%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150701041305+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150701041305+01'00') /Title (The St Bartholomew?s Day Massacre: The Mysteries of a Crime of State) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3981 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The St Bartholomew?s Day Massacre: The Mysteries of a Crime of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(State)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a welcome translation of an important book. Arlette Jouanna?s studies of the French nobility in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with the monarchy and the 16th-century Wars of Religion give her the breadth of vision and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextual knowledge necessary to offer new insights into perhaps the single most famous event of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars. She has found an able translator in Joseph Bergin, a prominent historian of early modern religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, who has produced a translation as fluid and vigorous as the original.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The French edition was part of a remake of a series focused on key events in French history and on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-term significance. As such, the book was intended for a broad audience. It is not, however, a mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis or popularization of previous scholarship and is based on a careful reappraisal of both secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature and primary sources, including some manuscript sources largely overlooked by previous scholars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only historiography it engages directly is French, perhaps because it was intended primarily for a French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience. The notes, however, show thoughtful assimilation of a wider literature. Moreover, although she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejects key elements of the interpretations of the Massacre recently offered by Jean-Louis Bourgeon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denis Crouzet, Jouanna borrows usefully from them to arrive at an interpretation that, while incorporating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1463)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arlette Jouanna)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719088315)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719088315)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Diefendorf)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7631 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much that will be familiar to scholars in the field, is distinctive and original.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.996 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.996 795.075 m 412.988 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book opens with a description of the slaughter that commenced in Paris on 24 August 1572 but then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubles back to tell how the celebrations surrounding the marriage of the royal princess, Marguerite de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valois, to Henri de Bourbon, King of Navarre, the previous week were characterized by the theme of unity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and concord. How, Jouanna asks, can we explain this sudden reversal? This is the first of three ?enigmas? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around which the book is framed \(p. 11\). The second is the question of how to reconcile the king?s decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to execute the Huguenot leadership with his explicit desire, maintained even after the massacre, to preserve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the edict of pacification that had ended the third War of Religion in August 1570. The third enigma is why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attempted execution of the Huguenot leadership degenerated into a more generalized massacre that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted despite attempts to call a halt and spread beyond Paris to other French cities. All three questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are important, but the second broaches most directly Jouanna?s broader thesis that the Massacre?s long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance lay in its contribution to two contrasting developments: the articulation of ?reason-of-state? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments supporting royal absolutism and the long process of secularization made possible by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualization of autonomous political and religious spheres.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As might be expected, Jouanna sets the Massacre in the context of France?s religious quarrels. Emphasizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tension between the passions aroused in the Wars of Religion and the requirement explicit in the 1570 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacification edict to act as if the conflicts had never occurred, she stresses the difficulty of renouncing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for vengeance stoked by the brutality of the fighting. At the same time, she acknowledges that only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this policy of ?voluntary amnesia? could ?break the dreadful spiral of violence? \(p. 20\). Incorporating recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on the extraordinary efforts made by the commissioners Charles IX sent out to oversee the peace, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she revises exaggerated notions of the ineffectiveness of his reign, while conceding that the commissioners? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts were often frustrated. Despite the failures, these efforts to make peace work support her argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Charles was doing everything possible to reconcile his divided subjects. In contrast to Denis Crouzet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who locates Charles?s desire for concord in the Neoplatonic philosophy that penetrated his court, Jouanna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees the king?s efforts to ensure peace as more strategic than philosophical, but none the less real for that. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The characteristic that emerges most strongly in her portrait of Charles is his extreme touchiness and desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have his authority respected, a need that prompted him ?to declare on every possible occasion that he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sovereign and that his orders should be implemented? \(p. 28\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This characteristic, introduced in the context of attempts to enforce the 1570 peace, foreshadows Jouanna?