%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R 50 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021182955+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021182955+01'00') /Title (The Experience of Beauty in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4471 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Experience of Beauty in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work of Mary Carruthers is well known to students of medieval culture. Her )] TJ ET BT 424.280 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book of Memory )] TJ ET BT 507.260 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of memory from antiquity to the late Middle Ages, treading in the footsteps of Frances Yates in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that memory was not just another concept in the minds of medieval writers, but a conceptual motor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the organisation and motivation of thought. In her later work, )] TJ ET BT 348.308 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Craft of Thought)] TJ ET BT 449.996 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Carruthers applied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her thesis to monastic writing from late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, while also expanding her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions to touch on the composition of visual as well as literary culture. It is this expansion which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought her to the attention of historians of medieval art, a field in which discussions of memory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric are now, due to Carruther?s influence, increasingly common. This move from the literary to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual in general has been supported by a collection of essays, edited by Carruthers, which takes her analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rhetoric and applies it successively to music, architecture, sculpture, and so on, with each chapter under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aegis of an appropriate expert.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.300 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.300 115.113 m 211.292 115.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 211.292 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This new book, however, essentially comprises several good essays on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philology disappointingly bound together by conservative polemic and confused statements on aesthetics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book contains a brief introduction and six interrelated essays. The first argues that medieval art was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(site of intellectually productive ?play?, in opposition to an arguably dominant view that medieval art was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1466)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Carruthers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199590322)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199590322.do#.UgzrkH9X_To)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Braude)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.2997 115.4275 211.2917 127.3075 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7603 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely dogmatic and descriptive. The second attempts to outline a medieval theory of style, arguing that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of stylistic description were taken from the Roman discussion of rhetoric. The third and fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters focus on the concept of taste, first in terms of the sensory aspects of bitterness and sweetness, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how these terms could be variously interpreted, and then attempting to follow through the literalness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?taste? into the concept of taste in relation to style. The penultimate essay uses a similar approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise the importance of variety \()] TJ ET BT 214.976 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(varietas)] TJ ET BT 253.640 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in early Christian art, and the last essay finally rests on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of beauty, arguing that the medieval notion of beauty was much more specific than the modern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focussing as it did on ideas of surface and stylistic opposition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers has a talent for shedding new light on old texts, ones that seem so familiar as to warrant no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further inspection. The better, more historical and interesting observations are of the kind she makes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noun )] TJ ET BT 61.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(honestus)] TJ ET BT 103.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a word which she shows cannot be translated simply as 'honest', but is more like 'decorum', a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word which communicates a visual suitability: ?'Honestus' is an instance of a word that starts out as a social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ethical category, and is then extended additionally to style. It travelled an opposite path to 'sweetness' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to many other common antique and medieval words to stylistic effect? \(p. 118\). Similarly, Carruthers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close readings of the writings of Bernard of Clairvaux ? of his invective against monstrous sculpture \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(146?50\), and of his sermon on the Song of Songs \(especially p. 91\) ? are diligent and historical. She shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that knowledge of classical rhetoric, its techniques and its discourse, was amply drawn on by the elite writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 12th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My criticism of this book, however, is political. Carruthers, for the most part, attempts to describe how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of medieval and antique writers understood their own reactions to human artefacts. The theory she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines is Aristotelian and, by the standards of today, elitist and reactionary. It is entirely understandable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a historian would want to remain uncritical of writers dead for a millennium ? but this is not Carruthers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position. Instead, she weaves her own assent with this aesthetic understanding into the description of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval expression. This is a problem in so far as that by allying her intellectual position with the thinkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she