%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826100555+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826100555+01'00') /Title (A Concise History of Brazil) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4053 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Concise History of Brazil)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By official decree, Brazil celebrates its 500th anniversary in 2000: the modern history of the country dating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from April, 1500, when a fleet commanded by Pedro Alvares Cabral anchored at Porto Seguro on the north-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east coast of Bahia. To borrow a phrase used by historians of the Imperial period \(1822-1889\), for the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five hundred years scholars have sought to discover the real Brazil in the official Brazil - the latter a formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entity, depicted in largely European terms, the former an exotic place, for centuries ill-defined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartographers, a mix-of Amerindian, African, Mediterranean and Asian cultures struggling to forge an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity and determine its place in the world. Pin-pointing the distinctness of Brazil continues to confound.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most distinguished historian of Brazil of his generation, Boris Fausto has chosen a broad-brush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical narrative approach, punctuated by a discussion of key controversies in the historiography. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts Brazilian development from the arrival of the Portuguese to its present position as tenth largest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy in the world and the country with the highest degree of recorded income inequality. Writing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of Brazilian history is to engage with many controversies - confronting analyses that present history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as moments of abrupt change or 'missed opportunities', as constant progress versus inertia, as ethnic diversity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a culture of tolerance against enduring inequity, poverty and violence. Are these the legacies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(146)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boris Fausto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521563321)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(380pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521563321)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boris Fausto)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7154 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese colonialism, of the endurance of slavery until almost the end of the nineteenth century or of rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation in the second half of the twentieth?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial Brazil was shaped by European expansion overseas from the fifteenth century onwards. It was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of Portuguese long-distance trade and defense of national identity. Commercial engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genoa and Venice, confronting the challenge of Islam in the peninsula and the Mediterranean, fear of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unifying Spain, the experience of settling the Atlantic island \(Madeira, the Azores, Cape Verde and So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom\) and ventures in Africa and Asia \(not least displacement by the Dutch and British\) all influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initial contacts with Brazil and, later, the place of the colony in the Portuguese world. From these emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the major 'Brazilian' institutions of the colonial period and beyond - monarchy, settler oligarchy, landed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate and slavery. Were these influences also responsible for characteristics such as a search for adventure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial tolerance and authoritarianism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In writing about the colonial period, Fausto attempts to recapture the 'silent presence' of Amerindians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporates new approaches to the study of family and society. Inevitably, however, the narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates on the story of the administrative organisation of the country and state formation, on social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, on commercial ventures \(Brazil initially disappointed in that precious metals were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered until the end of the seventeenth century\) and on sugar. Sugar, much more than brazil wood, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tobacco or gemstones and gold \(discovered in significant quantities in the 1690s\), was the great colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staple and configured economy and society for centuries. This said, one of the peculiarities of late colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brazil was the prevalence of the institution of slavery. It was not a markedly rural phenomenon. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, slaves were as likely to be found in a wide range of occupations - engaged in construction, petty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading and even workshops - as toiling on sugar plantations. Slave ownership permeated much of society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and would become even more diffused in the immediate post-Independence decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The longevity of the Portuguese colonial state in Brazil surprised many contemporaries and continues to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excite the interest of scholars. It successfully confronted determined Dutch efforts to carve out an empire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the north-east in the seventeenth century and periodic threats from other European powers, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. Moreover, trailblazers from Brazil settled regions technically falling within the control of Spain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushing the frontier outward to the west and south. Possibly, the colonial system survived due to distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and size, \(Brazil was too large and too far away to be administered effectively from Lisbon\), to a degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatism in official commercial and administrative policy, to the emergence of regional oligarchies who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked to the Crown for the preservation of order in a society where slaves and blacks massively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outnumbered whites and, by the eighteenth century, to the association with England, in part cemented by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gold boom of 1695-c.1750.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The connexion with England also explains the peculiar nature of the transition from colony to independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire. Brazil is unique in the Americas in that independence from the mother country was 'presided' over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the heir to the metropolitan throne. Perhaps this also accounts for the survival of 'colonial' institutions - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, plantation and slavery - and national unity. While Brazilian resistance to Portuguese rule had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been provoked in the latter part of the eighteenth century by administrative reforms designed to strengthen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan authority and may have been exacerbated by the decline of the mining sector, the defining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event was the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Rio de Janeiro in 1807, under the protection of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navy, with the French invasion of Portugal. At a stroke, Brazil became the centre of the Portuguese world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concurrently, mercantilist commercial regulations were lifted, soon to be replaced by a commercial treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Britain that virtually imposed free trade on Brazil. In 1821, when Joo IV was forced to return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisbon, he appointed his son, Pedro, as regent in Brazil. Independence followed in 1822 when Pedro I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acclaimed Emperor of Brazil.