%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140901015025+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140901015025+01'00') /Title (Popular Perceptions of Soviet Politics in the 1920s: Disenchantment of the Dreamers) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4684 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Popular Perceptions of Soviet Politics in the 1920s: Disenchantment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of the Dreamers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1988, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak famously posed the question regarding the peoples of the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcontinent, 'Can the subaltern speak?'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.308 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.308 222.033 m 242.300 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.300 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Spivak referred to the seemingly insurmountable challenge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing a history of the colonized masses when nearly all of the available sources were products of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonizers and thus reflected their preoccupations, biases, and frames of reference. Historians of Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia have long faced a similar challenge, as their dependence on officially published accounts meant that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an 'authentic' voice of the broad populace, a voice unencumbered by the ideological requirements of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik regime, became something of a holy grail in the profession. The opening of Soviet archives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to light sources that were never intended for publication, such as letters of appeal to Communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party leaders or secret police \(OGPU or NKVD\) reports \()] TJ ET BT 309.596 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(svodki)] TJ ET BT 340.256 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) on the mood of various sectors of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. Sarah Davies mined such sources from the 1930s for her book )] TJ ET BT 392.960 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Opinion in Stalin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia)] TJ ET BT 66.020 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while Russian historians published collections of documents, including )] TJ ET BT 416.348 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Golos naroda)] TJ ET BT 482.684 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 509.012 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pis?ma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vo vlast?)] TJ ET BT 77.012 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which drew from the thousands of letters that figures such as M. I. Kalinin, chair of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central Executive Committee, received daily in the 1920s and 1930s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.980 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.980 65.217 m 380.972 65.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1468)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 22 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olga Velikanova)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781137030740)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://us.macmillan.com/popularperceptionsofsovietpoliticsinthe1920s/OlgaVelikanova)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clayton Black)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.3077 222.3475 242.2997 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.9797 65.5315 380.9717 77.4115 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7463 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olga Velikanova has closely examined these collections and conducted her own extensive archival research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in St. Petersburg and Moscow to analyze the relationship of ordinary Russians to their government in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s. She is well aware of the dangers that uncritical use of her sources presents. In particular, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses debates among historians regarding police \(OGPU\) )] TJ ET BT 330.968 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(svodki)] TJ ET BT 361.628 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which, by default, focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontent among the population and criticism of the state and its policies rather than on displays of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiastic support \(pp. 17?18\). Moreover, the mandate to uncover elements hostile to Soviet power gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police agents the incentive to find evidence of their presence and, in doing so, justify their own existence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Velikanova argues that pressure to tailor police reports to superiors' expectations was lighter in the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than in the 1930s, and even the OGPU leadership itself was aware of the tendencies to embellish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information. Velikanova is therefore confident that the sources, by virtue of their volume and their relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistency, do have much to tell us about popular attitudes toward Soviet power in the first decade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two interrelated themes in particular provide Velikanova with windows into the minds of the rank-and-file )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses: fears of impending war and the ill-fated movement to create peasant unions. War scare is especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to her argument, because she sees in it a means of assessing loyalty and willingness to support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new state. She argues that the spontaneous movement to create peasant unions challenges stereotypes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry as a politically inert mass and shows that rural Russians pushed back against efforts to neutralize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them politically or impose ideological constraints from above. Thus the year 1927 emerges in her account as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a decisive moment in Soviet history, not \(as has often been told\) because Stalin used the fear of war to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolate his enemies and push the country toward an accelerated pace of industrialization, but because the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scare and peasant union movement together revealed unanticipated levels of hostility toward state policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among broad \(and essential\) sections of the population. The state?s responses to those realities established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedents that would characterize the entire Stalin era: an assault on peasant autonomy and widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrests of suspected enemies in so-called mass operations, all fueled by a paranoid sense of vulnerability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign attack.