%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827041737+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827041737+01'00') /Title (Medieval marriage) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2920 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medieval marriage)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Foucault famously described sodomy as an utterly confused category. The same could be said for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1459)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sara McDougall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812243987)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/14988.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Mazo Karras)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812244205)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(283pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/14985.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William E. Smith III)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8197 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, especially during the Middle Ages, as the two studies under review demonstrate. Like sodomy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage is a category traversing several fields ? law, culture, religion ? that bites into people?s flesh. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike sodomy, Western cultures have tended to treat marriage positively and ascribed to married people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain privileges. Thus the confusions around marriage could impact people for well or for woe. During the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval period, furthermore, the incoherencies around what constituted a marriage, who could marry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other related questions became more pressing precisely because marriage was gaining cultural and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially, religious value. Importantly these problematic aspects of marriage and its competing as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat overlapping ?unmarriages? \(long-term sexual relationships\), to use Ruth Mazo Karras?s evocative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term, were lived experiences. Telling the tale of these embodied histories then plays a role in the intersecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of marriage and gender by exploring, for instance, how the partners? respective statuses affects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of a relationship and how the sexes were treated differently by courts for the same crime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karras crafts her social history of ?unmarriages? around an interesting gambit. What would medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage and other related relationships look like if we studied them comparatively against each other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of the more usual inquiries into the \(dis\)continuities in the history of marriage? Partially this move is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an effort to blunt the teleological forces that Karras identifies as unavoidable in any historical study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. But her methodological move is also motivated by an effort to raise the profile of sexual unions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that either were not considered marriages by medieval people or were, at best, contestable marriages. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating in this manner, Karras is able to successfully pull together a disparate range of materials and topics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that would otherwise be examined in isolation. Above all, she analyzes this material with a keen eye for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact that status ? along the lines of gender, slave/free, servant/master, religion, etc. ? played in unions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karras shapes her study by limiting her cases to \(presumably\) sexually-active relationships between men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women that would have shared some feature with marriage. Karras call her readers? attention to three facets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly found in medieval marriages that she argues would render these other unions marriage-like and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence engender a degree of confusion for medieval people: sexual exclusivity, longevity of the relationship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and/or the formation of a joint household \(p. 7\). In the process of crafting her study around such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships, Karras labors to ?analyze pair bonds without privileging marriage, while still recognizing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval people did, in fact, privilege marriage? \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two other moves are made in order to give )] TJ ET BT 244.304 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unmarriages)] TJ ET BT 308.300 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( its border. One is the exclusion of same-sex unions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any kind, which Karras justifies by arguing that marriage was only recognizable as a union of male and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female in the medieval period \(p. 9\). The other is to leave aside spiritual marriages and other sexless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between men and women. These chaste marriages and the fraught praise they earned loomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large in the Middle Ages, as Dyan Elliott in )] TJ ET BT 246.668 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spiritual Marriages)] TJ ET BT 342.344 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrates.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.668 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.668 317.139 m 425.660 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.660 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet Karras?s decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclude this type of relationship makes a fair amount of sense. Since sexual relationships between men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women that endured longer than a simple tryst form the bedrock of this study, sexless marriages and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible alternatives categorically do not belong. Furthermore, leaving out spiritual marriages helps readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep in mind that this study is, in a limited sense, a piece of the pre-history of the kinds of non-marital long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term relationships between opposite-sex couples that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s \(p. 8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To help her readers with what she does cover, Karras not only clearly frames her study in the introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also provides guiding comments about the three major historical lines of influences on medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage: Roman law, biblical texts, and Germanic traditions. With regard to Roman law, Karras points to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its importance for differentiating between types of relationships, especially between marriage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concubinage, with an eye toward a child?s right to inherit as well as the fount for the medieval dowry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition. The main point of her section on the Germanic cultural inheritance is to debunk the idea that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were two pan-Germanic models of marriage, namely the oft-romanticized and mutually dissolvable )] TJ ET BT 514.256 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friedelhe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 72.008 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Muntehe)] TJ ET BT 113.996 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was marked with its emphasis on male legal dominance and the paying of a bride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(price \()] TJ ET BT 65.000 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dos)] TJ ET BT 84.332 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). When it comes to the Christian Bible, Karras