%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221034919+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221034919+00'00') /Title (Setting the Table for Julia Child: Gourmet Dining in America, 1934?1961) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4407 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Setting the Table for Julia Child: Gourmet Dining in America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1934?1961)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia Childs is a familiar figure to both historians of food, and those who study shifting discourses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity in the USA. Her book )] TJ ET BT 201.008 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mastering the Art of French Cooking,)] TJ ET BT 383.000 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( written in collaboration with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simone Beck \(known as Simca\) and to a lesser extent Louisette Bertholle, was immediately successful when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first published in 1961. The media appearances that followed included numerous television series and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1966 she appeared on the front cover of )] TJ ET BT 227.960 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Time Magazine.)] TJ ET BT 305.288 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Consequently she is seen by many as one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first really famous celebrity television chefs disseminating fine cuisine to the American public. Her status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the contemporary society, beyond foodie-culture, was affirmed by the 2009 film )] TJ ET BT 446.612 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Julie and Julia, )] TJ ET BT 523.940 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Meryl Streep gave a charismatic performance as the chef, author and television personality. David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strauss' scholarly book )] TJ ET BT 147.836 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Setting the Table for Julia Child)] TJ ET BT 302.852 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( traces the history of the gourmet food movement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States in the years preceding Child's media success. A gourmet movement which, he argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensured that Child?s promotion of the sensory significance of food and the importance of spending time on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its preparation and consumption were greeted favorably by the American public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main focus of Strauss? study is the 1930s to the 1960s, with attention drawn to the effects of prohibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1458)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 25 July, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Strauss)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801897733)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johns Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://jhupbooks.press.jhu.edu/ecom/MasterServlet/GetItemDetailsHandler?iN=9780801897733&qty=1&source=2&viewMode=3&loggedIN=false&JavaScript=y)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore, MD)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maggie Andrews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7474 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during which ?the prospects for gourmet dining in America reached their nadir? \(p. 11\), and restaurants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to make profits from the sale of alcohol, often closed down. Generally speaking housewives and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants, it is suggested, lacked the appropriate skills or resources to produce French fine dining in the inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war period. Thus, according to Strauss, instead of an emphasis on the sensory pleasures of the unhurried and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes ritualistic consumption of food and wine, in the first half of the 20th century there was something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an ?alliance of food processors, nutritionists and women?s magazines? who saw ?food in largely medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms as a means of achieving good health? \(p. 24\), although some ?modified their approach to satisfy other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands? such as men?s need for higher calories or ?food they can sink their teeth into? \(p. 25\). As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prohibition ended, lingering over a meal and enjoying the accompanying wine became an option once more, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and with the wealthy having experienced French cuisine through travel there was the possibility for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gourmet food movement to emerge. Strauss traces the consequent rise in: the significance of gourmet dining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clubs; influential writers and chefs such as Louis Diat; magazines such as )] TJ ET BT 389.960 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gourmet)] TJ ET BT 432.620 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; guidebooks; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomic tourism of the writer Samuel Chamberlain. He argues they all helped to disseminate practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideals of French cuisine in America and thus makes a generally convincing argument that the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public had an acquaintance with French cuisine well before Child?s book or her television appearances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book emphasises the socio-cultural aspects of the history of gourmet dining, which link the movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to larger social and cultural trends \(p. 9\), and with this in mind it is important to note that it might be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate to say that only a sector of the public had an acquaintance with French cuisine, for as Strauss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself makes clear \(with the exception of wartime\) the gourmet movement was predominantly the preserve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'the growing professional and managerial classes in America' \(p. 248\). In such an assertion Strauss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly places his work into the tradition of scholars who emphasize the significance of food and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production and consumption to constructions of class, gender and national identity formation, an area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly research all too frequently ignored by cultural historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is however scope for debate about the ways in which food cultures were and are challenged, shifted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and changed; there is perhaps a sense that the values and practices of the gourmet cuisine culture of the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trickled down to the wider American public in Strauss? argument. One way in which he suggests that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural dissemination took place was through the post-war ?refashioned, luxury lifestyle magazines, which? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he argues ?shaped the values and lifestyles of a rising upper-middle class? \(p. 10\). Whilst magazines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly did and continue to provide a lexicon of images, ideas and ideals through which individuals create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, the degree to which they shape lifestyle or had a significant influence in American or any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture is open to much debate. Food production and consumption remain one area in which social classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regional and national identities can exert and express agency and identity; one area in which it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably difficult to exert pressure and where there is much resistance to values and lifestyles being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, if one compares Strauss? presentation of the inter-war gourmet movement in America with that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain, one distinct area of differentiation lies in the ways in which factions of the elite used gourmet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food in America to maintain their gender and class exclusivity. In Britain, as I shall argue below, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gourmet movement attempted to address a much wider audience during this era, thanks to the public service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcasting of the BBC and the use by the Gas Company of Marcel Boulestin for their advertising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns. Bourlestin was a