experiences outlined in Panayi?s book warrant further attention in these regards, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the author?s claims perhaps being too sweeping. An example is the suggestion that the vast majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of German military POWs were complicit in surrender because they had no real desire to continue fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 60\) and, moreover, that many of those servicemen subsequently employed in picturesque settings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed their work, embracing the relief of being away from the danger of the battlefields \(p. 213\). I do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispute these claims yet they do imply nuances worthy of further analysis. Complicity might generate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feelings of disempowerment and loss of control. POW labour could be equally challenging and disturbing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not least because of the implication that one was acting unpatriotically by working for the enemy, betraying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s own nation at a time of crisis. Even the relief at being out of harm?s way, which was not the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when men were employed near the front line in France and Belgium, doubtlessly brought some pangs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilt, feeling of impotency and sense of dishonour. However, in saying this it must be remembered that with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited prior scholarship on the topic and with constraints regarding word limits, Panayi needed to give the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader a general overview, exploring all the main elements, and therein provide as much analysis of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(component as possible. He does, therefore, provide some fruitful analysis and successfully raise important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about captivity experiences. Scholars reading this work, and perhaps Panayi himself, may now be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted to explore specific aspects further, allowing deeper analysis and further nuance to be injected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two other aspects of this work are further noteworthy. The first is Panayi?s success in contextualising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German POW experiences. So, for example, in chapter two he places the development of internment policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding German POWs within the context of growing state power, tighter classifications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insider/outsider groups, a corresponding fanaticism for ?security? manifest in pre-war British fears about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German ?spying? and ?treachery?, all set within the increasing brutalization of ?total war? \(p. 41\). It is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background that enhances our understanding of why German captives, especially those German civilians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resident in British territories in 1914, were treated in the ways they were. Similarly the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison camps and their management are placed alongside the development of other state bureaucracies, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least those which were established to move, house, clothe and feed millions of soldiers \(p. 79\). I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly been struck by the rarely explored parallels existing between prisoners? and soldiers? experiences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of their movement, control and administration. Suicide rates, death rates, crime and diets evidenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inside the wire are also set against these elements experienced in the British population and on the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front \(pp. 130?2\). Context puts captivity in perspective, here allowing judgement as to whether captives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more adversely affected by their experiences. Panayi is therefore able to point to the ?generally sound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental and physical condition among the prisoners? \(p. 128\). Meanwhile, assessment of public opinion )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8606 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals how events during the war, such as the sinking of the )] TJ ET BT 328.964 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lusitania)] TJ ET BT 374.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 236\) or Kitchener?s death \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(237\), co-related with peaks in Germanophobia and informed how German internees were seen in Britain. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing German captivity experiences within the bigger picture, the author shatters the illusion that a POW )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be seen and studied as a ?separate and discrete subject? in wars.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.248 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.248 752.307 m 374.240 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.240 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His approach further contextualises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captivity by mapping broad developments, such as state polices and public discourses, onto the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of the internees who were affected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This implies the second noteworthy point about the work which is the superb method employed. Panayi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains his approach in terms of ?history from below?, or what is known in the German tradition as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alltagsgeschichte)] TJ ET BT 118.676 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, focusing on ?life stories? \(p. 28\). Yet he places these stories in the context of the attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and actions of government, public opinion and humanitarian groups in both Britain and Germany. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows a revealing and appealing combination of macro developments with micro histories, the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving a broad sketch of policies and practices, the latter bringing real lives and colour to the history offered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panayi expertly balances the two. Thus, in the same chapter, he gives a broad sketch of the complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangle of ministries and quangos governing the lives of German internees in Britain and provides engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual testimonies as to how specific prisoners experienced the system. There is much to commend this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of approach to studying captivity. We need to be aware of the political wrangling, diplomatic efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and media discourses informing policies, practices and opinions about POWs. But these cannot, and should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, be divorced from the people who were experiencing captivity first hand. Hence Panayi sketches the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing Anglo-German negotiations that took place throughout the war on prisoner releases