%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827032056+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827032056+01'00') /Title (Worth Saving: Disabled Children During the Second World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4254 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Worth Saving: Disabled Children During the Second World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review was written in early June, and coincided with the anniversary of D-Day. The annual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemoration of this event, accompanied this year by new television documentaries as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaying of iconic films, is yet another reminder of the important place the Second World War still occupies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British culture as well as history. Much of what we value today is understood in relation to both wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences and the promise of a better post-war world. While disabled children have been marginalized, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not totally overlooked, in most accounts of 1939?45, this detailed and thoughtful study by Sue Wheatcroft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that their treatment actually serves to exemplify many of the key themes and issues of the period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is something deeply comforting about the knowledge that in an era of total war there were officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making sure that disabled children were not only evacuated to safer rural areas but were also issued with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suitable footwear so that they could enjoy the countryside \(p. 34\). Yet Wheatcroft is not afraid to explore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations of the care available. There were problems evacuating all the disabled children; leading to delays, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuitable placements and evidence of neglect and abuse. Also, while some officials were determined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treat the most vulnerable as priority groups, others expressed hostility towards disabled people. In both cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a tendency to view disabled children as part of a potentially problematic group rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals with different needs. As Wheatcroft demonstrates, this had profound implications for post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1460)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sue Wheatcroft)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719088001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719088001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pamela Dale)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7653 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy making as well as wartime arrangements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatcroft highlights the importance of categorization and the fact that some groups of disabled children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received better treatment than others before, during and after the war. She also reveals how gaps in statutory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision were filled by charities whose practices both helped and hindered the individuals referred to them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, Wheatcroft persuasively argues that while evacuation could be a positive experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for disabled children much depended on the attitude of other people. There was certainly no sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equality of entitlement or right to quality care. Officials could be helpful, or not; the public in some areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed more prepared to welcome disabled children than others; family members might or might not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supportive; paid carers could be cruel but could also go to exceptional lengths to meet the needs of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charges; children might be carefully prepared for life as independent, autonomous adults or they might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consigned to the permanent care of the vestiges of the Poor Law. Wartime help for disabled children was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contingent on a number of different factors, and service-users were typically expected to be grateful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passive recipients of support delivered under a paternalistic model of care that empowered professionals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other elite figures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When evaluating the experiences of disabled children Wheatcroft looks to personal testimony as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official archives and this allows a focus on both intentions and outcomes. Her main interest is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of education and health services for children now understood to have special needs. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach usefully encompasses an assessment of policy developments before, during and after the war, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war years seeing the acceleration of some initiatives but also resource constraints that worked to retard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others. An obvious comparison is with the evacuation of children not thought to have special needs, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatcroft makes persuasive arguments about the benefits of moving entire residential schools. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned relocations provided a sense of continuity and security that was often missing from the lives of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuees who had their schooling disrupted, went through humiliating selection processes and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced frequent moves. The day special schools and hospital schools encountered more difficulties but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those in reception and neutral areas made efforts to carry on as normal. It was the arrangements for disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children remaining in supposedly evacuated areas that proved most problematic, although Wheatcroft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that some integration occurred as mildly disabled children joined the elementary schools when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first reopened. Some specialist provision then returned to the London area, with education and staff training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully continuing throughout the rest of the war. Wheatcroft also positively assesses home tuition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schemes \(pp. 82?3\). Her final wartime chapter looks at hostels and other institutions for mentally disordered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and emotionally disturbed children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters include a wealth of detailed information, carefully referenced to original records, and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very interesting images. The chapters are organized chronologically, but the wartime ones take a thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach that does introduce a little repetition as Wheatcroft considers how different groups of disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children were treated in different settings. The wartime concern with maladjusted children is reflected in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention given to services for this group. All this material provides an important resource for future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers, and despite the scholarly approach adopted the book is sufficiently accessible to be of interest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wide range of readers. It is certainly informative to read )] TJ ET BT 313.268 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Worth Saving)] TJ ET BT 378.932 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( alongside other accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuation that do not address the issues faced by disabled children. Indeed Wheatcroft?s work needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered as part of an ongoing effort to study the evacuation experience from different perspectives. She is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example interested in the recollections of teachers and other staff who were evacuated with the children. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This could be expanded to look at those organizing the evacuation and acting as escorts. Simon Garfield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws attention to the Mass-Observation diaries of Eileen Potter as an insight into this neglected topic )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.968 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.968 160.323 m 539.960 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 539.960 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although he misses the opportunity to suggest that as someone concerned with special schools and clinics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of her charges probably were disabled children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Wheatcroft usefully makes the point that the experiences of the disabled children were in significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways both the same and different to those of other children she pays far less attention to developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with the fate of disabled adults. This is important because the care given to at least some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the evacuation of disabled children contrasts sharply with historical accounts of the wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect of other vulnerable people. Many frail elderly people did not long survive their relocation from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.9677 160.6375 539.9597 172.5175 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7819 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London institutions needed for military and civilian casualties. Other older people \(evacuated or not\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered from disruptions to their community support networks but did not immediately benefit from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion of dedicated statutory or voluntary services. There remains a question mark over the care of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable groups, for example the residents of large-scale, long-stay hospitals for the mentally ill and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentally defective. Evidence from the Devon institutions I have studied points to neglect tempered by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official concern to avoid the excessive asylum mortality rates seen during the First World War. Inmates were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left in buildings exposed to enemy action on a vulnerable coastline, and their care was compromised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime overcrowding \(the institution accepted patients from asylums needed for military purposes\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understaffing. Local hospitals claimed they were unable to treat mentally defective patients as they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(busy with ?convoy and civilian casualties?, and even basic record keeping deteriorated. Yet at the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable effort was made to improve nutrition, monitor patients? weights and limit the spread of TB. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There also seemed genuine sorrow when a patient \(on licence\) was killed by a bomb in Exeter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatcroft suggests the mentally defective were a particularly disadvantaged group, but also shows that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled children benefited from the emphasis given to their status as children rather than potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification with other groups of disabled people. It is worth remembering Deborah Dwork?s important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis that ?War is good for babies and other young children?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.628 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.628 569.235 m 345.620 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.620 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Some policies from the 1939?45 era clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originated in interwar thinking that was itself shaped by both the formative 1914?18 period and earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparations for economic competition as well as military conflict between states. Wheatcroft traces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of the Liberal welfare state but although she shows how a concern with disabled veterans \(from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both world wars\) tended to reinforce divisions between disabled people, with some seen as more deserving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than others, the full implications of these ideas, then and now, are not fully explored. It is perfectly possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to argue that the needs of disabled children are very different from those of disabled adults \(many of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will not have experienced childhood disability\). Yet adult activists today seek to set the policy agenda with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an emphasis on individualism, autonomy and choice that may not be appropriate for children. This has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served to intensify debates about the merits or otherwise of special schools. Wheatcroft usefully highlights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the resource these represented, and sensibly balances evidence of acute homesickness \(and opportunities for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hidden abuse\) against the value of the specialist skills taught and the opportunity to mix with other disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children with similar needs. While evacuation was a formative experience for people of a certain age \(not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just evacuees\), the life-chances of disabled children continued to be shaped by access to specialist resources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with schooling often a critical determinant of experiences in adulthood as well as childhood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The war years served to encourage the development of residential special schools, a policy that continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945?55 \(pp. 160?5\) and was to some extent pursued at the expense of day special schooling. This removal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of children from their homes and families contrasts with other policy areas where the wartime evacuation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience has been linked to post-war efforts to protect such ties, as the importance of bonding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment were increasingly recognized. Such ideas are associated with the work of John Bowlby, but as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatcroft explains, professional interest in the emotional needs of children did nothing to discourage the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that some children were better off away from their families \(p. 129\). Although much of the discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated on delinquent and disturbed children, disabled children were also vulnerable to official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns that their homes might