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of Charles?s order two years later to execute the Huguenot military leaders, whom he saw as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat to both peace and his sovereign authority. As she explains it, the issue that prompted the king abruptly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to terminate attempts to conciliate the Huguenots and turn murderously against them was the aggressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stance they took when a sharpshooter tried to assassinate their leader, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, on 22 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1572. Addressing the inevitable question of who was behind the attack, she dismisses all of the usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates. Queen Mother Catherine de Medici, was too heavily committed to peace to so abruptly reverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her course, as was Charles IX. The Guises, although leaders of the ultra-Catholic faction in the wars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-time enemies of Coligny, were in too ?fragile? a position in court to risk angering the king \(p. 79\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jouanna also dismisses the idea that Philip II of Spain had Coligny killed so as to prevent Charles IX from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming to the aid of Protestant rebels in the southern Netherlands. Philip was convinced, she argues, that if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coligny had gone to the aid of the rebels, Charles would disavow his efforts so as to avoid open warfare. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was thus not necessary to kill him to prevent the revolt from escalating into an international war between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and Spain \(p. 62\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After ruling out the usual candidates, Jouanna offers a new take on the assassination attempt. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporaries just assumed that someone powerful had to be behind it, but we should also consider other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities. Who most wanted to ?scuttle the peace? celebrated with the wedding? For Jouanna, the answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is clear: radical Catholics in Paris; ?the murderous fury of the most inflamed Catholics of Paris was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incitement enough to the authors of such an enterprise? \(p. 83\). She does not attempt to identify more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically the responsible parties and instead sketches out a picture of religious zeal and cumulative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievances on the part of Parisian Catholics that, she argues, culminated in a determination to exterminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only the admiral but also every hope of peace. Extinguishing the possibility of peace is a key point here. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.9957 795.3895 412.9877 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7400 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Jouanna, the attack on Coligny was less an attempt to deprive the Huguenots of their leader, as it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually been portrayed, than a deliberate provocation intended to plunge France back into a war that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result in the final extermination of heresy. Implicating the Guises in the assassination attempt by employing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals connected with them in its execution was, by this logic, intended to stoke the Huguenots? desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for revenge and prompt reprisals that would destroy the king?s hopes for reconciliation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles?s anger on first learning of the assassination attempt was thus sincere. It was, moreover, only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased by the Protestant leaders? reactions and the demands they made. Charles had forced himself to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppress his distrust of the Huguenots in the interest of peace but could do so no longer. Jouanna cites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources alleging that Coligny had used threatening language in trying to persuade Charles IX to go war in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders but insists that Charles ?had kept his resentment under control? \(p. 100\) in the interest of peace up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 23 August, when Coligny?s strident words and those of his supporters ?attacked the king?s dignity? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(101\) in ways he could not tolerate. The language Protestant leaders employed when demanding justice for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ambush ?amounted to a denial of royal sovereignty? \(p. 101\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The royal council decided on the night of 23 August to kill the Protestant leaders as a direct response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these threats. Coligny appeared more than ever an ?over-mighty and potentially dangerous subject to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king? ? the ?uncontrollable leader of a private army and member of a dissenting church, [whose] authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivaled the king?s? \(p. 101\). Although admitting that rumors circulating in Paris might have provoked a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of panic on the part of the king and council, Jouanna discounts suggestions that they acted to ward off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an immediate attack by the Huguenots. This, she insists, was largely a justification drummed up after the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to justify the recourse to sudden action. Even if not anticipating an immediate attack, the council was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinced that the Huguenot leaders posed a threat to the king?s majesty and to the state and, as such, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered recourse to ?extraordinary justice? necessary. There were too many armed Protestant nobles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tense capital for ?ordinary justice? ? the arrest and trial of the Huguenot leaders ? to seem possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?extraordinary justice? meted out to the Protestant leaders as a result of the council?s order must thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain separate from the popular killings that followed. Jouanna agrees with other recent analyses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massacre that long-festering fear and hatred on the part of Parisian Catholics catalyzed into a willingness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kill when Guise was heard telling his soldiers to go on with their killing because it was the king?s command. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This gave people ?the unexpected legitimation of their murderous intentions? \(p. 128\). The popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massacres were, moreover, not mere mob violence but rather ?war for the purification of territory? \(p. 133\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles?s insistence on concord had de-legitimized him among intransigent Catholics. Authorizing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing of Protestants re-legitimized him briefly, but when he issued orders for the killing to stop, the people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disobeyed him to take up ?the cause of God and of the community? \(p. 139\). The Guises and other ultra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics at court could, Jouanna believes, have brought the killings to a stop but instead let them happen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowing they would not have to take responsibility for them. ?It was now the people who exercised )] TJ ET BT 515.948 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(their)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary justice? \(p. 141; italics in the original\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The council?s decision on 23 August to resort to ?extraordinary justice? and kill the Huguenot leaders might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been taken in a moment of panic and certainly was taken without thinking through all possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences. The argument that the king had a right to resort to extraordinary means to protect the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when faced with imminent danger nevertheless became the foundation of Charles?s explanation and defense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this decision at home and abroad, although, as Jouanna points out, the defense did not extend to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalized massacres, for which the king never accepted responsibility. Inherent in this defense was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation of politics from religion: the Huguenot leaders were killed as rebels and not as members of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissident church. This separation of politics from religion, in which Jouanna sees an incipient logic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reason of state?, explains why Charles could insist, initially at least, that he wanted the edict of pacification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained. This proved, of course, a futile hope. Not only did Protestants who escaped the Massacre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepare for war, but Catholic intransigents, experiencing a ?new vigor? after the Massacre \(p. 173\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressured Charles to complete the eradication of heresy that, in their minds, he had begun.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jouanna discusses the trauma produced by the Massacre, noting that ?divine wrath? was the most common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation cited by both sides to explain the horror of these events \(p. 181\). She is most interested, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7654 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, in the political explanations that were offered. Her discussion of Protestant resistance theory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the denunciations of tyranny expressed by the ?monarchomachs? will be familiar to early modernists, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she makes good use of this discussion to advance her argument that the Massacre ended all hope for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?kingdom of love? \(p. 204\) in which it was simply assumed that the king would respect the people?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties without recourse to a written constitution. She also makes a strong argument that the alliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Protestants and moderate Catholics that emerged after the Massacre in the Malcontents was rooted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a common aversion to tyranny and desire for institutional reform. The Malcontents were, she argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united by a belief that the Massacre was at its heart a plot to destroy the great nobility by turning its leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against one another, so that they could not stand as a check to royal power. The fifth War of Religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoked by the Malcontent alliance in 1575, was thus ?profoundly different from? \(p. 216\) and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political in character than the ones that preceded it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The need to keep the book focused on Saint Bartholomew?s Day forces Jouanna to telescope the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious wars into a very brief summary, which she uses to reinforce her overall thesis. She explains how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Malcontents? success in the fifth war boomeranged against them when the 1576 Estates General, called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in hopes of reform, resulted instead in a resurgence of Catholic intransigence and loss of Huguenot gains. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also ended hopes for balancing royal authority with an increased role for the Estates by showing that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembly could be more dangerous than the king. Rather than inspiring confidence in representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assemblies, the later wars persuaded people of the need for a transcendent authority. Jouanna concludes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, that the Massacre played a direct role in promoting acceptance of absolutism in France. Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicists who depicted Charles IX as a martyr who gave his life to fight heresy after his death from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tuberculosis in May 1574 played a part in this by contributing to a ?super-sacralisation? of the royal person )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Jouanna identifies also in Henri IV?s identification of himself as an instrument of divine providence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Edict of Nantes. But if the edict reinforced royal absolutism, it also sanctioned a separation of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and secular spheres. The long-term impact of the Saint Bartholomew?s Day Massacre lies in its contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to these disparate processes ? a reinforcement of absolutism but also a laying of the foundations for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularisation of the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jouanna?s argument is well supported by evidence and in most respects persuasive. At several points, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, it fails to answer old questions or raises new ones. The supposition that radical Catholics in Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were behind the initial attempt to kill Coligny is plausible but not proved and seems to rest largely on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elimination of other candidates. And while I must agree with Jouanna about the explosive situation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital on the eve of the Massacre \(my work on the subject is frequently cited in her notes\), I fail to see how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this atmosphere of unrest congealed into an organized plot against the admiral?s life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.948 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.948 329.139 m 454.940 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.940 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Who among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city?s radical Catholics would have wanted \(or dared\) to orchestrate a plot that tried to pin the assassination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Guises? And why would Maurevert, the man known to have wielded the gun, have lent himself to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a conspiracy? He had his own quarrels with Coligny, but Jouanna thinks the logistics of the event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?indicate that it was not a simple private matter? \(p. 75\). Described as ?relatively wealthy? and ?