%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818234558+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818234558+01'00') /Title (Prisoners of War in the Hundred Years War: Ransom Culture in the Late Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3954 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Prisoners of War in the Hundred Years War: Ransom Culture in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Late Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The significance of ransoming has long been recognised by students of medieval chivalry and diplomacy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seen as key to the development of an international aristocratic ethic that mitigated some of the worst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excesses of medieval combat the ransom system led to a pan-European conception of a chivalric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brotherhood. Ransoming a defeated member of the military elite became seen as indicative of much that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilised about Western European aristocratic culture in the final 400?500 years of the medieval period. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, those who slaughtered, mutilated, or enslaved members of the aristocratic elite were considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently ?barbarous?. The importance of individual prisoners of war \(a somewhat anachronistic term for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the middle ages\) has also been of great interest to scholars. With regard to the Hundred Years War a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good deal of work has been published on the political and diplomatic implications of the imprisonment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major figures. Royal captivities, such as those suffered by the Scottish kings David II and James I of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland, and Jean II of France have received considerable attention, as have those \(other\) major figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured at battles such as Poitiers \(1356\) and Agincourt \(1415\), most famously Charles d?Orlans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1465)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rmy Ambhl)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107010949)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(313pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/history/european-history-1000-1450/prisoners-war-hundred-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years-war-ransom-culture-late-middle-ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Green)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7709 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an important contribution to the subject, Rmy Ambhl explores the wider process of ransoming and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines how it applied to society as a whole during the period of the Hundred Years War. He moves the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion beyond a consideration of how being captured in battle impacted on the career, life and family of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the high nobility and those of royal blood, to explore how the culture of ransoming also influenced the lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ordinary soldiers. The book is concerned chiefly with the mores and practices of ransoming, and with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of captive and ?master?, and less consideration is given to the technical and legal aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process ? these, however, are not ignored. Chapter one, ?Law, ransom and the status of the prisoner of war? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews some aspects of legislation, namely the ?law of arms?, royal ordinances, and contract law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The increasing professionalisation of military activity \(perhaps a military revolution\) had a considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the process of ransoming during this period. Changes in recruitment, strategy, tactics, payment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment, and other facets of military activity brought new pressures and possibilities. As ransoming had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed, primarily, as a practice between members of the aristocracy, the increasing importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?common soldier?, of longbowmen, infantrymen, and gunners, had major implications \(see for example pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(112?15\). Because of this, and because of the political and financial importance of many prisoners certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts were required to systematise the process and to assert royal rights over those taken captive in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-French wars. Regulations might also be needed for reasons of military security ? to break ranks in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperate hunt for a substantial ransom could be perilous in the context of a battle in which infantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline was essential to success. Some brief mention is made of changing military tactics in the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These might be considered in a little more depth although some of these changes are disclosed through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many case studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because of the changing nature of the battlefield, the Plantagenets established clear rules by which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could acquire prisoners of note/public standing. Set out in indentures, these also might specify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportions of a ransom which a soldier could be required to pass on to his commander. It became usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice over the course of the war for a third of the value of a captive to be given to the captor?s superior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a third of that \(i.e. a ninth\) to be passed to the Crown \(unless one?s superior was the king who in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case received a third\). In return for reasonable compensation English monarchs also had direct rights to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important enemy commanders. From the late 14th century English royal ordinances were also issued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prior to campaigns to clarify expectations concerning military conduct. If such orders were enforced in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditionary forces of Edward III no clear evidence for them still exists, although orders were issued before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific battles in an effort to maintain order in the ranks. The ordinances reflect the need to control the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural greed of soldiers, who, after all, had been recruited with the promise of booty, of which ransoms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be the most valuable, forefront in their minds \(pp. 28?31, 98?106, 115\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The terms by which Valois kings could purchase English soldiers and their allies were, by comparison, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather vague, although tradition appears to suggest that the Crown could purchase any prisoner for a sum up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 10,000 )] TJ ET BT 82.352 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fo)] TJ ET BT 91.688 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 98.684 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(franc d?or)] TJ ET BT 149.684 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The evidence concerning greater, but more importantly lesser prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourages the author to re-evaluate what has often been seen as the primacy of the role of the state in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of ransoming. He suggests that views such as Contamine?s exaggerate the reality.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.952 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.952 233.859 m 483.944 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 483.944 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ambhl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that although the state interfered in the business of ransoming at times to direct the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ransoming and to prevent individuals or groups being freed, these were rarely long-lasting prohibitions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they were properly observed. One of the book?s most important contributions is to nuance and clarify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the balance between public and private interests in the business of ransoming.