%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818083018+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818083018+01'00') /Title (Memory and History: Understanding Memory as Source and Subject) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4010 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Memory and History: Understanding Memory as Source and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Subject)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Officially, the designated revolution that took place in historical theory since the Second World War is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the so-called ?linguistic turn?. But as the postmodernist era in historical theory begins to fade, one begins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to wonder if the real revolution in post-war historical theory actually consisted of the rise of memory studies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the editor of this collection points out in her introduction, ?Memory is now as familiar a category for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians as politics, war or empire? \(p. 1\). The rise of memory studies began at the turn of the 1970s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reasons for its rise are multifarious. The Holocaust and the idea of the ?duty to remember? undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a part, as did some of the new social history of the 1960s; the decline of positivism?s standing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical method and the ?cultural turn? must also be taken into account. One might say that, ?taking all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aforementioned factors together, that the ?memory boom? of recent years has been over-determined? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5\). Nonetheless, regardless from whence it sprung, the point is that memory is now an inescapable feature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historiographical landscape.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection under review is published as part of )] TJ ET BT 280.304 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Routledge Guides to Using Historical Sources)] TJ ET BT 523.628 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unsurprisingly, the introduction argues that what distinguishes the volume from other introductions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1470)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 22 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Tumblety)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415677127)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415677127/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abingdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Timmins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8067 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and memory is its focus on sources. The volume is divided into three sections, with the first looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at working with oral testimonies; the second deals with memorialisation and commemoration; while the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the intersections between individual and collective memory. A select bibliography is provided for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all three areas at the end of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key critical issues in the area of memory studies is the reception of memory, with more than one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentator arguing that not enough has been done to address the issue. Most historical studies of memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?favour analysis of the textual, visual or oral representations of the past over the pursuit of evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to those cultural artifacts? \(p. 8\). The issue of reception is touched upon in several of the essays in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and History)] TJ ET BT 134.000 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Polly Low looks at the use of inscribed monuments in Ancient Athens to examine not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only )] TJ ET BT 58.352 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(what)] TJ ET BT 81.692 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Athenians were attempting to communicate with these monuments; but also whether their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts were successful. However, the evidence for whether the attempts were successful is slim, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer to the question is left somewhat opaque; commemorative monuments ?may well have been set up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with specific intentions, but it does not follow that they were always or only used for those purposes? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(81\). In her essay on the role that photography plays in museums, Susan A. Crane asks ?how did the inclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of photographs in museums shape the way that diverse audiences, from curators to scholars to the visiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public, interacted with the visual presence of the past?? \(p. 123\). But as with Low?s chapter on Athenian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monuments, the essay by and large focuses on what those who exhibited the photographs )] TJ ET BT 464.960 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(intended)] TJ ET BT 506.288 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portray, as opposed to how said photographs were )] TJ ET BT 277.640 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(received)] TJ ET BT 318.284 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by their audience. Audience reception is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really addressed in the last two pages of the chapter. Finally, Jason Crouthamel admits on the second page of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his chapter on the characterisation of ?shellshock? in the Weimar Republic that ?individual memory proves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be more difficult to locate and analyze? ? although to be fair it should be noted that Crouthamel is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful in trying to present the reception of memory than either Crane or Low \(p. 144\). Nonetheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression one gets from )] TJ ET BT 158.672 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and History)] TJ ET BT 258.656 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is that the gauging the reception of memory is a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic affair which even the doyens of the field have struggled to get to grips with. In her introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tumblety states that the aim of the volume is to ?animate and interrogate? rather than resolve outstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems ? but with regards to the reception of memory, animation seems thin on the ground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A theme that runs throughout the entire collection ? or ?haunts? the volume as Tumblety puts it \(like a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectre perhaps?\) ? is the problematic notion of collective memory. In Lindsey Dodd?s chapter on French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral history during the Second World War \(by far the best essay in the book\), the author emphasises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of ?cultural scripts?. If there is a gap between individual memories and ?public? forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembering, then the individual may be left feeling alienated as a result \(p. 37\). The Allied bombing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France during the Second World War has been described a ?black hole? with regard to French collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of the war: Dodd?s doctoral research found that it was fairly well remembered at a local/individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level, but a silence prevails at a public and institutional level \(p. 37\). On Dodd?s reading, public memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts as a kind of ?jelly mould? that shapes personal memories; with no such mould to hand, the individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories will be shapeless, and in the case of Dodd?s interviewee, coalesce around other psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landmarks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuing the theme, Rosanne Kennedy?s essay ?Memory, history and the law? examines the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law in shaping collective memory. The Nuremberg trials chose documentation over testimony with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence, and therefore did not significantly contribute to the collective memory of the Holocaust. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, the trial of Albert Eichmann in 1961 was designed almost as more of an exercise in collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory than as a trial )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.332 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.332 174.579 m 158.324 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.324 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; lead prosecutor Gideon Hauser allowed witnesses to present narratives ? opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the usual courtroom fare of question and answer ? and the trial was significant in ?bringing Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivors, who had been marginalised in Israeli society, into the forefront of national consciousness, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making the Holocaust central to national identity and remembrance in Israel? \(p. 55\). As Peter Novick has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted, ?collective memory works selectively; it is a form of myth-making that is shaped by the needs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups, and the formation of group identity, in the present? \(p. 57\). A historical approach to the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises the complexity of events, whereas memory tends to simplify ? shaping the past to fit within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jelly mould of a cultural script. I will return to the tension between ?history? and ?memory? shortly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another theme raised in this collection is the idea of visual memory. Franziska Seraphim makes the obvious, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.3317 174.8935 158.3237 186.7735 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6271 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but nonetheless important point that images function differently from texts; ?we )] TJ ET BT 420.980 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(see)] TJ ET BT 436.304 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with memory ? Images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tend to tap into the habits of mind \(as distinct from critical thinking\) ? to make sense? \(p. 98\). Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Tumblety documents how the image of resistance fighters in post-war France was cultivated through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films which were ?often publically funded and controlled? \(p. 109\). Such films functioned as historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources ?in the absence of much written material about that had been of necessity secret? \(p. 109\). Tumblety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also examines the written form of memory in her essay, through an examination of the challenge to official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory via the written memoirs of those ?with an axe to grind about the present regime and its alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulation of the past? \(p. 115\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay deals with the idea of memory and materiality.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.632 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.632 669.027 m 347.624 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.624 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Susan M. Stabile puts it that a palimpsest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not only a material object, but also a metaphor for memory.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.980 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.980 654.771 m 344.972 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.972 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The original ?inscription? ? the act itself ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is erased and forgotten, and thus lived experience is )] TJ ET BT 285.296 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(deposited)] TJ ET BT 331.292 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in memory, and )] TJ ET BT 412.952 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reposited)] TJ ET BT 457.616 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in narrative \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(194\). But memory changes with each iteration, ?shaped by the moment in which it is recalled. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recollection will be overwritten at a future moment, shadowed by a new memory? \(p. 194\). The past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, only exists as a fragment or ruin ? or if you?re a fan of Hayden White, as synecdoche. But traces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the past survive in what has come to be known as a ?cumulative palimpsest?. In the words of Geoff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey, ?successive episodes of deposition ? remain superimposed one upon the other without loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, but are so re-worked and mixed together that it is difficult or impossible to separate them out into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their original constituents? \(p. 195\). Stabile?s essay examines 19th-century antiquarian John Watson, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular his perpetuation of colonial ruins through a relic box. Material culture is a palimpsest ? ?the literal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things that people leave behind?material culture embodies and evokes memory? \(p. 197\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I spoke above of the tension between history ? as in academic history ? and memory. The historian has often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been sceptical of oral testimony; Anna Wieviorka makes the case that the Eichmann trial was crucial in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimising testimony as an epistemically acceptable form of truth telling about the past ? and that this had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative impact on historical writing. The Holocaust thus came ?to be defined as a succession of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences with which the public was supposed to identify? \(p. 56\). The problem is that this is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly good foundation for writing history; D. J. Goldhagen?s )] TJ ET BT 359.648 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Willing Executioners)] TJ ET BT 502.976 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably the most high profile example of this. One can learn a lot from listening to personal testimonies ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?but does one learn history?? \(p. 57\). At the other end of the pendulum, Pierre Nora felt that history had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bad thing for memory; ?true? memory has been obliterated by ?modern? memory ? the latter consisting of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the practise of oral history, heritage, commemoration, archives and genealogy? \(p. 160\). There are some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators however, who occupy a position somewhere between these two poles, James Young feels that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the distinction between history and memory ? ?history as that which happened, memory as that which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered of what happened? ? is somewhat forced \(p. 58\). Similarly, Hannah Ewence contends at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(start of her essay that ?Nora establishes between history and memory appear fabricated and unnecessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative, overlooking the ways in which history and memory can, and do, successfully overlap and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crossfertilize? \(p. 160\). Even ?atomized memory? uses the materials and milestones of ?official? memory to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct and reconstruct the past \(p. 161\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.6317 669.3415 347.6237 681.2215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.9797 655.0855 344.9717 666.9655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7719 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the