%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902131819+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902131819+01'00') /Title (Constructing Socialism at the Grass-Roots: the Transformation of East Germany, 1945-65) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4329 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Constructing Socialism at the Grass-Roots: the Transformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(East Germany, 1945-65)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some time we have been waiting for an accessibly written, archivally rich, and theoretically informed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history of East Germany. Corey Ross's first book scores very highly on all counts, presenting an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invigorating bottom-up history of the GDR in its two formative decades. Much of previous work emanating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Germany has been either institutional political history or structural sociology, in which the populace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears as either victims or statistics. Ross, however, is a firm believer in the historical agency of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymous individual-'creative accommodation' as he calls it \(p. 206\)-even if this only manifests itself to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state as an aggregate of pinpricks. The main thesis, supported by much graphic supporting evidence, is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the real cleavage in East German society was not between 'party' and 'society', but between the centre and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periphery-the grass roots. Indeed, anyone researching the implementation, rather than mere proclamation, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist policy, soon realises that rank-and-file party and state officials must be considered as part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(GDR society, not simply Soviet imports. Functionaries were sometimes in danger of 'going native' when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facing their local clientle. This was a phenomenon to which Kopstein alerted us in his )] TJ ET BT 453.956 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics of Economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decline)] TJ ET BT 71.336 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but is explored here far more systematically by Ross. Theoreticians of dictatorship often talk about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complex local negotiation of power between rulers and ruled, but rarely is this demonstrated so clearly as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of the book works well. Three social groups-workers, farmers and youth-are revisited at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various points in the development of the GDR. Although this is essentially a case study of East Berlin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(147)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corey Ross)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780333789806)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(274pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Major)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7667 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brandenburg, there is enough evidence from other areas to make it feel representative of the country at large. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, it would have been useful to know whether there )] TJ ET BT 335.624 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were )] TJ ET BT 361.952 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any noticeable regional differences. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, in terms of work stoppages and petitions to the state leadership, Saxony proved more 'difficult' than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other areas, but in terms of non-voting East Berlin was usually in the lead. Since, until 1961, the chosen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region had far greater access to West Berlin; did this proximity act as a safety valve or an incitement? There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also one or two episodes a study focused on Berlin might perhaps have been expected to address, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the blockade of West Berlin in 1948-49. There is some evidence, from Stivers and Koop for instance, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East Germans were prepared to subvert the blockade in their own economic interests, reinforcing Ross's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conventional account of the land reform of 1945 was that a new class of smallholders was empowered at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expense of the old landed interests, while integrating expellees from the former eastern territories. Ross )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the influence of estate-owners often persisted informally, and that new farmers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwilling to seize the initiative, fearful of a restoration. The redistribution was characterised by corruption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nepotism, with 'resettlers' from the East often derided as 'Polacks'. As Bauerkmper has also recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued in J)] TJ ET BT 86.672 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(unkerland in Bauernhand?)] TJ ET BT 215.996 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the real beneficiaries of land reform were existing farmers who added )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their land. The first serious challenge to the )] TJ ET BT 257.984 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grobauern)] TJ ET BT 317.312 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( came with the beginnings of collectivisation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1952, but the backlash against the 'construction of socialism' in the June 1953 uprising temporarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resurrected their position. As one jubilant farmer, who rode his horse right into the village pub, exclaimed: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Now we're the bosses again!' \(p. 67\). This was, of course, short-lived, but even in the wake of enforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectivisation in 1960 there were still 'invitation-only' collectives for the stronger farmers. This guerrilla )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare in the countryside could only gradually be allayed by the infusion of university-trained cadres into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the local administration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The factories were supposed to be the real power-base of the SED. Economic functionaries on the shop floor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed, nevertheless, to overcome anti-capitalist habits and create a new socialist voluntarism. In the 1940s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absenteeism reached 20 per cent and attempts to introduce incentive schemes and productivist movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were greeted with passive resistance. Indeed, Ross has unearthed some fascinating anonymous letters to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(GDR's Stakhanov, Hennecke, including one calling him 'you pimp of Soviet exploitation of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers' \(p. 45\). The trade unions, although at national level loyal party executors, at factory level were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either impotent or colluded with workers' demands. The author breaks new ground by drawing attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interests of middle management in the factories, often inherited from capitalism, but desperate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve the shop floor peace, especially after the strikes of June 1953. The importance of this event, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, was not so much the insurrection's actual disruption as the symbolic threat of a repeat. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequently, workers deployed the 'weapons of the weak', to borrow Scott's phrase. Individual works, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Schwarze Pumpe opencast mining complex, had to tolerate job shifting of ten per cent a month. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961 workers were overfulfilling 'slack' norms by an average 160 per cent, reliant on bonuses. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross is also wise enough to acknowledge that such local social autonomy was not an immediate threat to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime, and in some senses acted as a safety valve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Youth's experience is measured largely against the state's attempts to recruit young men into the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of the GDR. Ross highlights the difficulties on the ground of enacting the SED's policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasion. To preserve the fiction of volunteering, local officials badgered young men, using many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underhand tactics to ensure their enlistment. Not all too successfully in the 1950s, it might be added. Youths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held the SED's pacifist rhetoric against the party, asking 'What about the national hymn, that a mother will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never again mourn her son?' \(p. 77\). Interestingly, the author also reveals the conflicts of interest between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mustering boards and factory managers, both competing for the same manpower. Local economic officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could thus conspire with local youths in the interests of fulfilling the plan against the recruitment quota. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis also takes in the battle with the churches for young hearts and minds, which takes on a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension when one realises that a third of members of the Protestant youth group, Junge Gemeinde, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously members of the state youth organisation in the 1950s. Likewise, in 1956-57 12,000 SED )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members still had their children confirmed, an affinity only weakened by threats to career prospects. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('unacceptable' influence was western popular culture, as imbibed over the airwaves or at West Berlin )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7901 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cinemas before the Wall. Despite top-level condemnations, local party officials understood how to get bums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on seats, advertising in one instance: 'Tonight another mervellous West-film!' Only in the mid-1960s did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership learn to live with these manifestations, after counter-productive attempts to correct such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also explores the state's attempts to deal with )] TJ ET BT 301.484 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republikflucht)] TJ ET BT 371.480 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the 'flight from the Republic' which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed one GDR citizen in six leaving. East Berlin and Brandenburg were, of course directly adjacent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Berlin and particularly prone to losses. Ross highlights the buck-passing that went on among local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state officials, against the background of an official line, which dismissed the exodus as militarist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist recruitment by Bonn. Like many policies, the Communists' centrally-dictated solutions were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger of exacerbating the problem and were not always gratefully received on the ground. Yet, it is difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to know what the police could have done. When travel restrictions were relaxed in the mid 1950s during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destalinisation-one of the few factors Ross does not fully explore-the numbers of those taking advantage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soared. Borrowing from Hirschman's work on 'exit' and 'voice', the author also examines the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens could exploit the open border to improve jobs or housing. There are also unusual insights into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions of those left behind, with resentment when returning absconders were allowed to jump the housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queue or )] TJ ET BT 78.668 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schadenfreude)] TJ ET BT 149.984 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( when they were not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the importance of the border in the 1950s, it is perhaps surprising that its closure in August 1961 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be greeted with such a low level of protest. Apart from some youths, most citizens maintained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sullen silence, conscious of their powerlessness. Despite concerted attempts by the regime to improve work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline on the shop floor and in the collectives, workers managed to fend off too drastic an upward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revision of norms. Youths, too, could not be forced into enlisting, prompting the government to introduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscription. Ross even claims that 'for many East Germans, it seems that the construction of the Wall was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon )] TJ ET BT 59.684 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(remembered)] TJ ET BT 119.660 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as more of a caesura than it was actually )] TJ ET BT 319.604 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(experienced)] TJ ET BT 377.576 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the time' \(p. 163\). He is probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct that there was no overnight transformation of social and political relations, but instead a subtle long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term shift from the reluctance of the 1950s to a new pragmatism in the 1960s. This occurred on the part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central authorities, too, who recognised that the economy, not ideology, was the main yardstick of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, the author suggests that the evidence of grass-roots politics throw top-down totalitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models into question. This may seem a battle of yesteryear for Third Reich historians, but is a debate with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some currency for the GDR. There are also implications for political science approaches based on political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, such as Meuschel's 'un-differentiation' model of a steadily homogenising socialist society. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence from the 1950s and 1960s points towards the persistence of town and country divisions, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial versus central antagonisms. One group that Ross deliberately excludes, the intelligentsia, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the objects of much popular resentment as the regime privileged them to secure their loyalty. This was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course, in some ways)] TJ ET BT 149.660 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( the )] TJ ET BT 170.324 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial group in East German society. From research elsewhere it seems clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the educated were far less prone than workers, farmers and youths to shoot their mouths off in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of the party's eyes and ears. At the same time, local functionaries became demonstrably more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile to the perceived pampering of the intelligentsia than Politbro representatives such as Kurt Hager. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any sequel to Ross's work will have to test to what extent upward mobility, as he hints, did become blocked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1960s, squandering the goodwill of the new functional lites.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross's great gift is the ability to express complex ideas simply, and to keep the argument moving along at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brisk pace. The content will be fascinating and novel to fellow specialists, but the text is accessible enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to undergraduates too. The reader unfamiliar with developments is given sufficient background information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand the essentials of policy, but then is treated to a wealth of case studies and recorded utterances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which add a wonderful three-dimensionality to the account. In fact, not for a long time have I enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading a monograph so much. The author has taken the trouble not only to look in the Bundesarchiv Berlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Central Committee documents, but also in the two )] TJ ET BT 290.012 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Landesarchive)] TJ ET BT 360.668 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, down to the level of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factories. This does raise the question of why he did not choose to take advantage of the Stasi files, also held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Berlin. If researchers are being put off by the prohibitively long waiting lists at the Gauck Authority, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should at least be known. If it is more to do with fear of association with the sensationalist expos literature )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3545 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the mole-hunters, then much valuable material on the general population is perhaps being overlooked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ideally, this book should be read in conjunction with Mark Allinson's equally fascinating concurrent study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on popular opinion in Erfurt \(see my other online review\). Both scholars have emerged from the Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fulbrook stable at UCL. Yet, unlike Allinson, who stresses the apathetic majority, Ross has focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontent and what the party labelled 'special occurrences'. However diffuse and disparate these may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been, and however subtle the author's reading, in some senses this approach is 'looking for trouble' and so is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to find it. Allinson, on the other hand, takes the silent majority as more representative of general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes. In a regime that persistently refused to quantify levels of support and opposition, it is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know where the balance lies. Nevertheless, it would be interesting to know what each thinks of the other's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphases and conclusions. Clearly some of the impetus for this recent interest in 'ordinary Germans' comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from research on the Third Reich and will make for interesting comparisons as well as contrasts. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some 1930s apathy has been explained by the very anti-communism which later troubled the East German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communists, although Nazism had also engendered habits of passive resistance. It also strikes chords with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of popular opinion in the inter-war Soviet Union by authors such as Davies and Fitzpatrick. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War historians, however, the challenge is to offer something besides high-level diplomatic and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. This account shows that this is not only possible, but highly desirable. Ross is to be congratulated on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing this immensely rich book which is exactly what GDR studies needs at this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author wishes to express his thanks and to state that he is delighted with Dr. Patrick Major's very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced review. In addition, he agrees with some of the criticisms raised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 470.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 452.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 452.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/147)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 451.449 m 322.316 451.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 426.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 412.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/775)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 451.7635 322.3157 463.6435 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/147) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000005052 00000 n 0000005161 00000 n 0000005271 00000 n 0000005380 00000 n 0000008941 00000 n 0000009069 00000 n 0000009153 00000 n 0000009218 00000 n 0000016938 00000 n 0000017003 00000 n 0000024957 00000 n 0000025041 00000 n 0000028639 00000 n 0000028767 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28862 %%EOF