is studying, she neglects not only to properly understand the positions of the other scholars, but also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full historical meaning of the texts themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers attempts to situate herself as the wise moderate in an academic world gone wrong, aiming her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bow in turn at modernists, Marxists, romantics and post-modernists. Searching for Aristotelian moderacy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she seems to place on one side those who have interpreted medieval art as constrictive and unfree, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other those who have been too free with their interpretation, and thus driven interpretation itself into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extinction. Thus on the one side, as she states quite clearly in her opening, are the Christian right, which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates using the example of the Catholic League of America's reaction to Chris Ofili?s Brooklyn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum exhibition in 1999. As part of a larger web of what she argues are overly theologised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations, she associates the intellectual historian Eduard de Bruyne ? ?and his disciple, Umberto Eco? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 8\) ? with the popular moralism of the League. She argues that De Bruyne and others have popularised a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(false perception of medieval art, which emphasises it as ?offering specific moral lessons or models for moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour? \(p. 201\). She accurately describes them as the moralists who have influenced popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of medieval art as simply an instrument of the church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not a new interpretation of the historiography, but nonetheless Carruthers objects to those who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to provide a different path. Thus Carruthers describes Bakhtin's analysis of as an ?essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantic \(as well as Marxist\) idea? \(p. 28\). For Carruthers, Romanticism means the primacy of authorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention, and the Marxist version of this is to believe in the lower classes? ability for expression. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist ?supposes a wall of separation? between the serious world of the cleric and the playful world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artisans, thus banishing expression from the elite world. Suffocated under the Marxists' accusation that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are mere propagandists, Carruthers implies that the elite have also been constricted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.936 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.936 119.811 m 448.928 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having conflated moralists and Marxists, Carruthers turns on modernists and post-modernists. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising piece of polemic near the end, she takes aim first at Romanticism for over emphasising authorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention, then at New Criticism for banishing the author, and then against an un-named body of scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who have declared the artefact 'mute', ?so, with both author and artefact deprived of their own aesthetic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 434.9357 120.1255 448.9277 132.0055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8427 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention, the critic reigned supreme. The other two participants in the old rhetorical triad were silenced? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(171\). The author and her work have been disregarded completely.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.264 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.264 780.819 m 364.256 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result of all this rejection of interpreters of texts has unfortunate consequences, exemplified in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers? gloss on a letter by St Augustine. In the early fifth century, the peasantry of North Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to throw of the yoke of Imperial, Christian rule.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.980 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.980 726.051 m 326.972 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.972 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Seeing the rioters in the streets, tearing at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fabric of his polity, the Imperial governor wrote to the bishop of the diocese, requesting that the bishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal to the Emperor for a dispensation for the town, so that the people be allowed to practice their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion. The bishop was St Augustine, who not only refused the request, but took the time to write a long, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbed and sarcastic response to the governor. Carruthers comes to the defence of the reverend bishop, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praising the ?verbal plays of a master of his craft?, the style in which he refused to pardon the ?arsonous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murderous mob? \(p. 66\). These are her own words ? and in the spirit of play, no doubt. But it ignores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power relations between Augustine?s text, its intended audience, and those it was targeting ? relations which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain at play, as it were, throughout the world. Carruthers describes Augustine's invective as a ?virtuoso )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance?; her glossing of the Latin lexicon is virtuosic at points as well. But it is perhaps worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembering Adorno's observation on virtuosity in music. ?The virtuoso slaughters the piece of music in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name of the spellbound community as an act of atonement [...] in a concert, as in our dreams, the actors in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rites may exchange their roles. Frequently we may no longer know who is being sacrificed: the work, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtuoso or ourselves.