strong proponent not only of French cuisine, but also of greediness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure over nutrition, as well as being a celebrity-restaurateur. Arguably this example suggests that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the boundaries and distinctions of the gourmet movement may be more fluid, shifting and porous than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they first appear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strauss? focus on gourmet dining clubs and print media, by his own omission, side-lines the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurants; furthermore, although there is an emphasis in his analysis on the socio-cultural aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritualised and elitist dining clubs, a consequence of the areas he focusses on is that he explores a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly male and public face of gourmet culture. There is some discussion of female gourmets and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time of female gourmet dining, and indeed, as Strauss points out, Julia Child was a member of a female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gourmet dining club in Paris. There is, however, an implied gendered distinction between the structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and appreciation of food and wine as a pleasurable activity defined as gourmet dining, and food )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8489 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption in the home. In making this division, Strauss is not alone. For example, Mennell argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food writing can be categorized as either gastronomic literature or cook books )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.932 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.932 780.819 m 425.924 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.924 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the latter often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with female domestic cooking and the former with male and public food consumption. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers Strauss discusses could be categorised as writing in the genre of gastronomic literature whilst Strauss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that 'with the publication of Julia and Simca's book, however, gourmet dining became increasingly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home based activity featuring the production, as much as the consumption, of gourmet food; moreover most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the leaders of this burgeoning sector of the movement were women? \(p. 246\). I suspect their work was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather less radical; furthermore, in their texts, as much as the gourmet magazines which preceded them, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is massive difference between reading magazines or cookery books, watching television shows and actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picking up an egg whisk or a filleting knife. Cookery books as much as literary gastronomic writing are in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves a pastime, a way of passing time and thinking ?what if? and importantly a space within which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flirt with potential identity positions that may never be taken up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gourmet writers aiming for British audience did sometimes adopt a literary style, and for example Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David produced books in the post-war era which were by no means instruction manuals to be followed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novice cooks. However such distinctions are not necessarily so clear cut. Marcel Boulestin?s first book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Simple French Cooking for English Homes)] TJ ET BT 241.004 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was published in 1923 and reprinted the same year, as well as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1925, 1928, 1930 and 1933. Subsequent books and journalism, for a range of print media included )] TJ ET BT 509.300 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Standard and the Daily Express)] TJ ET BT 187.340 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as well as )] TJ ET BT 239.996 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Country Life)] TJ ET BT 301.004 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 307.004 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harpers Bazaar)] TJ ET BT 384.668 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 407.996 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vogue, )] TJ ET BT 444.656 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest he was able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce both a literary style and simple instructions and menus for housewives and servants to follow. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly in Britain, in the late 1950s and 1960s, women's magazines and the public and television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrations of Fanny Craddock attempted to merge the promotion of a gourmet approach to food and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to tourism with simple step-by-step guides as to how to recreate this experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strauss suggests that gourmet food appears to have become synonymous with French fine dining in America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as early as the late 19th and early 20th centuries when it was the practice of a ?small, moneyed, well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travelled elite that was effectively isolated from mainstream America? \(p. 7\). This is, however, an area that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strauss refers to but does not really interrogate or develop, although he does note that the scarcity of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingredients and skills meant that the obsession with French food by the gourmet movement broadened, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, to sometimes include Russian, Italian or Greek food. Indeed the growing influence of Italian cuisine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoted by Elizabeth David in the post-war era, can also be identified in Britain. In America the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence seems to have remained significant even at the end of the 20th century. The degree to which this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed an insecure sense of a borrowed national identity could usefully have been explored further, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside how it maintained the cultural trope of Europe as a site of culture and the gourmet movement's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elitist associations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Britain, as early as the Victorian era, the upper middle classes had similarly come to increasingly see a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taste for French food as a mark of ?distinction?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.636 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.636 274.371 m 277.628 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.628 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The reworking, stretching and slippage which throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century shifted the ?meanings? attached to French cuisine, so that it has perhaps become a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more integral part of popular food tastes in Britain than in the United States, is complex and multi-faceted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The distance and expense of travel from the USA to France, even in the 21st century, arguably restricts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to ?authentic gourmet dining? even in the 21st century to the wealthy elite. With the advent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheaper ferry prices, and the opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994, access to French gastronomy was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread in Britain where a much greater number of families began to take holidays or even day-trips to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoy the culinary delights of France, experiencing )] TJ ET BT 281.300 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fruits de mer)] TJ ET BT 342.632 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and bringing home the products of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patisseries. Importantly, in the early days of the promotion of French gourmet food in the UK it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily imbued with what Bourdieu refers to as ?cultural capital?