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having charted more than three centuries of colonial history in the opening chapter, Fausto devotes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remainder of the book to the post-Independence period, following conventional 'watersheds': independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Brazil, 1822-89; the First \(Old\) Republic, 1889-1930; the Vargas ascendancy, 1930-45; 'guided' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy, 1945-64; the military government, 1964-84/5. In describing the formative period of the Empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he stresses internal challenges to statehood and unity, in part to correct over-drawn contrasts with Spanish )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7449 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. While Brazil survived as a single polity, in the face of the Balkanisation of other parts of Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, the transition from colony to nation \(and the continuity of monarchy\) was far from peaceful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unity far from inevitable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Examining the political structure of the Empire, Fausto provides an illuminating comment on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('moderating power', the peculiar arrangement that established the Crown as a fourth, 'neutral' element in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional constellation alongside the judicial, legislative and executive branches of government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether this device, or the realisation of contending regional elites by the 1840s that provincial challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to central authority were economically damaging and threatened popular rebellion, secured the unity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country it a moot point. Certainly, both contributed to a renew impetus in favour of political centralisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coffee made the Empire, it also undermined the monarchical system. By the 1840s coffee had become the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal export. During the 1860s production spread beyond the region around Rio de Janeiro to the interior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the province of So Paulo. With the movement of the coffee frontier came slavery, at least initially. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coffee and slavery financed the Empire and bound the elite together. However, with the end of the trans-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic slave trade in the 1850s and a flourishing internal slave trade in the 1860s and 1870s, when labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was transferred from sugar estates in the north-east to dynamic coffee regions, slavery became less of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('national' institution. Moreover, even the internal trade could not satisfy the labour demands of coffee - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsidised immigration became the preferred alternative by the 1880s. Mass immigration in the 1880s was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part, responsible for challenging prevailing social attitudes and changing society. Regionalist sentiments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew, especially in So Paulo, as the central government was perceived as treating the province, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically under-represented, as a cash cow, a view that intensified as coffee prices weakened and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in Rio de Janeiro seemed deaf to planter pleas for assistance. In differentiating between long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term and immediate causes for the substitution of a centralised Empire by a federal republic, Fausto does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect other factors such a the increasing presence of the Army in politics \(after the Paraguayan War\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes with the Roman Catholic church and the identification of younger army officers and important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections of the urban bourgeoisie with the cause of republicanism. By 1888 the monarchy was no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary for unity or order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As radical contemporaries remarked, the Republic was declared in the year in which the centenary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of the French Revolution was celebrated. Yet the republic that emerged was positivist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oligarchic. It was also unstable. Differing models of republicanism were on offer, traditional politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resented the enhanced presence of the military, there was social protest in the backlands and coffee prices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakened further. Establishing a new order was associated with the settlement of intra-regional oligarchic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict and constructing a central mechanism capable of arbitrating intra- and inter-regional disputes - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly the emergence of a political class. It also required support for the coffee sector. Fausto shows how, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the early 1900s, these arrangements were in place. The disintegration of that balance of interests between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two most powerful state oligarchies \(Minas and So Paulo\) in 1929 and a further crisis in coffee proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the undoing of the Old Republic. However, by this stage Brazilian society and economy have become much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more complex. New actors \(thought not necessarily new classes\) were clamouring for access to power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably urban groups and those who saw the future of Brazil as less connected with export-agriculture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps, like the Empire, the Old Republic died of a hardening of the arteries. It was more effective when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordering dispute from within than without. Yet, as Fausto has written elsewhere, and emphasises here, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930 the nature of the break with the personalities and the institutions of the past was far from clear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not until some years after the 1930s coup did it emerge that the Vargas regime was going to preside over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of a new, centralised state that enjoyed greater autonomy from sectional and sectoral interests than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its predecessor. Economic interventionism, particularly the promotion of manufacturing, and attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain social control through co-option gradually became the defining characteristics of the new system. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(This is not so say that cruder methods of repression were not frequently deployed.\) Economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventionism and social action were grafted on to an existing authoritarian tradition, a tendency fostered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the ideological rivalries of the time and growing tension in the cities. All these features were encapsulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 'New State' \(Estado Nvo\) established in 1937 following a government sponsored coup designed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent the Vargas regime. For Fausto, commenting on a theme that he has made his own, the Vargas regime )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7142 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was authoritarian, centralist and pragmatic, a combination essential to further a national project of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technocratic modernisation. This stance also explains Vargas' return to power in 1950 as a democratically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected president.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The experiment with 'open' democracy between 1945 and 1964 owed much to the 'urbanisation' of politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought not necessarily the urbanisation of political institutions. In the major cities, political participation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew after 1945 and electoral politics became more competitive. By 1950, debate about the model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing - in an 'open' or a statist economy - became clearer. Not in doubt was the developmentalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(option to industrialise, a programme supported by the industrial lobby, part of the old political class, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections of the rural elites and state-controlled organised labour. This alliance was undermined by inflation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worker unrest, capital flight, in-fighting amongst the political classes and external pressure. With organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrest in the countryside, arguably for the first time in the history of the country, urban worker protest about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cost of living and the radicalisation of sections of the Roman Catholic church, the democratic experiment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was depicted as fostering revolution from below. All political actors seemed to be of the opinion that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic solution to the problems confronting the system was impossible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1964 golpe inaugurated twenty-one years of military rule. Not that the regime was unchanging nor, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outset, expected to last so long. Purportedly staged to free the country from corruption and Communism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to restore democracy, by the end of the decade the regime had evolved into an altogether more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technocratic-authoritarian arrangement committed to industrial deepening and embedding the required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional setting. Nevertheless, the Brazilian regime did not embark on a course of systematic violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar to that observed in the Argentine and Chile. There was torture, summary executions, 'disappearances' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and violent repression \(especially in the countryside\), labour organisations and the universities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervened and the political rights of many were suspended. Yet the media remained relatively free, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a degree of judicial independence, the anti-government stand of sections of the Roman Catholic church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was tolerated and, though shorn of much of its power and highly regulated, Congress continued to function. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having intensified around 1968, state terrorism became less acute by the early 1970s as the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic miracle became manifest. Forced savings, relatively low inflation, an inflow of foreign capital, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(export promotion and a growth in domestic credit account for the miracle. There was rapid growth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic diversification. There was also a widening 'social gap', environmental degradation and increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external exposure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buffeted by the second oil crisis, growing popular mobilisation, the withdrawal of support by a business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community resentful of the statisation of the economy and a loss of confidence in its ability to manage, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armed Forces were able to negotiate a return to the barracks during 1984. A 'new reality' awaited: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal problems confronting the country had been identified - poverty, social inequality, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarianism. Finding solutions may prove more problematic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Concise History)] TJ ET BT 122.012 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers the non-expert reader a broad panorama of Brazilian history. The expert will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciate efforts to capture issues and controversies in the historiography and to present them in a digestible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion. Fausto is at his best when examining processes such as state formation and the operation of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and organisations. Here there is detail and informative, interpretive comment. There is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed comment on major social development. Fausto is less confident when dealing with economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and external relations. On occasions, these topics appear as an after-thought, included at those points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where they cause least disruption to the flow of the main narrative. This impression may be due to problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of translation. There is an excessive recourse to colloquialisms and less subtlety in the language - for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Kubitschek's )] TJ ET BT 145.160 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Programa de Metas)] TJ ET BT 241.148 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( becomes 'Program of Goals' rather than the more usual \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurate\) 'Programme of Targets'. Moreover, in following too closely a conventional periodisation, Fausto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underplays some of the continuities hinted at in the narrative, not least in economic institutions and policies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 75.967 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 58.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 58.187 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/146)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 56.793 m 322.316 56.793 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 57.1075 322.3157 68.9875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/146) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 305 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/773)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000537 00000 n 0000000619 00000 n 0000004724 00000 n 0000004833 00000 n 0000004943 00000 n 0000005052 00000 n 0000008613 00000 n 0000008741 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000008890 00000 n 0000016097 00000 n 0000016162 00000 n 0000023664 00000 n 0000023748 00000 n 0000030943 00000 n 0000031069 00000 n 0000031164 00000 n 0000031229 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31586 %%EOF