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.000 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.000 540.723 m 156.992 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is what happens in the pages immediately following her praise of Augustine's imperial wit, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers' discusses ?blackness? \(pp. 67?8\). The Biblical line being parsed is ?)] TJ ET BT 417.104 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nigra sum, sed formosa)] TJ ET BT 529.772 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? ? ?I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(am black, but beautiful/shapely?, from the Song of Songs, and along with this text Carruthers also discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard of Clairvaux's famous 12th-century commentary. In a comment typical of medieval attitudes to race, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard states that beautiful skin cannot be black, but instead blackness can only be beautiful in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white skin. When Bernard attempts to understand skin as a purely metaphorical, ?blackened by the stain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human hardship?, Carruthers glosses his text: ?that is how she is black and beautiful, which is the paradox of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all human existence.? Not once does Carruthers note that Bernard's commentary is racialised, or that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hebrew composer of the Song of Songs in all likelihood had skin which today would be considered black. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is not even a footnote for the reader concerned that there might be something racist about Carruthers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission of this discussion. If Carruthers has a readership who are concerned about racism, then it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience who she sacrifices here in her virtuosity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strangely, the best way I know to describe the error Carruthers displays is to remind her of the )] TJ ET BT 490.268 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(performative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of speech acts, something which elsewhere in the book she claims to be not only aware of, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing for a greater understanding of. She describes a performative artwork as one that ?seeks to persuade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those it pleases to believe with confidence and trust?. Performance here seems to be a synonym for rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in general, but this is not how the term is generally used. John Langshaw Austin coined the phrase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('performative speech acts' in his lectures, published in 1962, to classify those acts of speaking which perform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the action they describe; this is the intellectual history of the term in English faculties.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.984 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.984 245.859 m 460.976 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.976 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And this is what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers does with the political context of the book: she performs the actions of exclusion and elitism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely by describing them uncritically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best example of this lack of awareness of performativity is in an anecdote in which Carruthers relates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how she tried to get her students to perform a mock trial, but one student objected. Carruthers defends the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual game of the trial on the grounds that play is a useful site of free thought. But though Carruthers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student may have been a spoil-sport \(in that they interrupted the game\), they were perhaps one with a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of performative speech acts than that of the tutor, for a mock trial still announces a trial of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some kind; it cannot help but bring the rule of law a little closer, to enact that which is purports simply to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe. I assume that Carruthers' student objected to the act of having to defend incitement to riot, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers' defence could easily swing the other way, justifying the training of students to 'pretend' that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are quelling the rioters. Indeed, a recent examination question from Eton College performed exactly that act.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 62.787 m 48.008 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is in a similar manner that Carruthers' sycophantic description of St Augustine's mocking of Nectarius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the North African rebels does not merely describe a situation, but itself mocks the underdogs. The silent )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.2637 781.1335 364.2557 793.0135 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.9797 726.3655 326.9717 738.2455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.9997 541.0375 156.9917 552.9175 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.9837 246.1735 460.9757 258.0535 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 63.1015 48.0077 74.9815 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 8464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assent which Carruthers gives to Bernard's racism is equally performative, and partial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps I will be accused of being a spoil-sport here, or for taking light hearted things too seriously. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual effects of this lack of reflexivity run deep. This becomes clearer, perhaps, in her attack on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('queer'. In a polemic again against overly-Christian, theological, moralising criticism ? this time at the pen of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emile Male rather than Eduard de Bruyne ? Carruthers claims that the effects of ?affective piety? have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained with medievalists, even while the theologising itself has been left behind: ?The explanations for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval 'emotionalism' that are prevalent now remain insistently focused on the individual, oriented this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time towards the psychology of the liminal and strange, the excessive, peculiar, and queer. In other words, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an even greater emphasis on individual affect and personal taste? \(p. 99\). Carruthers' rhetorical analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, she claims to be more social, ?for rhetoric is essentially social as sensory affect is individual?. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is simply confused. First, while a criticism could be levelled at some queer theorists that there is an undue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on individual acts of performance, this certainly cannot be taken as a criticism of the field in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirety. Indeed, queer studies emerged from a radical movement for the inclusion of a marginalised )] TJ ET BT 517.580 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(social)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group, not for the examination of individual characteristics. The term 'queer' itself does indeed stem from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social scientific psychologising, but one which queer studies has \(successfully\) reclaimed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More importantly however, there is a confusion here between margins and minorities. Michael Camille's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Image on the Edge)] TJ ET BT 124.328 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the book which has still done the most to intervene with queerness into the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval art, turned its readers' attention to the margins of the books and the sexual and scatalogical images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therein. Like Carruthers, Camille emphasised the prosaic and rhetorical, not the moralising and theological. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But where they differ is that Camille understood that to be marginal is not the same as being in a minority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To focus on queer, feminine, black and 'othered' people is to refocus attention on the )] TJ ET BT 442.592 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(majority)] TJ ET BT 483.260 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of experience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is important, for understanding what happened in the Middle Ages requires understanding experience in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its totality. To neglect ? or worse, reject ? experiences which do not conform to a dominant model is to also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reject the possibility of understanding past experiences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Mary Carruthers' topic is )] TJ ET BT 177.164 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not )] TJ ET BT 195.500 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experience of beauty in the Middle Ages, but the experience of beauty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it was understood by an elite.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.664 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.664 402.675 m 201.656 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.656 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is perhaps self-evident, given the source material, but it is worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stating. I am not opposed to the study of Peter of Celle, Thomas Aquinas or Bernard of Clairvaux, or of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers' more esoteric sources, such as Bene of Florence. But the truth of these writings must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood alongside their full context. Their experience is not 'medieval experience' in its totality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Only once does Carruthers explicitly recognise that aesthetic judgements relate to social class. For most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, the question of 'taste' is subordinated to, and made concomitant with, the question of 'style'. 'Style' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is said by Carruthers to be equivalent to 'persuasion', the way in which an audience \(an audience of 'judges', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as she is keen to repeat\) is brought to a ?confident belief? \(pp. 13?15 and )] TJ ET BT 387.272 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(passim)] TJ ET BT 420.608 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Elsewhere however, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes that 'style' is at heart about aptness, utility and decorum; it has a class character: ?in this process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming to a confident belief, it would be hard to overstate the role of class outlook, based in shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions, experiences, education, and habit? \(p. 119\). So confident belief is itself part of a social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment, influenced by ideas of that which is apt and fitting. But what is the judge meant to be brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a confident belief )] TJ ET BT 133.328 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 142.664 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? The only place where I can find an answer to this question is near to the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, where a )] TJ ET BT 104.660 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tromp l'oeil )] TJ ET BT 163.232 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect in the church of Saint-Savin is explained as being there ?to persuade us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe with confidence in the architectural suitability of this place, confirmed by the use of expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional tropes? \(p. 190\). But she has already stated that persuasion happens through aptness, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions. Thus, bizarrely, for Carruthers style is the way an object persuades us that it is the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(object which can persuade us.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers' argument on style is, thus, ultimately an argument about style as something you might )] TJ ET BT 506.492 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(have)] TJ ET BT 529.148 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the distinction between styles. She does not examine how the differentiation of styles operates, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed. The argument concerning 'variety' \()] TJ ET BT 260.276 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(varietas)] TJ ET BT 298.940 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), for this reason, falls flat ? for the very taste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing objects as having )] TJ ET BT 172.664 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(varietas, )] TJ ET BT 217.328 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Carruthers' view was, in the main, the ecumenical nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Christian church ? but this variety is then trumped by the singular dominance of 'rhetoric', of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(appropriateness)] TJ ET BT 112.