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1920s witnessed a series of war scares, the most important of which arose in early 1923 and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring and summer of 1927 but with smaller waves in 1924 and 1925. An ultimatum by Lord Curzon to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet government to halt propaganda activities in British colonies, combined with the assassination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet emissary V. V. Vorovsky in Switzerland, provided the ostensible cause for the first alarm; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Velikanova argues persuasively that it was primarily the product of anxiety over Lenin?s failing health and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fear that internal opponents would take advantage of the occasion to rise up against the regime and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attract support from the country?s enemies abroad. The scare of 1924 she describes as 'a planned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization action directed by the Comintern according to its goals ? to maintain international class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidarity and both a high war and a revolutionary spirit in society' \(p. 44\). Here Velikanova offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating treatment of the demonstrations and exhibitions to heighten awareness of the threat from abroad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to prepare the population for aerial and gas attack. Rather than galvanizing support, however, the scares )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated anxiety in much of the population, with the result that peasants hoarded grain and supplies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed vigorous hostility to war \(which they blamed their leaders for provoking\), and spread confused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rumors over the actual extent of the international threat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Velikanova devotes two entire chapters to the scare of 1927. The first is an examination of what she calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('power discourse', by which she means the discussions among the Politburo, diplomats, the military, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence services, the OGPU, and the Comintern regarding the immediacy of the threat. Here she shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that an alarmist mood about Russia's international position was widespread well before the actual outbreak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the scare in May, when the British government, angry at Soviet interference in the general strike of 1926 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at evidence of military support for revolutionaries in China, severed diplomatic relations. And just as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassination had heightened the sense of threat in 1923, the murder of Soviet deputy ambassador P. L. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Voikov in Warsaw by a member of an migr organization prompted Stalin to dispatch a hastily worded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telegram calling for the OGPU to seize all of the monarchists in Soviet prisons as hostages, execute five or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten for each subsequent assassination, and initiate mass arrests of monarchists and so-called Whiteguardists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the country. The Politburo quickly adopted resolutions in line with these demands and, together with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7435 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass propaganda and campaigns for military preparedness, thus began a 'mass operation' that increased the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of civilian informants, netted tens of thousands of people, and streamlined the process of trying and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executing those convicted as 'enemies'. Velikanova makes an important contribution to the historiography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism here by firmly connecting the pattern of violence characteristic of the 1930s to the threat that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin and his leaders perceived from abroad and from within in the 1920s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Were Soviet leaders cynically manipulating fear of attack to mobilize the population and strike against their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal political enemies? Or did they genuinely believe that they stood on the brink of invasion? On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, Velikanova takes seriously Bolshevik fears that their country faced imminent war, pointing out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the leadership was receiving conflicting information, with the Comintern and the OGPU braying about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malign intentions of the country?s foes while the Commissariat of Foreign Affairs pleaded for restraint in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing the threat of war. Red Army generals offered mixed assessments of the likelihood of attack, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Velikanova points out that the army made no changes to its planned mobilization programme, and, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defense expenditures grew only gradually over the 1920s, suggesting a lack of urgency \(p. 49\). It is thus easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see why historians have variously interpreted the war scares. But even though Velikanova recognizes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utility of the scares for mobilizing support and consolidating Stalin's control of the party, she is clear in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that 'Fear, rather than cold calculation, stood behind the war-scare politics' \(p. 80\). She sees no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence in Stalin's correspondence to suggest that it was 'a conscious manoeuvre to crush the opposition' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47\); and given the damage that the war scare of 1923 had done to the country's international trade and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(panic it generated in the market, she finds it hard to imagine a deliberate repetition of the experience for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely political ends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular reactions to rumors of war in 1926 and 1927 ? the subject of the following chapter ? revealed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party leadership the extent of anti-government sentiments, especially among the peasantry. OGPU reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relayed statements that peasants largely blamed their own leaders for the worsening of international relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and would, in the event of war, turn their weapons on party representatives and local bureaucrats. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recruitment into the Red Army dropped; the marketing of grain ? despite only a slight decline in the overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grain harvest ? fell by nearly half as peasants hoarded their supplies; and party members in large numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submitted resignations, fearing that their membership implied a willingness to take up arms in defense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state. Indeed, by the time yet another war scare hit in 1930, at the height of the violent campaign to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectivize agriculture, OGPU agents reported widespread hopes among the population for invasion based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the belief that war would bring an end to Bolshevik rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The movement in the 1920s to form independent peasant unions to represent rural interests, much as urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade unions gave workers representation and a means of pursuing wage increases, further unveils for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Velikanova popular attitudes toward the Bolshevik government and helps explain its sense of vulnerability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and paranoia. In particular, peasants expressed anger over the low prices at which the state procured grain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the absence of consumer goods, the weakness of local soviets, attempts to impose artificial class categories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on social structures in the villages, and the favoritism shown to industrial workers. Velikanova finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of these and other complaints across the breadth of the USSR, and their sheer abundance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistency lead her to conclude that 'the majority, or at least a large part of the population, in the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?generally tended toward? rejecting Bolshevik politics. People did not trust the government and did not want )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sacrifice their lives defending it' \(p. 190\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a conclusion, however, implies the mirror possibility that a majority, or at least a large part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population in the 1920s was either supportive of, or, if possible, indifferent to Bolshevik politics. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Velikanova?s evidence effectively counterbalances the decades of Soviet historiography that ignored popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices of dissent, few historians seriously doubted that they existed, and many Western scholars were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to believe that they were the overwhelming majority of popular opinion. Although Velikanova does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(add subtlety to her analysis by discussing generational differences, the influence of utopian thinking, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of violence in the civil war to explain pro-Bolshevik sentiments, she perhaps too easily dismisses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements of support as simply 'speaking Bolshevik', whereas dissenting voices to her have the ring of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and, thus, authenticity. More persuasive, in my view, is Alexander Livshin?s argument that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an era of enormous instability, people harbored a host of mutually contradictory ideas about politics, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6365 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics, culture, and social relations, all of which changed with the fluctuating circumstances.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.600 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.600 795.075 m 514.592 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.592 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach of course complicates any discussion of 'popular opinion', but considering the immense economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political problems that Velikanova documents so well, we require no less care and nuance in explaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for the regime than in describing its opposition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite its focus on popular opinion, Velikanova's account tends to be Stalin-centric. This is understandable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the growing concentration of decision-making power in his hands and historians' desire \(which I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share\) to explain his rise and the violence of his rule. But part of the strength of her narrative and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent studies is to show the contributions of other leaders and even of broad segments of the population to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those processes. It is therefore curious that she lapses into statements that seem to restore the idea of 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boss' \()] TJ ET BT 64.508 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nachal'nik)] TJ ET BT 114.404 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) engineering a nationwide hysteria based on his own paranoia. His role is obviously critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1927, when he was well on his way to full control, but this was far less the case in 1923, when, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims, 'panic at the top was initiated and orchestrated by the General Secretary' \(p. 80\), an assertion for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which her evidence is slim. If, as she says earlier \(p. 50\), 'angst over foreign intervention' was 'deeply rooted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mentality of the Bolsheviks', and if, as she points out, alarmist signals from Politburo members N. I. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bukharin, A. I. Rykov, and K. E. Voroshilov \(only the last of whom can be called a Stalinist\) actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceded the war scare, then to describe the scares in terms of Stalin's manipulations would seem to return us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reductionist explanations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Velikanova deserves praise for focusing our attention on the important role that fear of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played in shaping mentalities ? both popular and among the leadership ? in the 1920s, and, especially, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1927 as a critical year in the shaping of Stalinist rule. Moreover, by amplifying the voices 'from below', she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has helped enrich our understanding of the first decade of Soviet power and shown that the occupants of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kremlin may have worried as much about their own citizens as they did about enemies abroad.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, "Can the subaltern speak?" in )] TJ ET BT 350.096 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture)] TJ ET BT 553.760 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. C. Nelson and L. Grossberg \(Basingstoke, 1988\), pp. 271?313.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.312 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.312 391.923 m 437.300 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Davies, )] TJ ET BT 133.664 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Opinion in Stalin's Russia: Terror: Propaganda and Dissent, 1934?1941)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\); )] TJ ET BT 161.672 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Golos naroda: Pis'ma i otkliki riadovykh sovetskikh grazhdan o sobytiiakh 1918-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1932)] TJ ET BT 88.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. K. Sokolov \(Moscow, 1998\); )] TJ ET BT 269.336 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pis'ma vo vlast', 1917?1927: Zaiavleniia, zhaloby, donosy, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pis'ma v gosudarstvennye struktury i bol'shevistskim vozhdiam)] TJ ET BT 364.460 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Ia. Livshin and I. B. Orlov )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Moscow, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.336 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.336 320.643 m 200.324 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aleksandr Livshin, )] TJ ET BT 159.008 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nastroeniia i politicheskie emotsii v Sovetskoi Rossii 1917?1932 gg.)] TJ ET BT 487.340 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Moscow, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010\), p. 306.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 292.131 m 185.000 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 250.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 232.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 232.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1468)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 231.369 m 328.316 231.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 206.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/70063)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.5997 795.3895 514.5917 807.2695 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.3117 392.2375 437.2997 404.1175 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 146.3357 320.9575 200.3237 332.8375 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 292.4455 184.9997 304.3255 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 231.6835 328.3157 243.5635 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1468) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000682 00000 n 0000005418 00000 n 0000005527 00000 n 0000005637 00000 n 0000005746 00000 n 0000009307 00000 n 0000009435 00000 n 0000009519 00000 n 0000009548 00000 n 0000009676 00000 n 0000009712 00000 n 0000009741 00000 n 0000009867 00000 n 0000009903 00000 n 0000009968 00000 n 0000017484 00000 n 0000017549 00000 n 0000025037 00000 n 0000025149 00000 n 0000031567 00000 n 0000031597 00000 n 0000031725 00000 n 0000031761 00000 n 0000031889 00000 n 0000031944 00000 n 0000032072 00000 n 0000032127 00000 n 0000032255 00000 n 0000032310 00000 n 0000032438 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32534 %%EOF