%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725073856+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725073856+01'00') /Title (The 'Natural Leaders' and their World: Politics, Culture and Society in Belfast, c. 1801-1832) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4171 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The 'Natural Leaders' and their World: Politics, Culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Society in Belfast, c. 1801-1832)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Jeffrey Wright?s )] TJ ET BT 162.980 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The ?Natural Leaders? and their World )] TJ ET BT 357.656 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an important contribution to the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Belfast as well as to the broader subjects of Ulster liberalism and Presbyterianism. By stepping out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usual historiographical constraints placed upon the period, Wright has produced a confident and enlightening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first monograph, one that hopefully will help to steer future research into what is perhaps the most neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of modern Ulster?s history. A great deal of impressive research has been published on the momentous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events which brought the 18th century to a close and resulted in a new political reality for the Irish. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, scholarship focusing on the first decades of the 19th century has been surprisingly thin, bookended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Act of Union and the era of Daniel O?Connell, the campaigns for Catholic emancipation, repeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and finally the Great Famine. In the case of Ulster, a great amount of historical writing has focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments within Ulster Presbyterian thought and the shift from the radicalism of the late 18th-century to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eventual rise of Henry Cooke and the perceived shift towards political and theological conservatism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright however attempts to move beyond these previous scholarly guideposts. In short, Wright seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(build upon the body of scholarship concerning Ulster during this period and to marshal it forward. He does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1464)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Wright)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846318481)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.liverpooluniversitypress.co.uk/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=11&AS1=9781846318481)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Torpin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7321 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this with what he calls a ?quasi-biographical? approach. Wright is to be commended for how well he applies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this potentially difficult methodology. He bases his research in the extensive correspondence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tennents, an important middle-class Ulster family in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Through them he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to trace the activities of the ?natural leaders?, a small group of Belfast?s leading reformers. This term, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was recorded by their contemporary A. H. Thornton, was chosen by the members of this clique to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe their relation to the people of Belfast \(p. 49\). As Wright demonstrates and newspapers of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political stripes observed, members of the Tennent family were a part of a small group that championed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal causes in Belfast during this period. This faction was made up of the most advanced reformers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belfast and included William Drennan, John Templeton and others. This group is set against the Reverend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr. William Bruce and Henry Joy, who were the pillars of a more moderate group of liberals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is important to note that the ?natural leaders? were by no means representative and Wright is quite clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his book is an exploration of their particular cultural milieu. Wisely, Wright also sets strict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological and geographical parameters for the book, providing it a focus of vision that other recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works on the subject have lacked. One of the book?s significant strengths is Wright?s use of the most recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship in the field, including recently completed dissertations. Much of this scholarship concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments within the wider British historiography. Central to Wright?s purpose is to incorporate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and political environment of Belfast?s radicals in the decades after the Act of Union into a decidedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?British? context. In doing so Wright casts new light upon the political culture of the period, rescuing it from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous negative assessments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright begins with a chapter that provides a brief biographical sketch of the Tennent family. The Reverend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Tennent, the family patriarch, was a Scottish Presbyterian minister who settled in Ulster in the mid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century and was associated with the seceding faction of Ulster Presbyterians. Two of his sons, William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Robert, are the central figures of the book. William Tennent would eventually become a wealthy Belfast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant, but prior to his later economic successes he was a member of the Ulster circle of the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irishmen. There has been some debate over the extent to which Tennent was involved with the society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright provides a comprehensive survey of the evidence and concludes that Tennent must be considered one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the highest-ranking members of the secret organization in Ulster. He would eventually be imprisoned for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his activities in the spring of 1798 and his life would eventually be spared after several years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarceration. The fact that he would eventually play an important role in Belfast social and political life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves to make one of Wright?s key points: that the vibrant urban culture of Belfast in the first decades after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Act of Union allowed William Tennant to reintegrate into society with little moderation of his reformist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William?s younger brother Robert held similar ideological views to his older brother. He was abroad for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the turbulent decade of the 1790s, seeking employment as a surgeon. He followed this ambition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamaica, where he would work as an estate manager for several years before spending an additional period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a naval surgeon. Robert returned to Ireland when word reached him that his brother had been imprisoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 33\). Though he would not be as financially successful as his older brother, Robert Tennent would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active in an impressive number of charities and public organizations as well as a committed evangelical. