%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818083601+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818083601+01'00') /Title (Intellectual Culture in Medieval Paris: Theologians and the University, c.1100?1330) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3973 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Intellectual Culture in Medieval Paris: Theologians and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(University, c.1100?1330)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period of medieval intellectual history covered by this book, primarily the 12th and 13th centuries, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that has received considerable attention for well over a century. The main question, then, is what does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Wei bring to this subject that has not been done before, or how has he reshaped it? The answer is he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done much in both respects. He has added a large amount of material which, if not precisely new, is rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in such detail. And by concentrating on the interface between scholastic thought and medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and economic life, he has reshaped the narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his introduction Wei identifies four aspects of his approach that he considers new. First, he blends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional and intellectual history by placing the philosophical and theological thought of the period within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of schools in the 12th century, the emergence of the University of Paris, and the concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of society outside the schools. Second, he balances more abstract philosophical interests in logic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphysics with an emphasis on ethics, moral theology, pastoral mission, and political thought. Third, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadens the gender dimension of the narrative by giving attention to the intellectual contributions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, specifically Hildegard of Bingen and Marguerite Porete. And finally, he includes in each chapter an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1462)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Wei)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781139368759)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(462pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/aus/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9781139368759&ss=fro)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Courtenay)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7955 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in-depth analysis of problems expounded through the works and words of theologians of the period. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing much of his evidence from texts available in translation and choosing issues such as sexuality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic activity that are of interest to modern students, he is likely to attract a sizeable readership that may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be motivated, one hopes, to continue study beyond the pages of this book. While the first of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches, namely intellectual history in an institutional and social context, is not really that new but is still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufficiently pursued, the other emphasizes he has introduced do represent a fresh, perceptive, and highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readable approach to the subject. Wei himself, on the basis of his earlier research and publications, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably suited to this task.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book begins with an excellent chapter on the schools of the 12th century, providing a balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the competitiveness among individual teachers in a marketplace of learning, and walking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader through some of the more difficult parts of logic and theology of the period by using texts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotations from Abelard, Rupert of Deutz, Goswin \(life of\), John of Salisbury, and others. Building upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacques LeGoff?s )] TJ ET BT 122.648 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les intellectuels au Moyen ge)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.624 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.624 612.003 m 289.616 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.616 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the entrepreneurial spirit of the Parisian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual scene, Wei goes well beyond LeGoff in fleshing out this picture. The thirst for fame and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition to attract large numbers of students, who helped secure a master?s reputation as well as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income, was a distinguishing feature of Parisian intellectual life, especially in the first half of the 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter is on the monastic writers and the emergence of the School of St. Victor. I find the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which Wei lets individual authors \(Anselm, Bernard of Clairvaux, William of St. Thierry, Hildegard of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bingen, and Hugh of St. Victor\) speak directly to the reader through long quotations in English to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly useful and successful. While Wei shows his command of the principal and most recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary literature on this topic ? equally demonstrated in subsequent chapters ? his choice of texts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments provides a richer and more nuanced understanding of this topic than is normally available. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter would have benefited from another example that highlights an important difference between those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious orders and schoolmen. Against Abelard?s view of the nature of God and the perfection of creation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which did not allow for God?s creating a different world, Hugh of St. Victor maintained that God could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted otherwise than he did, and thus the order of creation was chosen by God out of other possibilities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Lombard in his )] TJ ET BT 138.008 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Libri sententiarum)] TJ ET BT 227.684 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shared Hugh?s concern and also criticized Abelard on the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue, and this particular issue continued into the 13th and 14th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With chapter three Wei comes to the origins and early development of the University of Paris. This chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers the necessary account of the emergence of universities \(particularly Bologna and Paris\) in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12th and early 13th centuries. Like the rest of the book, it is well written and clear. He takes the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a close reading of the 1215 statutes for the University of Paris as well as the papal bull)] TJ ET BT 489.284 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Parens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scientiarum)] TJ ET BT 92.012 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, both of them major documents for the early decades of that university. This is the best textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of )] TJ ET BT 88.676 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parens Scientiarum)] TJ ET BT 183.668 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I have read. And largely because of that analysis Wei is able to put the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization of the University of Paris into the narrative of the monastic critique of the schools in the 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and to see the university, in part, as a blending of those traditions. This is a perceptive departure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from earlier accounts. I also welcome Wei?s emphasis on the federal structure of the university, emphasizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the independent but, for the most part, collaborative nature of the nations within the faculty of arts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher faculties of theology, canon law, and medicine. Wei?s use of Bonaventure and Aquinas to illustrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two different dimensions of 13th century theology ? a not unusual choice ? works well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four is entitled ?Communication and control?. Wei makes a strong case for the importance of moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology as the principal concern of theologians in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, and that throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period into the late 13th century theologians justified their discipline, writing, and teaching as crucial to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the proper structure of the lives of Christians outside the schools, as seen in the views of Thomas Aquinas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry of Ghent and Godfrey of Fontaines. This applicability to societal concerns is illustrated by excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of specific topics and issues, most especially the concept of purgatory, as explored by 12th- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13th-century theologians, going back to Abelard, Hugh of St. Victor and Peter Lombard, the transitional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of Peter Comestor, Peter the Chanter and William of Auvergne, up to Aquinas, and Bonaventure. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other topics explored are the ethics of intention \(based on Abelard, but later referred to again in one of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.6237 612.3175 289.6157 624.1975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7886 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only two mentions of John Duns Scotus\) and depictions of the devil. A third section on means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication covers quodlibetal disputations, preaching, confession, and different approaches based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the specific audiences being targeted, though surprisingly no use was made in this chapter of Sophie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Menache?s )] TJ ET BT 90.992 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vox Dei. Communication in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 326.972 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.972 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.972 752.307 m 343.964 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five is on sex and marriage, the first significant exploration of this topic beyond the scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions of James Brundage and Pierre Payer. The notion of male superiority in gender relationships is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nicely balanced with examples of discussions of marital affection and equality. The chapter provides a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of these issues using statements from theologians of the period, indeed less studied ones, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adds important new material. Wei?s evidence forms a needed corrective to the view that medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians were simply ?rabid misogynists?. Although Wei does not explore to any extent how celibate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians could intelligently discuss sex and marriage with which they purportedly had no direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, one sometimes forgets that unlike monastic writers, most of whom had been in a cloistered, all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male environment from an early age, scholastic theologians, including mendicants, grew up in a family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as priests learned a great deal from hearing confessions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last thematic chapter, chapter six, is on money. This chapter creates a good counterbalance to the views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jacques LeGoff and Stephen Ferruolo that masters viewed themselves as similar to artisans and merchants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by noting that they saw themselves much more as separate from and superior to those groups. Wei makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good use of Joel Kaye?s recent work, )] TJ ET BT 216.632 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century. Money, Market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exchange, and the Emergence of Scientific Thought)] TJ ET BT 282.980 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.980 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.980 514.467 m 299.972 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.972 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Wei makes an interesting observation on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12th?century neglect by theologians of economic issues, including usury, while theologians in the early 13th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century confronted it directly \(a shift in the understanding of what concerned them or what they thought they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to address\). Wei has made an excellent choice of issues \(traditional views and their re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualization; concepts of credit, contracts, money, and time\), using quotations from individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians \(specifically Aquinas and other 13th-century theologians\), and I applaud his choice of an under-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored topic, annuities, to illustrate these changes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where I have questions regarding Wei?s structure and analysis is in his decision as to how to conclude his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study in his final chapter on ?anti-intellectual intellectuals?. Wei is certainly correct in stressing the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the vernacular, as illustrated by Jean de Meun, Marguerite Porete, and Meister Eckhart and should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applauded for bringing them into the same picture frame as masters in the arts and theological faculties at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Paris. Moreover, the explosion of mystical writings in the 14th century is certainly an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important phenomenon in the late Middle Ages. My objection has to do with balance, with how the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story is presented, and what message is being disseminated to a non-specialist audience. I don?t find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing the view that a growing interest in mystical union undercut the theological enterprise or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on pastoral mission, or destroyed the self-conceptions of theologians speaking to the needs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues of society outside the university. While there may have been fewer theological discussions of issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected with pastoral mission and devotional practices, those concerns did remain in quodlibetal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputations, where one also finds an increase in topics of political and ecclesiological importance. And it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly questionable that the reputation of the University of Paris and its theologians declined at the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 13th century. If anything, the attempt by the French monarchy to harness that reputation on behalf of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal policies, the largely successful program of the Avignon papacy to remain the major patron of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university scholars, and the important role played by university theologians at the time of the Papal Schism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point in the opposite direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this last chapter Wei has abandoned his balanced use of sources and voices admirably chosen to illustrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his points in earlier chapters. He has, instead, based a supposed shift on the status and interests of Parisian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians on the voices of three persons, only one of whom was a scholastically trained theologian, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even he not in the mainstream of university theology of the period. Theologians themselves were not casting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt on their own authority or the importance of what they did. Quite the contrary! Wei is suddenly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignoring the voices of major scholastic theologians of the period \(1280?1320\), e.g. Henry of Ghent, Godfrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Fontaines, Giles of Rome, John Duns Scotus, or Peter Auriol, not to mention a large number of less well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known theologians whose writings were important in their own day. I also disagree that discussions of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.9717 752.6215 343.9637 764.5015 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.9797 514.7815 299.9717 526.6615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7288 