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventurer choosing his camp in terms of his immediate interests? \(p. 74\), Maurevert was neither in need of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money nor committed to the ultra-Catholic cause. He was, moreover, a client of the Guises at the time of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massacre, as were several individuals who facilitated his escape. Jouanna considers these connections so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious as to disqualify the Guises themselves from the attempt, but just who in Paris would have been able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to use ? and betray ? these ties of clientage remains a puzzle. Unless new evidence appears ? and that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely ? the question of who tried to kill Coligny will remain open to debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jouanna?s explanation of the abrupt shift from conciliating the Huguenots to ordering their leaders slain also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaves questions unanswered. One can easily imagine the hyper-sensitive Charles IX losing his temper in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face of the threatening language allegedly employed by Huguenot leaders demanding justice after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to assassinate Coligny. But Jouanna stresses the collective nature of the decision to order the leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slain, and it is harder to comprehend why the royal council agreed that the angry words of men reeling from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attack on their leader posed such an urgent danger to the state that those men needed to be summarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed. Jouanna does not think that the council believed the Huguenots were planning an immediate coup, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if there was no imminent danger, why did its members agree that the machinery of ?ordinary justice?? arrest )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.9477 329.4535 454.9397 341.3335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 4572 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trial ? offered inadequate protection? Jouanna cites the high levels of emotion in Paris and large number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Protestant nobles who remained in the city as reasons for resorting to ?extraordinary justice?, but was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there really good reason to believe that nobles who had gathered in Paris for a wedding would have ? could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have ? suddenly mobilized to attack the king in his palace if he arrested their leaders? Were there no calm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heads on the council? What about Catherine de Medici? Jouanna is right that Catherine has been too quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blamed for the Massacre by many past historians, but she almost disappears from this account. Did she, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles, really think they could maintain the peace by announcing that the Huguenot leaders were killed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebels and not as religious dissidents? Should we really abandon the more traditional explanation that, far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from hoping to maintain the peace, the council recognized that a new war was inevitable and decided to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaken the Huguenots? leadership as much as possible before that war began? These questions cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answered with certainty, given that all explanations of the order to kill the Huguenot leaders were made after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact and with the intention of justifying it. Descriptions of the Huguenots? threatening demeanor are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreliable for the same reason; they were intended to prove that the slain leaders deserved their fate. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complexities and contradictions inherent in the evidence, Arlette Jouanna has pieced together a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument about the motives for and meanings of the Massacre. Some of ?the mysteries of a crime of state? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must nevertheless remain unresolved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Louis Bourgeon, )] TJ ET BT 173.000 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?assassinat de Coligny)] TJ ET BT 290.348 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Geneva, 1992\); idem, )] TJ ET BT 404.324 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charles IX devant la Saint-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Barthlemy)] TJ ET BT 119.336 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Geneva, 1995\); Denis Crouzet, )] TJ ET BT 278.300 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La nuit de la Saint-Barthlemy: Un rve perdu de la )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance)] TJ ET BT 124.004 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1994\); and idem, )] TJ ET BT 245.660 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le haut c?ur de Catherine de Mdicis: Une raison politique aux )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(temps de la Saint-Barthlemy)] TJ ET BT 205.664 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.656 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.656 472.947 m 327.644 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara B. Diefendorf, )] TJ ET BT 177.644 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth-Century Paris)] TJ ET BT 525.632 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, and Oxford, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.984 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.984 444.435 m 263.972 444.435 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 429.103 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 411.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 411.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1463)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 409.929 m 328.316 409.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 384.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/55209)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 273.6557 473.2615 327.6437 485.1415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.9837 444.7495 263.9717 456.6295 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 410.2435 328.3157 422.1235 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1463) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004693 00000 n 0000004802 00000 n 0000004912 00000 n 0000005021 00000 n 0000008582 00000 n 0000008710 00000 n 0000008794 00000 n 0000008878 00000 n 0000016562 00000 n 0000016592 00000 n 0000016720 00000 n 0000016756 00000 n 0000016821 00000 n 0000024274 00000 n 0000024358 00000 n 0000032065 00000 n 0000032095 00000 n 0000032223 00000 n 0000032259 00000 n 0000032357 00000 n 0000036982 00000 n 0000037110 00000 n 0000037165 00000 n 0000037293 00000 n 0000037348 00000 n 0000037476 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37572 %%EOF