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final member of the Tennent family to appear in the text is Robert?s son, Robert James Tennent. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youthful correspondence is put to excellent use to provide depth to the final chapters of the book, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright turns his attention to the educational and charitable institutions of Belfast. Taken together, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical material of the Tennent family serves as both the base, but also as the ?through line? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright?s wider thematic arguments. Wright is able to strike a fine balance and this structure proves to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very effective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this biographical base established, the author then turns to the political context of the period, which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers over the next two chapters, which make up the core of the book. The first of the two chapters focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the political environment in Belfast between 1801 and 1820. In surveying the political atmosphere of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-union period, Wright concedes what many contemporaries observed: Belfast during this period had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strangely ?muted? quality \(p. 57\). However, building upon the theories of Habermas, Wright argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belfast also boasted an expanding public sphere, which included town meetings, public dinners and a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7616 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant growth of newspapers in the town. This environment served as a counter to the unreformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral politics of the day and the considerable influence of the Marquess of Donegall and his allies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright demonstrates how these venues served as sites of conflict between both radical and more moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers but also with the establishment as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright highlights moments of tension between these parties: the establishment, the ?natural leaders?, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderates, to draw out the divisions within Belfast political life. These moments included the failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscription in support of the radical journalist Peter Finnerty, Robert Tennent?s trial for assault \(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stemmed from an altercation which occurred at a public meeting\), the infamous St. Patrick?s Day dinner at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Belfast Academical Institution and the Queen Caroline affair. For much of this chapter the author relies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the )] TJ ET BT 66.680 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belfast Monthly Magazine)] TJ ET BT 193.340 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which served as the mouth piece for the interests of the Tennents and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allies \(p. 67\). This chapter shows a Belfast with a lively and sometimes contentious civic culture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly, it was one that was very much a part of a wider British popular political context, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully orchestrated outpouring of sentiment in support of Caroline in Belfast demonstrated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second political chapter extends Wright?s frame of reference up to the general election of 1832 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporates the wider European political currents as they presented themselves within Belfast?s civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. Again using the )] TJ ET BT 152.336 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belfast Monthly Magazine )] TJ ET BT 281.996 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a guide Wright points to the numerous continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events which served to encourage and inspire the ?natural leaders?. This included the ambiguous figure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon, but also the news of the southern European revolutions as well \(p. 111\). It is here where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger generation of the ?natural leaders? make their first appearance, in the form of Robert James Tennent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his interest in romanticism and eventual participation in the conflicts on the continent. This interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves to further one of Wright?s main arguments: that the cadre of the ?natural leaders? represented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cosmopolitan? side of Belfast cultural life, one that was at once British and European \(p. 119\). While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belfast reformers took an interest in European issues during the early 1820s, they showed a resurgence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity during the heady period which ushered in the Great Reform Bill. This included increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpopular support for Catholic Emancipation and opposition to the activities of the proselytizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation Society. Wright argues that the leading reformers of Belfast were very much in line with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider trends within British politics during this period, though the election which followed in 1832 proved to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a disaster for the ?natural leaders.? While support for reform seemed to swell in Belfast after the passing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Catholic emancipation, the popularity of the ?natural leaders? faltered. Wright argues that they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps overplayed their hand with the more moderate reformers, and that the term ?natural leaders? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even used against them sarcastically during the lead up to the 1832 general election \(p. 133\). Both candidates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put forth by the advanced reformers failed to win seats against the two candidates supported by the town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporation, including one, James Emerson Tennent, who had previously been a member of the advanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers. He had been enticed to run by the corporation after being passed over by his former compatriots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in favor of the outsider William Sharman Crawford.