only touches upon marriage in the Hebrew portion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and limits this discussion to concurrent polygamy out of the various options \(e.g. levirate marriage, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a deceased man?s widow and his brother are obliged to marry\). While Roman law appears to be the single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important source of medieval ideas of marriage and its alternatives in Karras?s eyes, by covering all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three traditions she primes her interpretive pump by showing how those traditions all used the status of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.6677 317.4535 425.6597 329.3335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7367 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman as a way of determining the nature of the relationship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed the social status of women, Karras argues, is one of the key factors in whether or not people would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have recognized a union as a marriage, with marriage usually demanding the woman to be of equal status to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the man. It is no wonder then that this issue ? the connections between social status \(aristocrat, freeborn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedperson, servant, slave, etc.\) and gender ? serve as the opening theme to what is arguable the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central chapter, namely chapter two, ?Unequal unions?. Karras?s key claim here is that the lower the status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the woman to that of the man the greater the odds that they would not have been considered married. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular way of gendering inequality served as a sort of first principle for medieval people when making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of a particular case. In order to show the complexity of her point about gendered inequality, Karras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores others status markers, such as differing religious affiliations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intriguingly, though, this function of \(primarily\) female status was often more enforced by social expectation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than official decrees. Two examples of people who were formally and legally married in spite of the unequal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status were Katherine Swynford and John of Gaunt \(pp. 73?8\) and Margery Paston with Richard Calle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(56?7\). These instances blunt some of Karras?s sharper claims, such as that ?the legal and social status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accorded a union ? including whether it was considered a marriage ? was determined in the first instance not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by what legal or contractual arrangements were made but what status \(social or legal\) of the partners was? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 5?6\). But Karras is certainly justified in stressing the unlikelihood that people of unequal social or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious status would marry ? as her coverage of medieval concubinage well illustrates ? or be considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married in contested cases. A good example of these kinds of non-marital relationships across social status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines of interest to Karras is the Icelandic slave-concubine known as a )] TJ ET BT 371.936 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(frilla )] TJ ET BT 398.948 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(105?8\). In addition to tracing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out various types of class-inflected relationships, Karras gives us reasons why both men and women may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been interested in these non-marital unions and how, if at all, each partner would have benefited from it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third chapter, Karras turns her attention to priests and their partners. Famously, after the 12th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests were forbidden to marry. In spite of this prohibition, though, clerics continued to enter into unions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with women. How these relationships were treated varied greatly over time and location. Extending her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument about the interlocking issues of status and gender, Karras points to the changing view of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to priests to explain the 12th- and 16th-century social upheavals in the domestic life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy. During the high medieval reforms, ?[t]he body itself was polluting? \(p. 120\). Celibacy was a way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimize this pollution. Of course, women, who were so tightly associated with the body, were seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexually polluting for priests. By the time of the Reformation, though, the problem had morphed from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body per se to sinful, dangerous women specifically, with the assumption that their influence needed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(channeled and controlled through marriage. But priests? unions ? be they described as frequenting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concubinage, etc ? during the late medieval period expose just how tricky it was to keep these relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being confused with marriage since the social habits of these types of relationships overlapped, at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karras turns to Parisian court records to examine a variety of problems around marriage and its alternatives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main point Karras proves here is that ?some couples who had a choice of types of union, and ? chose not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make a formal marriage? \(p. 165\). The term ?formal? is crucial. Otherwise she could not include cases of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bigamy, wherein a person illegally and ? from a sacramental point of view ? invalidly remarries while his or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her first spouse still lives. Yet her most important examples deal with couples who appear to have long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships, cohabitated, and could formally marry but did not and expressed to the court a desire not to. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The existence of these people might strike us as less erudite versions of Heloise regarding the sacramental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chains of Christian marriage. In the process Karras reveals to us how key terminology, such as maintaining, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works in legal documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All three of these comparative chapters are possible because of Karras?s careful coverage of the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church?s efforts to regulate marriage, especially from the 12th century onward, in her opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter. While marriages in early medieval period were not heavily conditioned by types of public rituals, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least ecclesial rites, the Church worked to reverse this situation as the high and later Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressed. And its leaders did so precisely to clarify ambiguities around whether or not people were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7357 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually married \(especially with clandestine marriages in mind\). As the conceptual work of theologians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists of canon law illustrates, medieval people were more than able to draw lines between what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted a marriage and what did not, and render rulings about who were and were not married. This fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helps us to remember that Karras?s main point primarily concerns the difficulties of determining who is and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who is not married based on observable or presumed behavior \(longevity, cohabitation, sexual exclusivity\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, social similarity generates the core problem with these ?unmarriages?