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in the minds of the Carruthers' elected writers. I cannot help but wonder what the non-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.6637 402.9895 201.6557 414.8695 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 7153 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian rebels of North Africa would have thought of their masters' panegyrics to 'variety'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why does Carruthers make this argument? Why argue that the Christian Middle Ages was a time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweetness, moderacy and rhetoric? Carruthers highlights this aspect of the world because it matches her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own: a well spoken, non-religious \(but not irreligious\) academy, where an elite \(believe they\) speak well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they live well. Despite constantly flitting between her description of medieval texts and her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truisms, it is clear that the Aristotelian ?virtue based ethics? of her favourite medieval writers is also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of ethics to which she holds \(p. 57, n. 17\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Virtue ethics? is the name used by contemporary philosophers \(such as Elizabeth Anscombe, Phillipa Foot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and John McDowell\) for a broadly Aristotelian approach to ethics. In contrast to Kantian and utilitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethics, where the focus is on the transcendental rationality of action, and on the relative goodness of states of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs, respectively, ?virtue ethics? asks what it is for human beings to flourish, to fulfil their human nature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, ?nature? is not conceived as brutely given, in opposition to the cultural, social, or political. Rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is argued that it is in the nature of humans to acquire, in the course of their upbringing and socialisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something which becomes ?second nature? to them, a conceptual framework which allows them to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for acting beyond the merely ?animal? needs of survival. The correct upbringing can create the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtuous person, who by his nature sees and responds to the correct reasons for acting in the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The obvious criticism of Aristotle himself ? to which any Aristotelian must respond ? is that the virtuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human was, for him, a man, and a man of a particular class, acting on the values of that class. For instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aristotle claims that it would be wrong to treat a woman or slave as a free citizen of Athens. The necessity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the historical situation of an ethos to be recognised and reflected on was a central component of Hegel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modification of Aristotle?s approach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers does claim that there is a class outlook to virtue ethics ? but only as a way of describing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upbringing \()] TJ ET BT 93.680 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(habitus, )] TJ ET BT 135.020 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps\) which creates the ?second nature? of the virtuous. But Carruthers does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer the criticism that virtue ethics ? in its complacent Aritotelian form ? is nothing but the mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spreading itself on the world, the virtuous person \(or a virtuous class\) seeing reasons everywhere which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves have put there. Thus she implicitly admits that ethics comes from a particular class ? with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric as its expression ? without any critique of the way in which that class has successfully created the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world in its own image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not just the elitism of this argument which bothers me; it also fails to address properly the situation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetics of medieval writers, including the elite writers Carruthers favours. For the very philosophy which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented Aquinas from being able to comment on the totality of experiences in his own time is the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy which prevents Carruthers from describing medieval experience in its totality ? including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aquinas' experience of the world. In other words, the living philosophical basis to Carruthers? historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, hidden behind the historical philosophy of the authors she cites, cannot truthfully reflect even on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those authors themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 186.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 186.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Carruthers, )] TJ ET BT 137.336 186.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture)] TJ ET BT 437.288 186.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1990\); M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carruthers, )] TJ ET BT 120.668 171.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Craft of Thought: Meditation, Rhetoric, and the Making of Images, 400?1200)] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2000\); )] TJ ET BT 161.672 157.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rhetoric beyond Words: Delight and Persuasion in the Arts of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 542.312 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. M. Carruthers \(Cambridge, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.984 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.984 142.083 m 299.972 142.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 129.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is worth noting that this is the same trick as played by Karl Popper, whereby the Marxists are )] TJ ET BT 64.016 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accused of having perpetrated the same sin as those they oppose.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.948 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.948 113.571 m 428.936 113.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 100.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I stress this distinction between freedom and unfreedom ? something which Carruthers does not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 86.338 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself express)] TJ ET BT 64.016 72.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? because I think it again signals the influence of Popper. Ernst Gombrich was of course the art )] TJ ET BT 64.016 57.