%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141024064236+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141024064236+01'00') /Title (Sasha and Emma: The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2086 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sasha and Emma: The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Emma Goldman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1471)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 29 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Avrich)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Avrich)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674065987)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(460pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674065987)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Adams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8127 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sasha and Emma )] TJ ET BT 120.344 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the story of one life-long relationship and the product of another. When the historian of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian and American anarchism Paul Avrich died in 2006, he left behind a rich body of scholarly work )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 538.268 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 538.268 768.819 m 552.260 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an unfinished manuscript exploring ?the passionate half-century friendship between legendary activist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman? \(p. ix\). In the days before his death, his daughter Karen Avrich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed to complete his project, revising the early manuscript and conducting additional archival research to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(augment the rich material gathered by her father. The product of this collaboration is a lengthy biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman and Goldman: passionate advocates of anarchism, apostles of direct action, and a source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetual frustration for the authorities of every country they inhabited. As )] TJ ET BT 395.948 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sasha and Emma )] TJ ET BT 482.276 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman and Goldman?s relationship was a great source of strength for both, as they endured bouts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment, official harassment, successive deportations, and constant financial uncertainty. Despite their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differing temperaments, the ebullient Goldman and saturnine Berkman remained steadfast allies until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end. ?It is not an exaggeration?, Goldman wrote to Berkman on his 65th birthday, ?when I say that no one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever was so rooted in my being, so ingrained in every fiber as you have been and are to this day? \(p. 401\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Berkman and Goldman?s lives and politicisation are intimately tied to the United States and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chequered history of labour relations, their story begins, like so many of anarchism?s pioneers, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian Empire. Alexander, or Sasha for short, was born to a rich merchant in the Lithuanian capital Vilnus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1870, before moving to St. Petersburg to enjoy the fruits of a classical education. Material security gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to uncertainty with the death of his parents, and his subsequent expulsion from school for attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bribe a caretaker for copies of a forthcoming exam. Berkman, from an early age then, acquired a reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for possessing a ?distinctly antagonistic? character \(p. 12\). Goldman, a year older, was born in Kovno, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a troubled childhood, in which her domineering father forced her to neglect her education in favour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking work to supplement the family income. They clashed frequently, and when he attempted to ?marry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her off? at 15, she sought escape \(p. 16\). In 1885, Emma left for Rochester, New York, to join her sister who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had started a new life in America shortly before. Three years later, Sasha, whose reputation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troublemaker had complicated finding gainful employment, also left for New York. For both, emigration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a means of escaping the struggles of daily life and pressures of familial expectation, but the promise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States amounted to more than this. ?There beyond the ocean?, Berkman wrote, ?was the land of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noble achievements, a glorious free country ? the very realization of my youthful dreams? \(p. 18\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As )] TJ ET BT 50.348 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sasha and Emma )] TJ ET BT 136.676 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies, both Berkman and Goldman shared an obstinate streak plainly evident in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early years. Although they were still yet to meet by the time they left for America, and while their political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas remained instinctual, for both their early lives under the tumultuous rule of Alexander II and Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III left an indelible imprint. Throughout his life, Berkman would remain captivated by the revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas that developed in Russia and the audacious acts of nihilist agitators, like those that assassinated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander II in 1881. In the crackdown that followed Berkman?s favourite uncle, the nihilist-sympathising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxim Natanson, who was also a member of the Chaikovsky Circle that featured the future anarchist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretician Peter Kropotkin, was arrested and sentenced to death. Through literature too, an oblique home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for political dissent in Russia given the readiness of the authorities to wield the red pen, Berkman was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed to new ideas. Ivan Turgenev?s exploration of nihilism in )] TJ ET BT 350.972 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fathers and Sons )] TJ ET BT 437.972 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1862\) was a favourite, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Nikolai Chernyshevsky?s novel )] TJ ET BT 209.996 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What Is to Be Done? )] TJ ET BT 312.980 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1863\), a question that would continue to resonate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Russian history, inspired Berkman with its model of revolutionary heroism. Rakhmetov, the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central character, directed all his powers to the cause, shunning personal relationships that might ?soften or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divert him?, and adopting an ascetic lifestyle so as not to weaken his revolutionary virtue \(p. 12\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rakhmetov?s name, and example, is one that Berkman would resurrect later in life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman and Goldman may have been captivated by the prospect of a new life in America, but like so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants, they quickly discovered that it was not the land of milk and honey they had hoped. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggled to find secure employment, something exacerbated by Berkman?s habit of falling out with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employers. After a brief stint shovelling snow off the New York sidewalks, he found temporary work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(packing boxes in a shirt factory, then as a cigar maker, and then as a machine operator in a cloak factory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldman similarly struggled in these early years, and primarily lived off her needlework, stitching corsets in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a factory. An unhappy product of her factory work was a brief marriage to fellow Russian-Jew Jacob )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.2677 769.1335 552.2597 781.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8348 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kershner, a union that Goldman dissolved within a year, when Kershner struggled with impotence. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman and Goldman?s experience as factotums amongst New York?s lumpenproletariat revealed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality of the ?dignity of labor? under capitalism, but their latent political radicalism was galvanised in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake of a criminal trial that garnered international condemnation \(p. 21\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 4 May 1886, shortly after Goldman had landed at Castle Garden and two years before Berkman arrived, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a labour demonstration held at Haymarket Square in Chicago went wrong. What started as a protest against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence meted out by the police in the suppression of a strike on the previous day, turned violent when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police ordered the crowd to disperse shortly after 10pm. At this point, a bomb was thrown into the police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranks, the explosion instantly killing one officer and injuring a number of others. Despite the darkness, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police opened fire on the protestors, killing a number of them and, in the process, shooting several of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own men in the melee. As one anonymous official confided to the )] TJ ET BT 353.636 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chicago Tribune )] TJ ET BT 438.308 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortly afterwards, ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very large number of the police were wounded by each other?s revolvers ? and while some got ? away, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest emptied their revolvers, mainly into each other?