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly there is much to be gained from Karras?s study. Yet the ways she limits her cases does obscure at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least one subset of medieval relationships that might have been profitable to include, namely intimate but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexless partnerships. Karras could have reconfigured her inquiry to include these chaste unions by not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making sexual activity an essential characteristic of the study, but rather rendered it a comparative study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the contours of medieval marriage as such. In doing so, Karras could have aided us in understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the kinds of relationships recently described by Dyan Elliot as heteroascetic couples and, perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others fit into this complex world of unions Karras puts on display.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.000 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.000 612.003 m 369.992 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas Karras reveals how varied sexual unions were in the medieval period, Sara McDougall keeps our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention fixed on just how compelling marriage was for many people. Through her careful study of church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court records from Troyes in northeastern France, McDougall sheds light on the lengths people went to in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to have their illegal marriages publically solemnized. These bigamists frequently gathered up false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses, bribed priests, and lied about their pasts in spite of the harsh, public punishments leveled upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those found guilty of bigamy in this region. Maintaining an identity as a Christian through marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McDougall argues, was what made this risk worthwhile for these bigamists. And it was a similar concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the sacrament of marriage that made this reform-oriented court in Troyes search out bigamist and level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steep sentences. McDougall is able to construct her mosaic by organizing her conceptually overlapping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters around four core questions: what was the broader religious and cultural context for trying bigamy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases in northeastern France \(chapter one\)? Who were these bigamists \(chapters two and three\)? Why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commit bigamy \(chapter four\)? And, why persecute it \(chapter five\)?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In studying the exceptional interest in bigamy by the diocesan court in Troyes, McDougall has made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant contribution to the broader study of medieval and early modern bigamy. Whereas Shannon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McSheffrey has shown how bigamy claims in England were often fraudulent tales told by people in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get out of an unwanted marriage, McDougall reveals an activist court that sought out bigamists because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the court?s fealty to the Church?s sacramental vision of marriage. In doing the latter she tracks where and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why bigamy developed as an issue that would feature prominently in 16th- and 17th-century Europe. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing so her work should be of interest to readers of such scholars in this area as Alexandra Cook, Noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cook, Richard Boyer, and Bernard Capp. In addition, McDougall provides a powerful counter argument to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who read medieval bigamy cases as a failure of Christianization among the masses. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McDougall insists, especially in chapter four, that bigamy reveals a laity deeply desirous of Christina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage even if they were not in complete lockstep with the Church?s rules for marriage in how they went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about obtaining these unions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her chapters on, respectively, bigamous husbands and wives, McDougall demonstrates that the court dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the sexes in distinct ways for the same crime. Men were given harsher punishments including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment and being places on the ladder, which exposed the criminal to the public?s gaze. Women got )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fines. The reason for the gendered approach toward sentencing had to do with against what party the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bigamous person had transgressed. For husbands, they were seen as acting against the community, whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wives were primarily violating their relationship with their husbands \(pp. 59, 70, 74\). When wives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed bigamy, there was also the implication that their husbands had failed to exert proper control over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their wives \(pp. 92?4\). As marriage gained more cultural prestige, carried more religious weight, and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood to play an important role in social stability, husbands were increasingly obligated to adhere to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permitted forms of marriage. In other words, they were told to imitate saintly figures ? especially Joseph, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virgin Mary?s husband, who gained stature greatly in the 15th century \(pp. 67?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McDougall also provides us with some demographic information about people who committed bigamy. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.9997 612.3175 369.9917 624.1975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7820 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were usually mature or older persons who had spent some years in their previous marriage. The men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to remarry in a different locale than where they had resided with their first spouse. Both men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women claimed that they were widowers and widows respectively, either out of genuine belief or in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissemble about their true status. Concerning why people would risk punishment to remarry, McDougall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers the usual litany of explanations \(e.g. economic stability, seeking a more fulfilling relationship, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave a spouse who committed adultery, etc.\) \(pp. 101?2\). But she also helpfully adds to it. She notes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while having children per se was not a motivating factor as far as the records indicate, the guarantee of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy to any child born of a bigamous union may well have been \(p. 105\). Perhaps even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, through their partially fabricated tales along with publically solemnizing their new marriages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these bigamists, according to McDougall, were seeking a ?Christian monogamous marriage? \(p. 100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet at this point I must point toward a difference in interpretation between McDougall and myself on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point of monogamy \(rather than the broader category of Christian marriage\). I believe McDougall misses a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chance to be more precise as well as fails to follow through with an implication of her own point regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the variety of forms bigamy took in the late medieval period. In her analysis, McDougall appears to follow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boyer?s point that ?