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian who managed to turn Popper's politics into an aesthetics, deployed against the world of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.9837 142.3975 299.9717 154.2775 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.9477 113.8855 428.9357 125.7655 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 5457 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical theory which surrounded him. Carruthers, too, I feel, has attempted to write a book on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic theory without any interest in that other side of the Warburgian tradition, that which is closer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what became the Frankfurt School. She does not repudiate the aesthetic theories of the critical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists ? she simply ignores them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.012 752.307 m 290.000 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Wood, ?African peasant terrorism and Augustine?s political thought?, in )] TJ ET BT 430.292 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History from Below: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Popular Protest and Popular Ideology in Honour of George Rude)] TJ ET BT 431.000 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Frederick Krantz )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Montreal, 1985\), pp. 279?99, especially p. 289: ?An examination of [Augstine?s] life and political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought attests that he was a leading intellectual agent of class hegemony?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.296 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.296 695.283 m 477.284 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adorno, 'The natural history of the theatre', in )] TJ ET BT 286.964 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quasi Una Fantasia: Essays on Modern Music)] TJ ET BT 512.948 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1963\))] TJ ET BT 547.940 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 66.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 666.771 m 145.004 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. L. Austen, )] TJ ET BT 128.012 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How To Do Things With Words)] TJ ET BT 279.692 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1962\). Judith Butler's important and influential )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriation of this term in the 1990s related the construction of speech to the construction of gender )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and identity in general. J. Butler, )] TJ ET BT 224.336 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Abingdon, 1990\), especially p. 173.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.996 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.996 609.747 m 293.984 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Paper 1, 2011, Question 1 \(c\): ?The year is 2040. There have been riots in the streets of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London [...] the Government has deployed the Army to curb the protest [..] You are the Prime )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister. Write the script for a speech to be broadcast to the nation in which you explain why )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employing the Army against violent protesters was the only option available to you and one which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was both )] TJ ET BT 110.012 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(necessary )] TJ ET BT 160.328 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 180.656 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(moral)] TJ ET BT 209.324 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?. <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.420 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.etoncollege.com/KSpapers.aspx)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.420 538.467 m 439.064 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.064 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 456.056 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 8 July )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 524.211 m 149.000 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Echoing the preamble to the )] TJ ET BT 202.328 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford-Warburg Studies)] TJ ET BT 321.320 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?The emphasis of the series is on elite rather )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than popular culture?. p. i.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.328 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.328 495.699 m 247.316 495.699 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 480.367 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 462.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 462.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1466)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 461.193 m 328.316 461.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 436.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/58980)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.etoncollege.com/KSpapers.aspx)] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.0117 752.6215 289.9997 764.5015 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.2957 695.5975 477.2837 707.4775 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 667.0855 145.0037 678.9655 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.9957 610.0615 293.9837 621.9415 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 227.4197 538.7815 439.0637 550.6615 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.etoncollege.com/KSpapers.aspx) >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 524.5255 148.9997 536.4055 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.3277 496.0135 247.3157 507.8935 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 461.5075 328.3157 473.3875 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1466) >> endobj xref 0 68 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000560 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000005172 00000 n 0000005281 00000 n 0000005391 00000 n 0000005500 00000 n 0000009061 00000 n 0000009189 00000 n 0000009273 00000 n 0000009302 00000 n 0000009430 00000 n 0000009466 00000 n 0000009550 00000 n 0000017206 00000 n 0000017236 00000 n 0000017364 00000 n 0000017400 00000 n 0000017512 00000 n 0000025992 00000 n 0000026022 00000 n 0000026150 00000 n 0000026186 00000 n 0000026216 00000 n 0000026344 00000 n 0000026380 00000 n 0000026410 00000 n 0000026538 00000 n 0000026574 00000 n 0000026604 00000 n 0000026732 00000 n 0000026768 00000 n 0000026798 00000 n 0000026922 00000 n 0000026958 00000 n 0000027042 00000 n 0000035559 00000 n 0000035589 00000 n 0000035717 00000 n 0000035753 00000 n 0000035844 00000 n 0000043050 00000 n 0000043178 00000 n 0000043233 00000 n 0000043361 00000 n 0000043416 00000 n 0000043549 00000 n 0000049059 00000 n 0000049187 00000 n 0000049242 00000 n 0000049370 00000 n 0000049425 00000 n 0000049552 00000 n 0000049607 00000 n 0000049735 00000 n 0000049790 00000 n 0000049918 00000 n 0000050010 00000 n 0000050137 00000 n 0000050192 00000 n 0000050320 00000 n 0000050375 00000 n 0000050503 00000 n trailer << /Size 68 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 50599 %%EOF