%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141027013257+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141027013257+00'00') /Title (Sherbet and Spice: The Complete Story of Turkish Sweets and Desserts) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4060 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sherbet and Spice: The Complete Story of Turkish Sweets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Desserts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Ottoman Empire, over the course of its existence, evolved a cultural synthesis of strands coming from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its Arab, Persian and Byzantine antecedents, as well as the folk culture of its constituent populations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Culinary traditions were part of this legacy, and the taste for sweets an ever popular and refined element, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituting a repertoire extending into modern Turkey and the Middle East. Mary Isin delves into this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating history with great enthusiasm, served by ambitious research into a wide array of sources: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical records; recipes; and travel accounts, both native and European. Of the former, the travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicles of the 17-century aristocrat, Evliya Celebi, are an ever fertile source of tales and anecdotes. Of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans, Freidrich Unger, confectioner to Otto I of Greece, spent the summer of 1835 researching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confectionery in Istanbul and recorded many recipes and observations. The book is richly illustrated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images: paintings and drawings, Ottoman and European; sketches of workshops and vendors; photos; and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most interesting, satirical cartoons of the comic character Karagoz from the Turkish press in the early 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century: the satire is on current events, and food vendors feature prominently in the themes and images.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1457)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 25 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Isin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848858985)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I B Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ibtauris.com/Books/Lifestyle%20sport%20%20leisure/Cookery%20%20food%20%20drink%20etc/Cookery%20dishes%20%20courses/Desserts/A%20Turkish%20Delight%20The%20Complete%20Book%20of%20Sweets%20Pastries%20and%20Desserts.aspx?menuitem=%7BF350D0BA-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(86AA-4175-923A-76C5BB188368%7D)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sami Zubiada)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8135 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction provides an overview of the relevant history from the Arabs to the Ottomans, of Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culinary traditions and orders of meals and banquets, and of European accounts and evaluations. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows a chapter on sugar, the history of its provenance, cultivation and transportation \(India, Egypt\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other sources of sweetness, honey and grape molasses. We are reminded how this now common and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheap food was a precious commodity, regarded as medicine in some contexts, and rated high above honey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fruit-based sweetness products.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequent chapters deal in turn with sweets and pastries. We are led through an array of sweets made from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combinations of sugar, starch, fruit and nuts, colouring and flavouring, tracing their genealogy and that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vocabularies of their designation, some from sources going back to Arab, Persian and Turkic contexts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others from folklore and poetry, with accounts and illustrations of the processes of their manufacture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use. Words and things don?t always correspond over time and place: )] TJ ET BT 366.620 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kadayif)] TJ ET BT 401.948 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( designates different types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pastries and sweets at different times, varying from Arab beginnings, through the Ottoman period, and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in modern usage. What is now )] TJ ET BT 182.996 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kunafa)] TJ ET BT 215.660 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in some places is )] TJ ET BT 303.320 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kadiyif )] TJ ET BT 338.984 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in others ? stuffed, shredded pastry stuffed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with nuts or cheese and soaked in aromatic syrup. )] TJ ET BT 275.972 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Halva)] TJ ET BT 305.300 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, meaning ?sweet? in Arabic, with a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified designations over time and space, is now most commonly applied to the familiar commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of sesame paste halva.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of these had and have symbolic and ritual functions, notably the different kinds of )] TJ ET BT 461.288 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(halva)] TJ ET BT 487.952 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to rituals of mourning and commemorations of martyrdom of the saints. Home-made halva, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concoction of flour/semolina, sugar, starch and aromatics, is distributed by mourning households, eliciting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the recipients blessings and prayers for the soul of the departed. It is similarly distributed in religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals of mourning for the saints, notably the Muharram rituals for Imam Hussein. Like many other popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious customs, this one is shared across confessional lines, and practiced by many Christians and Jews. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another ritual sweet is )] TJ ET BT 146.000 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(asure)] TJ ET BT 172.664 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a pudding made of wheat grains cooked with a variety of pulses and dried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruit, and always invested with symbolic significance. The symbolism and the mythical history varies for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different sects. All agree that it commemorates the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calendar \()] TJ ET BT 81.656 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(`ashr)] TJ ET BT 106.988 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is ten in Arabic\), but differ on the event it commemorates. For the Shi`a, Alevis and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sufis it commemorates the day of martyrdom of Imam Hussein in the seventh century, while Sunnis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different regions advance varying narratives, the most frequent being the landing of Noah?s ark after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(floods, when all the remaining provisions \(ten items in some versions\) were cooked together in this pudding. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similar concoctions with boiled wheat have sacred functions in Christian rituals: )] TJ ET BT 424.316 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(koliva)] TJ ET BT 453.644 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the Greek and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orthodox equivalent, made for funerals and the Day of All Souls as well as Easter. The author cites many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples from the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and even draws parallels with the old English frumenty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eaten at Christmas and Lent. The preparation of these dishes for religious occasions often involves rituals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prayers, as in the case of the Bektashi Sufi order, who prepare them to celebrate their saints and shrines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters on manna and musk offer interesting ethno-biological information on the origins and use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these biblical substances. Manna turns out to be a product of insects and aphids deposit on particular trees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collected and processed into different sweets, the Turkish )] TJ ET BT 312.956 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kudret halvasi)] TJ ET BT 381.284 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and nougat-type products in Iran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Iraq.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lukum)] TJ ET BT 66.680 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( aka Turkish Delight is the success story of Turkish/Middle Eastern sweets in the West. It is in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line of the starch/sugar family which found favour with European travellers and took off from the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, becoming a boxed commercial sweet. Another popular genre is that of )] TJ ET BT 416.600 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sucuk)] TJ ET BT 445.256 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, made of grape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(molasses with starch and aromatics, shaped around nuts, mainly walnuts, and threaded on a rope in a sausage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape, the word )] TJ ET BT 112.664 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sucuk )] TJ ET BT 142.988 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designating ?sausage?. Tourism and diversification of commerce, starting with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transport revolutions of steam and railways in the 19th century, favoured certain confectioners in Istanbul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who took advantage of these developments. Thriving confectionery businesses at the present time continue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to bear the name of one such pioneer, Haci Bekir.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another globalised sweet from the region is the family of pastries that bear the name )] TJ ET BT 443.612 68.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(baklava)] TJ ET BT 481.604 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, now, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humus, to be found on many supermarket shelves. A chapter in the book is devoted to its illustrious history )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lore. It is the lineage of layered pastries with nut fillings, soaked in honey and/or sugar syrup. Mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the genre is traced back to 13?century Abbasid writers, but with a designation in Turkish, and the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(baklava)] TJ ET BT 72.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is traced to a first mention by a mystic Turkish poet in the 15th century. The etymology of the word, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, remains a mystery, with various speculative constructions, none of them convincing. This class of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pastry had pride of place in the Ottoman courts with devoted cooks and kitchens. It continues to be prized on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tables and gifts especially on ritual and festive occasions, such as Ramadan breakfast and weddings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sweets occupied an important place in the social spaces and rituals of sociability. One chapter treats ?helva )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties?, )] TJ ET BT 77.336 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(helva sohbeti)] TJ ET BT 140.996 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, held on long winter evenings to bring together family, neighbours and friends. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties were, we are told, a widespread custom at all levels of society, from the courtly circles to provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns. This custom has largely disappeared in modern times, perhaps because of the rise of diverse forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure and sociability, and the altering function of sweets in meals and diets in the modern food systems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ice and ice cream have another interesting history. The collection, transportation and storage of snow and ice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were practiced and valued in many regions from ancient times, and were of special interest to the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court and elites. It served to cool waters, sherbets and syrups in hot summers. Ice cream, which required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freezing the liquid separately from the surrounding ice with salt added, needed particular technique and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment, which was, apparently, transmitted from Italy in 18th or 19th century. The Turks, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovated the thickening of the liquid with )] TJ ET BT 241.676 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(salep)] TJ ET BT 267.008 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a starch from an orchid root usually served as a hot drink )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in winter, but giving ice cream a stretchy texture, lending itself to playful displays of ropes and shapes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Known as )] TJ ET BT 85.340 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Maras dondurma)] TJ ET BT 169.004 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, after the city of Kahramanmaras, it is now offered by some Turkish outlets in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European cities including London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is a treasury of Turkish sweets, dealing with classification, history, recipes and processes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(etymologies. It draws on a rich mix of sources, with the notes and bibliography occupying pages 243?313. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Narratives of cultural contexts of folklore, ritual, festivities and beliefs add to the richness of the accounts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also traces aspects of diffusions, imitations and evaluations between Turkey and Europe. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains to ask: what part did sweets occupy in diets and meals at different points in time and across social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences. While the book does not delve into these aspects systematically, there are interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of meals and banquets. Banquets, as described by European notable guests, appear to comprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lavish provision of many dishes and courses served in succession but in no discernable order: roast meat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fish, sweet pastries, stuffed vegetables, boiled meat, more sweets, and so on. The Europeans were puzzled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this lack of order, but, of course, this jumble was also part of medieval and early modern European banquets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only served altogether on a groaning table. The logic of it is display and spectacle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drinks, sherbets and syrups are included in these accounts, but there is complete silence on wine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcoholic drinks. The parties here described, as we saw, revolved around sweets. This is understandable in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of religious prohibition. But we do know that this prohibition was widely flouted, especially by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the courts and elites. 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