[b]igamy, after all, was not a behavioral category but a legal one?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.256 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.256 583.491 m 462.248 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.248 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand how medieval Christian identity would be effected by remarriage, I suggest we should pay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer attention to the licit form of bigamy available to widow\(er\)s and how marital temporality is tracked. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly the kind of bigamy a widow\(er\) partook in was both permissible and a step away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian monogamous ideal, since not remarrying at all and instead living chastely was a superior religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move \(pp. 24?8\). This legal form of bigamy was tainted with the scent of polygamy because medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians had a strong sense of the diachronic contours of marital life. In the present, we tend to emphasize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the synchronic register and thus straight-forward monogamous behavior can serve as a basis for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monogamous identity. It is also the conceptual model that enables Boyer?s distinction. In short, then, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to me that what kind of bigamist a person was going to be mattered deeply to these medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of why trying to determine if a person was illegally committing bigamy mattered to the court, according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to McDougall, is that there was a crisis in marriage afoot. I wish to concede that there may well have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis in late medieval marriage. But before rendering a judgment on the matter either way, I want a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of how McDougall conceives of a crisis. On the few occasions when McDougall does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment on why bigamy constituted a crisis for late medieval marriage she articulates at least two different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stances. The first position renders the problem as a conflict of authority between the ecclesial powers and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laity over who defines marriage \(p. 2\). In this version a crisis appears to exist regardless of whether or not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any judicial action occurred since the laity initiated the crises by refusing to adhere to the matrimonial rules )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laid out by the Church. Elsewhere, though, the crisis appears to be merely an epiphenomenal by-product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the court?s activity: ?A crisis emerged only when officials not only refused to tolerate more quiet acts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bigamy but also dissolved or suspended any suspect marriages ... Crises only emerged when and where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws were upheld in their strictest sense? \(p. 43\). Ironing out some of these tensions as well as elaborating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more fully what constitutes a crisis would aid the reader in assessing the merits of this strand of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The possibility of a lay theology of marriage, which McDougall?s evidence suggests existed, is worthy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more investigation. It also helps return us to the opening issue of marital confusion. As McDougall shows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the court often had to determine if there was a )] TJ ET BT 257.960 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto )] TJ ET BT 299.288 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage in existence even if it was an illegal one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with lay folks creating a marriage when they were not supposed to do so. In doing so, the court granted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it did not have a monopoly over marriage. In other words, even when a person was marrying in violation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sacrament, the laws, and customs, there was still a marriage to be dissolved. Yet what made it a marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the eyes of the judges rather than concubinage? The rituals and other gestures toward solemnization? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that the spouses regarded each other as husband and wife, which is reminiscent of the Roman approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to marriage? That the community, or at least parts of it, regarded them as married? The status of the spouses? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core question over what is the )] TJ ET BT 202.316 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sine qua non)] TJ ET BT 263.648 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of marriage, a seemingly perennial one in the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matrimony, brings us back to Karras point that it can hard to tell who is and is not married in the medieval )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.2557 583.8055 462.2477 595.6855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 3469 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world with all of its competing ?unmarriages?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Mazo Karras thanks the reviewer for his observations and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 704.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyan Elliott, )] TJ ET BT 129.020 704.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spiritual Marriage: Sexual Abstinence in Medieval Wedlock )] TJ ET BT 421.976 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.296 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.296 703.299 m 555.956 703.299 l S BT 64.016 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 689.043 m 90.344 689.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 676.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyan Elliott, )] TJ ET BT 129.020 676.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bride of Christ Goes to Hell: Metaphor and Embodiment in the Lives of Pious )] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, 200?1500)] TJ ET BT 154.004 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, PA, 2012\), pp. 150?71.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.660 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.660 660.531 m 392.648 660.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Boyer, )] TJ ET BT 140.336 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lives of Bigamists: Marriage, Family, and Community in Colonial Mexico)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Albuquerque, NM, 1995\), p. 31.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.992 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.992 632.019 m 276.980 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.157 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-France)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-france.net/vol13reviews/vol13no82lester.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 577.251 m 316.976 577.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 319.976 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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http://www.h-france.net/vol13reviews/vol13no82lester.pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.medievalists.net/2013/01/10/unmarriages-women-men-and-sexual-unions-in-the-middle-)] TJ ET BT 536.288 443.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.2957 703.6135 555.9557 715.4935 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 689.3575 90.3437 701.2375 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.6597 660.8455 392.6477 672.7255 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.9917 632.3335 276.9797 644.2135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> 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