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.612 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.612 146.067 m 382.604 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.604 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Consequently, what might well be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered a 'misappropriation' of the styles and tastes of the gourmet movement can be identified on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supermarket shelves at the end of the 20th century with a plethora of French sticks and convenience foods to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create French food at home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Britain the uncoupling of gourmet food?s associated with masculinity and the elite can already be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified on the inter-war BBC, which promoted an ethos of ?educating, informing and entertaining? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general public, in that order. It broadcast an eclectic range of self- proclaimed experts on food, including )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.9317 781.1335 425.9237 793.0135 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.6357 274.6855 277.6277 286.5655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.6117 146.3815 382.6037 158.2615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7253 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutritionists, housewives and gourmet movement representatives \(notably Ambrose Heath and Marcel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boulestin\). Although in the 1930s Boulestin?s Covent Garden restaurant, which served only French food, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the Prince of Wales and Wallis Simpson amongst its clientele, he had a strongly populist strand. He may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have catered for the tastes of the urbane, British elite, but in his early engagement with broadcasting media )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as a radio personality and the very first TV Chef on the fledging BBC\) Boulestin promoted not hotel or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurant food but French peasant food. The rural and the feminine cooking of the housewife was a style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooking which, he suggested in his first radio broadcast, avoided the waste found in many British kitchens.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 695.283 m 48.008 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He extolled the kitchen and food as being at the very heart of the home, something women should take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride in despite the struggles that poverty and financial hardship of the economic depression during the inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war years. In a broadcast talk entitled )] TJ ET BT 216.632 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kitchen Sense)] TJ ET BT 284.288 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, addressed to working-class and lower-middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, that is, those looking after their own homes, he urged that a woman: ?do her upmost; and that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may do it not with resignation, for that is the wrong attitude in life; she must take pleasure in her fight and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same way personal satisfaction in the performance of domestic duties ? I can imagine no more charming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture than that of the wife seeing to the perfection of the evening meal and the husband on his way home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from work looking forward to it. Happiness sits smiling at their table?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.992 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.992 595.491 m 386.984 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.984 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here food production and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparation is not hidden away and undertaken by servants or hotel staff, but is central to the home, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated in space and significance with food consumption. Raising the status of cooking and housewifery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a version of femininity and feminism that was espoused by the large domestic women?s organizations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Women?s Institute Movement, rather than those more traditionally associated with inter-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminism, but it had popular support in the era and again at the turn of the century in writing and broadcasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(see for example Nigella Lawson\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the nature of the carefully defined and tightly researched archival work which Strauss? book represents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is difficult for the conclusions which emerge to engage fully with the contradictory and complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the boundaries that are created, recreated and stretched, between classes and genders certainly, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also perhaps between public and private, between texts and their readers and in this case between gourmet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food and home cooking. However, as Strauss? book takes its place in the histories of food, and shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of domesticity in America, it will no doubt stimulate debates around, and analysis of, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Mennell, )] TJ ET BT 122.684 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(All Manners of Food: Eating and Taste in England and France from the Middle Ages to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Present )] TJ ET BT 121.340 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Champaign, IL, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.992 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.992 318.387 m 288.980 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Beetham ?Of recipe books and reading in the nineteenth century: Mrs Beeton and her cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences?, in )] TJ ET BT 153.656 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Recipe Reader)] TJ ET BT 244.964 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Floyd and L. Foster \(Lincoln, NE, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.948 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.948 289.875 m 530.936 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Bourdieu, )] TJ ET BT 127.352 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Distinction, A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste)] TJ ET BT 396.356 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.680 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.680 275.619 m 531.668 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(BBCWA)] TJ ET BT 104.012 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 26 April 1927.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.344 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.344 261.363 m 234.332 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(BBCWA)] TJ ET BT 104.012 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 June 1935.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.008 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.008 247.107 m 230.996 247.107 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 231.775 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 213.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 213.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1458)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 212.601 m 328.316 212.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/46018)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 695.5975 48.0077 707.4775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.9917 595.8055 386.9837 607.6855 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.9917 318.7015 288.9797 330.5815 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.9477 290.1895 530.9357 302.0695 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.6797 275.9335 531.6677 287.8135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.3437 261.6775 234.3317 273.5575 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.0077 247.4215 230.9957 259.3015 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 212.9155 328.3157 224.7955 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1458) >> endobj xref 0 47 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000005115 00000 n 0000005224 00000 n 0000005334 00000 n 0000005443 00000 n 0000009004 00000 n 0000009132 00000 n 0000009216 00000 n 0000009281 00000 n 0000016808 00000 n 0000016906 00000 n 0000025448 00000 n 0000025478 00000 n 0000025606 00000 n 0000025642 00000 n 0000025672 00000 n 0000025800 00000 n 0000025836 00000 n 0000025866 00000 n 0000025994 00000 n 0000026030 00000 n 0000026163 00000 n 0000033469 00000 n 0000033499 00000 n 0000033625 00000 n 0000033661 00000 n 0000033691 00000 n 0000033819 00000 n 0000033855 00000 n 0000033983 00000 n 0000034038 00000 n 0000034166 00000 n 0000034221 00000 n 0000034349 00000 n 0000034404 00000 n 0000034532 00000 n 0000034587 00000 n 0000034715 00000 n 0000034770 00000 n 0000034898 00000 n trailer << /Size 47 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34994 %%EOF