and exchanges, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tying the success and failures of these diplomatic missions with the hopes and despairs of Germans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxiously waiting in the camps \(p. 273\). Ultimately, as Matthew Stibbe has also argued, the greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge facing the historiography of this field is to facilitate understanding of how individuals, families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and communities directly affected by captivity were able to make sense of, and influence, what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happening to them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.344 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.344 455.187 m 140.336 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.336 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Panayi has added to such understanding, his work providing essential reading for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POW and First World War scholars. His subject and approach provides an engaging overview, raising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myriad themes and questions that invite further scholarship in this still under-researched subject area. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is more, not least because of the range and vibrancy of the internment experiences that it reveals, this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will also be enjoyed by that real but elusive animal in academic scholarship; the general reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, almost 100 years after the outbreak of the First World War, with a century?s worth of scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced about the conflict, covering every conceivable topic, Panayi has achieved what many would think )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible. He has provided something new; he has illuminated an under-researched First World War topic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, thereby, he has contributed to the liberation of hundreds of thousands of captives by adding them to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical record.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am happy with this excellent review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panikos Panayi, )] TJ ET BT 143.684 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Enemy in Our Midst: Germans in Britain during the First World War )] TJ ET BT 501.344 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 208.851 m 149.000 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Beaumont, ?Rank, privilege and prisoners of war?, )] TJ ET BT 336.296 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Society, )] TJ ET BT 421.616 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1 \(1983\), 67; Alon )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachamimov, )] TJ ET BT 134.012 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(POWs and The Great War. Captivity on the Eastern Front)] TJ ET BT 414.668 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2002\), p. 227; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Stibbe, )] TJ ET BT 146.348 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Civilian Internees in Germany. The Ruhleben Camp, 1914 ?1918 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2008\), pp. 163?83.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.316 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.316 151.827 m 274.304 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian K. Feltman, ?Tolerance as a crime? The British treatment of German prisoners of war on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Front, 1914?1918?, )] TJ ET BT 203.660 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in History)] TJ ET BT 275.660 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17 \(2010\), 458.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.652 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.652 123.315 m 409.640 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bob Moore and Kent Fedorowich, ?Prisoners of war in the Second World War: an overview?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prisoners of War and their Captors in World War II)] TJ ET BT 315.020 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Bob Moore and Kent Fedorowich \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\), p. 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.012 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.012 80.547 m 173.000 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Stibbe, ?Introduction: captivity, forced labour and forced migration during the First World )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War?, )] TJ ET BT 95.996 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Immigrants and Minorities)] TJ ET BT 225.332 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 26 \(2008\), 14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.324 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.324 52.035 m 353.312 52.035 l S endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.2477 752.6215 374.2397 764.5015 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3437 455.5015 140.3357 467.3815 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 209.1655 148.9997 221.0455 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.3157 152.1415 274.3037 164.0215 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.6517 123.6295 409.6397 135.5095 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.0117 80.8615 172.9997 92.7415 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.3237 52.3495 353.3117 64.2295 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 1030 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Extra)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyextra.com/podcast/14th-march-2013)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 299.324 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.324 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 763.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 745.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 745.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1455)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 744.057 m 328.316 744.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 719.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/55191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historyextra.com/podcast/14th-march-2013)] TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 299.3237 778.7575 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyextra.com/podcast/14th-march-2013) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 744.3715 328.3157 756.2515 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1455) >> endobj xref 0 53 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000000694 00000 n 0000005156 00000 n 0000005265 00000 n 0000005375 00000 n 0000005484 00000 n 0000009045 00000 n 0000009173 00000 n 0000009257 00000 n 0000009286 00000 n 0000009412 00000 n 0000009448 00000 n 0000009532 00000 n 0000017437 00000 n 0000017467 00000 n 0000017595 00000 n 0000017631 00000 n 0000017715 00000 n 0000025696 00000 n 0000025726 00000 n 0000025854 00000 n 0000025890 00000 n 0000025955 00000 n 0000033709 00000 n 0000033835 00000 n 0000042494 00000 n 0000042524 00000 n 0000042652 00000 n 0000042688 00000 n 0000042718 00000 n 0000042846 00000 n 0000042882 00000 n 0000043009 00000 n 0000043064 00000 n 0000043192 00000 n 0000043247 00000 n 0000043375 00000 n 0000043430 00000 n 0000043556 00000 n 0000043611 00000 n 0000043737 00000 n 0000043792 00000 n 0000043883 00000 n 0000044966 00000 n 0000045093 00000 n 0000045196 00000 n 0000045324 00000 n trailer << /Size 53 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45420 %%EOF