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguity of language and multiple meanings that one finds among early 14th-century theologians, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry of Harclay, Durand of St. Pourain, Peter Auriol, and especially William of Ockham \(admittedly an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, not a Parisian theologian, but nevertheless influential at Paris\), led to serious uncertainty of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of final truth. In fact, the stronger interest in grammar, language, and logic in early 14th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought parallels many of the interests of the early 12th century, and was used to provide a more solid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation for theology, a more critical and, for them, a more accurate understanding of theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions and biblical exegesis. The critiques of meaning and language that one finds among university )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians in the early 14th century play a very different role from the critiques of the three persons chosen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Wei to represent that period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead of the refreshing new observations Wei has provided in earlier chapters, he has here reverted to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description that was standard in histories of medieval thought a generation ago. To treat the period 1300?30 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a movement away from the value of scholastic theology and the status of theologians by concentrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention on Jean de Meun, Marguerite Porete and Meister Eckhart is equivalent to ending an account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12th century by concentrating on the parodies or critiques of the schools found in Goliardic verse or Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of St. Victor?s )] TJ ET BT 106.676 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contra quatuor labyrinthos Franciae)] TJ ET BT 286.352 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and ignoring contemporary figures at Paris, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter of Poitiers, Peter the Chanter, Stephen Langton, and Praepositinus of Cremona. Or, to use a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern example, this would be like ending an account of the 19th century with William Morris and the Arts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Craft movement or Karl Marx?s critique of capitalism, as if the Industrial Revolution led nowhere and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discoveries and inventions that transformed life in the 20th century never occurred. When choosing what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(path or development to highlight as a conclusion, it helps to have some idea of what happened afterwards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was even happening at the time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mystical thought is certainly an important element in the cultural and religious life of post-1270 Europe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fascinating topic for many modern readers, but its impact on university life, intellectually or religiously, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was limited. One could well argue that Paris entered a period of intellectual growth and expansion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period from Henry of Ghent to Durand of St. Pourain and Peter Auriol, and, by way of his writings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William of Ockham. For a time the achievements of this latter group all but eclipsed the contribution of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so-called great age of scholasticism, with the exception of Thomas Aquinas, who continued to be cited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently. Save for the interests of many modern medievalists, Eckhart?s contribution pales alongside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of his immediate contemporaries at Paris, such as Scotus and Durand of St. Pourain, not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention later figures, such as Francis of Marchia, Nicholas of Autrecourt, Nicole Oresme, Pierre d?Ailly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Jean Gerson. And the impact of the University of Paris as a major institution in France and Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe was probably greater in the 14th century, socially, ecclesiastically, and politically, than at any point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 13th century. Wei?s final chapter ignores the demographic growth of the University of Paris in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14th century, stimulated by Boniface VIII?s constitution )] TJ ET BT 307.988 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cum ex eo)] TJ ET BT 358.640 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1298 that expanded the use of parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenues for university study, and the increase of benefices to scholars as a result of the papal innovation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing universities, beginning with Paris, to supplicate the pope on behalf of masters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admittedly Wei, like any other historian, has to end his story somewhere, and the period of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and university life he is most knowledgeable about is the 12th and 13th centuries. But it is unfair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the less informed reader to present an unbalanced picture of the early 14th century and to reintroduce a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of the development of ?intellectual culture in medieval Paris? that has undergone significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revision in the last two generations of scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, Wei?s book is, without question, a major contribution to the intellectual history of the 12th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13th centuries. It is full of new and exciting observations, engagingly written, in a way that will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to an interested general reader as well as specialists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacques LeGoff, )] TJ ET BT 145.652 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les intellectuels au Moyen ge)] TJ ET BT 295.628 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1957, repr. 1985, transl. as )] TJ ET BT 463.604 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intellectuals in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 124.340 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1993\)\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.984 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.984 54.291 m 260.972 54.291 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.9837 54.6055 260.9717 66.4855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 1519 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sophie Menache, )] TJ ET BT 150.332 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vox Dei. Communication in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 386.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.960 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.960 795.075 m 518.948 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joel Kaye, )] TJ ET BT 117.668 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century. Money, Market Exchange, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emergence of Scientific Thought)] TJ ET BT 221.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.320 766.563 m 372.308 766.563 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 751.231 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 733.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1462)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 732.057 m 328.316 732.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 707.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/61842)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.9597 795.3895 518.9477 807.2695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.3197 766.8775 372.3077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 732.3715 328.3157 744.2515 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1462) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000593 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000004700 00000 n 0000004809 00000 n 0000004919 00000 n 0000005028 00000 n 0000008589 00000 n 0000008717 00000 n 0000008801 00000 n 0000008885 00000 n 0000016893 00000 n 0000016923 00000 n 0000017051 00000 n 0000017087 00000 n 0000017178 00000 n 0000025117 00000 n 0000025147 00000 n 0000025275 00000 n 0000025311 00000 n 0000025341 00000 n 0000025469 00000 n 0000025505 00000 n 0000025589 00000 n 0000032930 00000 n 0000033056 00000 n 0000033111 00000 n 0000033209 00000 n 0000034781 00000 n 0000034909 00000 n 0000034964 00000 n 0000035092 00000 n 0000035147 00000 n 0000035275 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35371 %%EOF