tension between ?history? and ?memory? that provides the jumping off point for Ewence?s essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Memories of suburbia: autobiographical fiction and minority narratives?. Ewence studies three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographical novels to not only make the point that history, memory and fiction share points of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarity; but also as a means of introducing the idea of the ?spatial turn? ? ?ideas about space and place are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encoded with individual and collective identity\(ies\), memories and histories? \(p. 162\). All three novels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contain autobiographical elements, but their respective authors have resisted attempts to draw explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels with their own lives ? and the fact that they are not straightforward autobiographies is one of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengths, as ?Fiction alone has the capacity, perhaps the audacity, to challenge history ? whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography typically prefers to ?save face?? \(p. 169\). In all three novels, a clear sense of space is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fundamental within their writing as a site for exploring history, memory and identity? \(p. 172\). Fiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows authors to explore and deposit memory, and readers can draw upon their own memories to evoke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own past experiences; and to an extent it allows the negation of power structures that determine what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history can be told by whom in a way that sometimes oral history cannot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the interesting things about this collection is the lack of reference made to those we might call some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the doyens of postmodernism. I recently had a rather spirited exchange with Alun Munslow in these pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over whether postmodernism was on the wane or not.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.972 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.972 557.235 m 304.964 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.964 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It could be argued that the absence of the likes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derrida and Barthes from these pages might be taken as an indicator that the postmodernist turn in historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory is on the decline. In a review of a similar work on memory a few years ago, Patrick Hutton noted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?diminishing enthusiasm among historians for postmodernist theory? might prompt a ?return to the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and very practical historiographical problems of testimony, evidence, and interpretation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.268 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.268 500.211 m 477.260 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 477.260 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contents of )] TJ ET BT 110.336 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and History)] TJ ET BT 210.320 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would suggest that this has indeed taken place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and History)] TJ ET BT 134.000 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides an interesting cross-section of essays from the front-line of memory studies; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but its broadly based empiricist tone is both the book?s main strength and weakness, depending on your )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predilections in these matters. If you tend towards the view that historical theory should be aligned more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely with historical practice, then this collection of essays will be seen as a step in the right direction. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the other hand, one inclines towards what we might call the Wulf Kansteiner/ Jrn Rsen end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectrum, then there will be a woeful lack of theory in this one for your tastes, and a quick retreat to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages of )] TJ ET BT 77.336 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Memory)] TJ ET BT 177.320 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( journal may be necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am aware of the anachronism of using the term ?collective memory? here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.920 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.920 308.643 m 480.908 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this is addressed tangentially in chapters one and four as well.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.304 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.304 294.387 m 463.292 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 281.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the uninitiated, a palimpsest is ?Paper, parchment, or other writing material designed to be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reusable after any writing on it has been erased?. Definition taken from the )] TJ ET BT 426.596 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford English Dictionary)] TJ ET BT 555.260 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 251.619 m 118.004 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.112 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1356)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.112 237.363 m 314.756 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.756 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 331.748 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 3 June 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.480 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.480 237.363 m 509.468 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick H. Hutton, ?Memories of trauma: problems of interpretation?, )] TJ ET BT 401.300 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET BT 495.296 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43 \(2004\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(258.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 208.851 m 139.004 208.851 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 193.519 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 175.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1470)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 174.345 m 328.316 174.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/55496)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1356)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 290.9717 557.5495 304.9637 569.4295 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.2677 500.5255 477.2597 512.4055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.9197 308.9575 480.9077 320.8375 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 409.3037 294.7015 463.2917 306.5815 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 251.9335 118.0037 263.8135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.1117 237.6775 314.7557 249.5575 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1356) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.4797 237.6775 509.4677 249.5575 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 209.1655 139.0037 221.0455 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 174.6595 328.3157 186.5395 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1470) >> endobj xref 0 49 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004709 00000 n 0000004818 00000 n 0000004928 00000 n 0000005037 00000 n 0000008598 00000 n 0000008726 00000 n 0000008810 00000 n 0000008894 00000 n 0000017014 00000 n 0000017044 00000 n 0000017172 00000 n 0000017208 00000 n 0000017299 00000 n 0000023623 00000 n 0000023653 00000 n 0000023781 00000 n 0000023817 00000 n 0000023847 00000 n 0000023975 00000 n 0000024011 00000 n 0000024151 00000 n 0000031923 00000 n 0000031953 00000 n 0000032081 00000 n 0000032117 00000 n 0000032147 00000 n 0000032275 00000 n 0000032311 00000 n 0000032439 00000 n 0000032494 00000 n 0000032622 00000 n 0000032677 00000 n 0000032804 00000 n 0000032840 00000 n 0000032967 00000 n 0000033063 00000 n 0000033191 00000 n 0000033246 00000 n 0000033373 00000 n 0000033428 00000 n 0000033556 00000 n trailer << /Size 49 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33652 %%EOF