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the advanced reformers of Belfast fumbled the political opportunity at the end of 1832, the language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they employed raises some important questions about developments within Ulster Presbyterianism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Wright demonstrates, a number of prominent Belfast reformers during this period had direct connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the United Irishmen, and had continued to employ similar political rhetoric \(p. 136\). It is to this language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Wright turns in the final chapters. Here he reassesses the validity of Belfast?s reputation as ?the Athens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the North?. He does so skeptically, casting a critical eye on the cultural and intellectual institutions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were popular within middle-class society during this period. Wright focuses on three: The Belfast Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Promoting Knowledge, the Belfast Literary Society and the Belfast Historic Society. The author rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places them into the context of similar organizations which were rapidly spreading through the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. Though all of the organizations examined here claimed to be apolitical, the same political divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified by Wright in earlier chapters manifest themselves here and thus limited these organizations? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness in maintaining membership and funds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To this portrait of Belfast intellectual life Wright adds the Belfast Academical Institution, which opened in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1814 and, as Wright argues, injected new life into the intellectual climate of Belfast. This included the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching of Scottish Enlightenment philosophy as well as the classics, both of which played an important )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part in the political vocabulary used across the Atlantic world. Here the reflections of Robert James Tennent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are particularly useful. Educated at the Academical Institution and active in the Belfast Historic Society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright is able to draw out these varied influences in Tennent?s sometimes colorful correspondence. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is also able to isolate the influence of romanticism as well, which places Tennent and his compatriots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squarely \(though at times a bit behind\) in a cosmopolitan British literary sphere \(p. 190\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter turns to the influence of evangelicalism in Ulster. This focus is appropriate as it fits with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the biographical aspect of the book in Robert Tennent?s numerous philanthropic activities. It is also fitting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically as well, for Belfast?s rapid economic and demographic expansion created a wealth of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems during the period. An in-depth examination of the institutional structures of charity in Belfast is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not Wright?s intent and he instead focuses on the ways in which evangelicalism came to influence Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterianism and the various voices that spoke out for and against it, especially as manifested in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city?s charitable institutions. In doing so Wright is able to draw out a number of important influences on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity in Belfast, including that of Thomas Chalmers. Importantly, while Chalmers famously championed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charitable works in a providentialist context, Wright argues that he was particularly well-received in Belfast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part because of the providentialism that had already existed amongst Belfast?s Presbyterians prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chalmers growth in popularity in the early 19th century. This links Belfast?s charitable imposes, at least in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, to the period before the arrival of widespread evangelical influence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Wright?s )] TJ ET BT 126.668 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The ?Natural Leaders? and Their World)] TJ ET BT 321.680 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important contribution to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster. He has heeded the numerous calls to view the history of Belfast during the post-Union period within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?British context?. It is helpful to read Wright?s book alongside John Bew?s well-received )] TJ ET BT 476.276 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Glory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Being Britons: Civic Unionism in Nineteenth-Century Belfast)] TJ ET BT 328.676 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.676 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.676 485.955 m 345.668 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.668 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bew sought to identify the origins of Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionism within the urban culture of late 18th- and 19th-century Belfast. Wright, in dialogue with Bew?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, contributes greatly to a fuller understanding of that urban culture. While not a comprehensive history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this period, the work does much to fill in important gaps and to suggest interesting new connections. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Informed by the most recent historiographical trends and research, Wright?s book demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous new avenues available to historians of Ulster. Smartly organized and engagingly written, it is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Bew, )] TJ ET BT 117.680 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Glory of Being Britons: Civic Unionism in Nineteenth-Century Belfast)] TJ ET BT 476.672 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Sallins, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 320.643 m 118.004 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and, beyond thanking the reviewer for his generous and thoughtful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appraisal, does not wish to respond.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 264.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 247.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 247.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1464)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 245.625 m 328.316 245.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 220.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/56350)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6757 486.2695 345.6677 498.1495 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 320.9575 118.0037 332.8375 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 245.9395 328.3157 257.8195 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1464) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n 0000000678 00000 n 0000004901 00000 n 0000005010 00000 n 0000005120 00000 n 0000005229 00000 n 0000008790 00000 n 0000008918 00000 n 0000009002 00000 n 0000009067 00000 n 0000016441 00000 n 0000016506 00000 n 0000024175 00000 n 0000024273 00000 n 0000029960 00000 n 0000029990 00000 n 0000030118 00000 n 0000030154 00000 n 0000030281 00000 n 0000030336 00000 n 0000030464 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30560 %%EOF