cause/exacerbate their problems. The disempowerment of families, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed negatively but still the main carers of disabled children, has been a problematic feature of decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making about the care of disabled children since the war. It has also made the transition from child to adult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services particularly complicated. These services were traditionally separate and suffered from a lack of co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordination, problems that were exacerbated by wartime developments and often remain unresolved today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a very balanced account Wheatcroft is not afraid to explore what was good and bad about the evacuation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and its influence over later policy developments. One of the arguments that I took from her book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that disabled children were viewed as worth saving, but that their protection owed less to a sense of equal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights than their identification as a vulnerable group requiring the protection of a paternalistic state. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking imposed limitations on what was offered at the time, with some groups seen as more deserving than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others and collective needs addressed at the expense of individual preferences. It also restricted the post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer in terms of the range of services available to disabled children \(as children and as adults\) but it did )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6277 569.5495 345.6197 581.4295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5900 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure a vital safety-net. While Wheatcroft is careful to avoid sensationalism, an implicit theme in her UK )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study is the contrast with international developments. Wartime efforts to save disabled children were an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integral part of a wider British evacuation plan, but they were contemporaneous with Nazi policies to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately exterminate similarly disabled people on the continent. This horrific backdrop receives limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention from Wheatcroft, and having shown the pervasiveness of eugenic language \(pp. 22?5\), even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst opponents of overtly eugenic policies, in Britain the impact of these ideas abroad perhaps also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed further comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatcroft makes it painfully clear, in relation to reactions to saving children \(p.43\) and even killing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children \(p. 144\), that not everyone in the UK valued all lives equally, despite the collectivism that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant to be engendered by wartime conditions. Instead of what we would now understand to be ?valuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people? a premium was placed on economic output and disabled children?s care was shaped by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived future relationship to the labour force. Wheatcroft demonstrates that work was at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many special education programmes, although she has less to say about the financial support available to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled people and their families than other recent historical studies of disability policy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.304 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.304 597.747 m 474.296 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 474.296 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misses one of the important contradictions in disability policy today that could usefully have been explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the rather abbreviated concluding section. Activists are articulating an entirely legitimate agenda that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prioritises individual autonomy and service-user rights but this is proving thin cover for efforts to protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare spending in an era of austerity when people?s economic contribution rather than social needs are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being scrutinised. There is currently an unpleasant backlash against recipients of state welfare, and disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people are very vulnerable to loss of both income and services. Interestingly this seems to be encouraging a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more collective and less individualistic approach to disability rights campaigns, and this approach echoes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiments that will always be associated with Britain?s wartime experiences. Sue Wheatcroft has made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful contribution to our understanding of the evacuation of disabled children and it is hoped that this will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulate further research on this important topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Garfield, )] TJ ET BT 144.344 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Are at War: The Diaries of Five Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2005\), pp. 4?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 375.411 m 237.656 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deborah Dwork, )] TJ ET BT 147.656 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War is Good for Babies and Other Young Children: a History of the Infant and Child )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Welfare Movement in England, 1898-1918)] TJ ET BT 268.988 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.312 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.312 346.899 m 404.300 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Borsay, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability and Social Policy in Britain since 1750: a History of Exclusion)] TJ ET BT 486.668 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\), pp. 140?68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.340 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.340 318.387 m 208.328 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am happy with the review and no not wish to add any comments.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 276.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 259.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 259.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1460)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 257.625 m 328.316 257.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/63458)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.3037 598.0615 474.2957 609.9415 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6677 375.7255 237.6557 387.6055 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.3117 347.2135 404.2997 359.0935 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.3397 318.7015 208.3277 330.5815 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 257.9395 328.3157 269.8195 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1460) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000004950 00000 n 0000005059 00000 n 0000005169 00000 n 0000005278 00000 n 0000008839 00000 n 0000008967 00000 n 0000009051 00000 n 0000009135 00000 n 0000016841 00000 n 0000016871 00000 n 0000016999 00000 n 0000017035 00000 n 0000017119 00000 n 0000024991 00000 n 0000025021 00000 n 0000025149 00000 n 0000025185 00000 n 0000025297 00000 n 0000031250 00000 n 0000031280 00000 n 0000031408 00000 n 0000031444 00000 n 0000031572 00000 n 0000031627 00000 n 0000031755 00000 n 0000031810 00000 n 0000031938 00000 n 0000031993 00000 n 0000032121 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32217 %%EOF