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The military r/evolution brought a change in the social complexion of armies and also a change in what had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the typical relationship between ?master? and prisoner. The author considers the significance of honour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in securing payment and the means by which an aristocratic prisoner might be publically shamed if he did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not fulfil his obligations to his captor. In the context of the Hundred Years War in which the common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiery played an increasingly important role we see a greater use of formal contracts between master and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoner which perhaps reflects a belief that honour might not offer sufficient security when dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of markedly different social status or with those for whom honour was not valued as a public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaration of identity. Such contracts fixed the size of ransoms and the terms of payment. Although it is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.9517 234.1735 483.9437 246.0535 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7771 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to be certain quite how far down the hierarchy such contracts operated they certainly appear to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been fairly common.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because of work undertaken by the author and others, most notably Chris Given-Wilson and Franoise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beriac-Lain \(on the prisoners captured at Agincourt and Poitiers respectively\) the book focuses on two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main periods ? the 1370s and the years between c.1420 and c.1440.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.284 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.284 726.051 m 371.276 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.276 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was in this latter period that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term ?prisoner of war? \()] TJ ET BT 149.972 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prisonnier de guerre)] TJ ET BT 249.296 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( / )] TJ ET BT 258.632 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prisonarius de guerra)] TJ ET BT 363.968 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) was first used. Prior to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions range from )] TJ ET BT 150.992 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prisonnier de bonne guerre)] TJ ET BT 282.644 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(prisoner of ?good? war\) or, more commonly, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combatant would be said to have been )] TJ ET BT 220.316 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pris?par/pour fait de guerre)] TJ ET BT 355.988 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(taken by act of war\) \(pp. 4?5\). This, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, raises important questions about who was considered a combatant during the Hundred Years War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and whether this indicates a marked change in ransoming culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the course of the war it is clear that the position of prisoners of war shifted according to political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and changing concepts of sovereignty were also significant ? throughout the book the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returns to issues of kingship. This is entirely appropriate, and was, potentially, of striking importance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries since, in theory, any French prisoner of war could be considered guilty of )] TJ ET BT 466.592 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lse-majest)] TJ ET BT 525.908 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executed. Such concerns were brought into sharp relief when the treaty of Troyes was sealed in 1420 \(see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter three, ?Status and politics in Lancastrian Normandy?\). Thereafter, partisans of the Dauphin were no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer enemy combatants \(prisoners of war\) but rebels. In practice, however, this made little difference. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Normandy, however, an attempt to exterminate pockets of resistance did threaten the safety usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed by those captured: the distinction between a criminal and a prisoner of war became very uncertain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(see for example pp. 87?97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the ostensible purpose of the book is to examine the process and practice of ransoming as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to the ?lower orders?, matters pertaining to the elite and, indeed, to kings are considered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable detail. Indeed, although the author does an admirable job in casting his net widely to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broad social ramifications of ransoming, perhaps inevitably a substantial number of examples are drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the ranks of the elite. The political and diplomatic value of high-ranking prisoners is well-known in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping the diplomacy of the Hundred Years War: the capture of Charles de Blois led to the treaty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster \(1356\), that of Jean II to the treaty of Brtigny \(1360\), for example. Chapter seven also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the means by which kings and princes could raise the necessary revenue for their own ransoms \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(184?202\). A capture might also offered the opportunity to influence diplomatic arrangements of a lesser sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as an exchange of prisoners or one could bribe or pressurise a prisoner to change their allegiance \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150?7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book provides a clear overview of the process of ransoming from capture to captivity and to possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(release. The author considers in some detail the actual moment of capture, the necessary words, gestures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pledges offered \(pp. 106?9\), as well as the criteria used to judge a prisoner?s financial value. Chivalric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatises such as those written by Honorat Bovet and Christine de Pizan argued that a ransom should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approximate to a prisoner?s annual income. Ambhl notes that, in reality, an earl or a count would rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure his freedom for less than 5,000, an annual income which only the wealthiest enjoyed. The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that a man?s reputation, his social and political connections, as well as his apparent wealth were all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken into account when setting a ransom, as were the costs incurred during his captivity. Consequently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was little uniformity when setting the ransoms of the elite, especially as political and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances might also influence the amount demanded. Chivalric concerns could also be important: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated case of Bertrand du Guesclin captured at the battle of Najera \(1367\) and purchased by the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince is a good example of this \(pp. 136?7\). After taunting the prince that he feared to release him, Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanded that he place a value on his own freedom. Du Guesclin did so ? a splendidly vast amount ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles V paid the sum. The king soon appointed Bertrand Constable of France from which office he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineered the reconquest of all the English had gained up until the treaty of Brtigny ? much of which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been governed by the Black Prince. Not all prisoners fared so well. Greed was the cause of the deaths and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering of many ? one Robert Chesnel employed a torturer who had responsibilities to encourage prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to increase the values they placed on their lives \(pp. 37, 127\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.2837 726.3655 371.2757 738.2455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7364 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the value placed on the freedom of the elite was subject to wide variation, the ransoms of the lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiery became increasingly standardised over the course of the struggle \(pp. 141?5\). This was an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in the whole business of ransoming ? its extension to the lower echelons of the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy. A scale of ransom prices for those below the elite became increasingly systematic. Alongside this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process the costs associated with the maintenance of a prisoner \(board and lodging\) became fixed. Known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(les marz)] TJ ET BT 74.348 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this was usually calculated as worth about a fifth of the ransom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once a ransom was set prisoners might petition their commanders at assist them with payment. Apart from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a few exceptional cases, there was no contractual obligation for them to do so, and Ambhl argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Princes simply could not afford to give support to all their subjects who were prisoners of the enemy? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(227\). This is a telling statement in many ways and it reflects the wider importance of this subject ? so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were involved in the culture of ransoming either as ?masters? or prisoners. In another context we learn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate John More, a sergeant-at-arms was captured on seven occasions, and the terminally unlucky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean de Rousselet who was taken prisoner no fewer than 14 times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Should a prince not be forthcoming with assistance a prisoner might turn to his social circle for aid \(chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nine\). This brings us to the familiar and yet still awkward subject of defining friendship in the later middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 58.340 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 58.340 545.235 m 72.332 545.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 72.332 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The author is perhaps wrong to say that ransom cases don?t shed any clearer light on the subject. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers several intriguing examples and is perhaps somewhat restricted in his wish that the document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly use the terms ?friend? or ?friendship? \(pp. 230?1\). The role of brothers-in-arms is also considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this context with those familiar examples of John Clanvowe and William Neviile \(pp. 243?4\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Molyneux and John Winter \(p. 244\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One might quibble that the book could do more to show clearly the changes in the practice of ransoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which took place over the course of the Hundred Years War. This is, in part, because the author discerns few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major turning points in the process during the struggle. The appearance of the phrase ?prisoner of war? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1420s may be indicative of changing attitudes, although it was probably introduced simply to distinguish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between an enemy combatant and a criminal. As the author acknowledges, however, much of his evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on Normandy, Maine and Anjou, and evidence from elsewhere in France might provide a slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different picture of developments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book has much to offer those interested in prisoners of war in other periods, they will, however, need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be well briefed about the context from which the many examples are drawn. There is little here to guide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those with no background knowledge of the Hundred Years War. It is also the case that those other theatres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the Hundred Years War was fought, particularly Scotland and the Iberian Peninsula, receive little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention. This is chiefly restricted to some consideration of Edward III?s prisoners, including David II, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the battle of Neville?s Cross \(1346\), and the clash between Henry IV and Hotspur over those captured at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Humbleton Hill \(1420\) \(pp. 56?7\). These, however, are minor quibbles; this is an important book based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent and extensive research. The archival work, in particular, is most impressive. On occasion one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wishes that the author might chance his arm with some possible interpretations of evidence, but Ambhl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a very balanced consideration of the subject, replete with examples. We are offered a nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the business of ransoming which sees it as evolving as a consequence of influences from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below which were at least as significant as those imposed from above. This, then, is a book which details the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practicalities and ethos of ransoming, and provides us with a new perspective on not only prisoners of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but wider considerations of economics, chivalry, social bonds and sovereignty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 100.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Contamine, ?The growth of state control: practices of war, 1300?1800 ? ransom and booty?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 86.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Competition between States)] TJ ET BT 242.012 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Contamine \(Oxford, 2000\), pp. 164?93.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.656 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.656 85.059 m 522.644 85.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 72.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rmy Ambh, ?A fair share of the profits? The ransoms of Agincourt?, )] TJ ET BT 410.612 72.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nottingham Medieval Studies)] TJ ET BT 552.608 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50 \(2006\), 129?50; idem, ?Le Sort des prisonniers d?Azincourt \(1415\)?, )] TJ ET BT 413.624 57.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revue du Nord)] TJ ET BT 485.612 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 89 \(2007\), )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 58.3397 545.5495 72.3317 557.4295 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.6557 85.3735 522.6437 97.2535 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 1606 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(755?88; Franoise Beriac-Lain and Chris Given-Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 344.300 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Prisonniers de la bataille de Poitiers)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Paris, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.008 780.819 m 182.996 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example P. Maddern, ??Best Trusted Friends?: concepts and practices of friendship among )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth-century Norfolk gentry?, in )] TJ ET BT 242.972 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England in the Fifteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 401.636 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. N. Rogers \(Stamford, CT, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\), pp. 100?16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.340 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.340 738.051 m 208.328 738.051 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 722.719 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 704.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 704.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1465)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 703.545 m 328.316 703.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 678.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/49509)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.0077 781.1335 182.9957 793.0135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.3397 738.3655 208.3277 750.2455 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 703.8595 328.3157 715.7395 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1465) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000591 00000 n 0000000673 00000 n 0000004679 00000 n 0000004788 00000 n 0000004898 00000 n 0000005007 00000 n 0000008568 00000 n 0000008696 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n 0000008864 00000 n 0000016626 00000 n 0000016656 00000 n 0000016784 00000 n 0000016820 00000 n 0000016904 00000 n 0000024728 00000 n 0000024758 00000 n 0000024886 00000 n 0000024922 00000 n 0000025013 00000 n 0000032430 00000 n 0000032460 00000 n 0000032586 00000 n 0000032622 00000 n 0000032748 00000 n 0000032803 00000 n 0000032901 00000 n 0000034560 00000 n 0000034688 00000 n 0000034743 00000 n 0000034871 00000 n 0000034926 00000 n 0000035054 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35150 %%EOF