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.636 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.636 612.003 m 301.628 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.628 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although the identity of the bomb-thrower was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never ascertained, in the climate of vengeance that followed the outrage eight prominent Chicago anarchists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were promptly tried and convicted of murder. Following the rejection of their appeals, in November 1887, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four of the charged, Albert Parsons, August Spies, George Engel, and Adolph Fischer, were hanged, all four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singing )] TJ ET BT 72.356 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Marseillaise)] TJ ET BT 148.028 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as they went to the scaffold. The day before the executions, a fifth defendant, Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lingg, had defied the hangman?s noose. After finishing a customary cigar, Lingg calmly placed a lit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamite cartridge in his mouth, before laying back on his prison-bed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.972 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.972 526.467 m 385.964 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Haymarket tragedy had a dual impact on anarchism in the United States. Vitriolic denunciations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morally bankrupt anarchists in the popular press fuelled panic, and there were significant desertions from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical ranks as labour activists sought to escape the association with terrorism. But Haymarket also gave the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchist movement martyrs. There was widespread condemnation of the authorities? cavalier approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice, and the dignified resilience of the accused stirred many young radicals. In Britain, William Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deplored the ?spirit of cold cruelty, heartless and careless at once? that he thought characterised American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, and George Bernard Shaw saw Haymarket as a clear attack on freedom of speech.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.876 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.876 414.675 m 481.868 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.868 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Berkman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldman were both inspired to immerse themselves in anarchist ideas, and in 1889, they met for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time in Sach?s caf on the Lower East Side ? a popular haunt for radicals. Through Berkman, Goldman met )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fiery German anarchist Johann Most, editor of the newspaper )] TJ ET BT 348.944 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freiheit)] TJ ET BT 387.608 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and author of )] TJ ET BT 460.592 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Science of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary Warfare)] TJ ET BT 145.004 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a guide to bomb making. Soon both were self-identifying as anarchists, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman quickly began building a reputation in anarchist circles as a gifted polemicist, and Goldman a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful orator.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Berkman, though, propaganda of the pen was no replacement for revolutionary activity, and when a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strike in Homestead, Pennsylvania in 1892 culminated in an armed battle between strikers and Pinkertons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he saw an opportunity to act. Henry Clay Frick, the manager at the Homestead steel works, was intent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removing the union presence in his workplace, whatever the cost, and acquired a formidable reputation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intransigence. In an age of Ebenezer Scrooge he was, one anarchist commented, ?the meanest man the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century has produced? \(p. 61\). Appalled by events in Homestead, Berkman decided that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time to follow in the footsteps of the Russian nihilists he admired, and revive the memory of the Haymarket )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchists. Checking into a hotel under the name Rakhmetov, Berkman set out for Frick?s works, armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a revolver and a dagger. Encountering Frick in his office, Berkman shot him twice, once in the shoulder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and once in the neck, and, dropping his gun in the ensuing tussle, stabbed him three times. Frick, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improbably, survived, and the next morning he was propped up in bed dealing with correspondence, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to work within ten days. Berkman was less fortunate. The police foiled his attempt to follow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lingg?s example and explode a dynamite capsule in his mouth, and amidst objections that Berkman did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receive adequate legal advice, he was sentenced to 22 years in prison.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As )] TJ ET BT 50.348 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sasha and Emma )] TJ ET BT 136.676 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, despite Berkman?s faith that he had attempted to free the world of a tyrant, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions were met with a hostility that confounded him. Frick?s stoical recovery turned him, unexpectedly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a figure of sympathy, and Homestead?s workers quickly sought to disassociate themselves from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman?s act. And while he tried to use his date in court as a means to promote the anarchist cause, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.6357 612.3175 301.6277 624.1975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.9717 526.7815 385.9637 538.6615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.8757 414.9895 481.8677 426.8695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7947 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting press hostility did little to advance anarchism. The )] TJ ET BT 323.996 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times )] TJ ET BT 405.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoke for many when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicted Berkman as a ?mere crank, a Nihilist? \(p. 78\). In contrast to prevailing opinion, Goldman remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolutely supportive of Berkman?s attentat, and a source of strength throughout his imprisonment. Later she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would encourage him to distil his experiences into the book, )] TJ ET BT 326.324 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist )] TJ ET BT 483.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1912\), an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expos of the penal system in the United States, and a work that explored with candour homosexuality in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison, informed by Berkman?s own sexual experimentation. Beyond the prison walls, Goldman rose to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence as a public figure in her own right, continuing to campaign for clemency, but also lecturing on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plethora of causes in nationwide lecture tours. While she pontificated on subjects as diverse as anarchism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism, birth control, Nietzsche, and modern drama, it was with the cause of sexual freedom that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became most closely associated. ?I demand the independence of woman?, she wrote in 1897, ?to live for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself; to love whomever she pleases or as many as she pleases ? freedom of action, freedom in love and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom in motherhood?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.660 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.660 638.259 m 169.652 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The personal was certainly the political for Goldman, and )] TJ ET BT 313.964 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sasha and Emma )] TJ ET BT 400.292 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is at its best when it explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minutiae of her and Berkman?s relationships. These were often intellectual, frequently sexual, and usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both. Berkman and Goldman were themselves briefly lovers, before they lived in an awkward love triangle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Berkman?s cousin Modest ?Modska? Aronstam. Indeed, one of the most striking aspects of the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its rich vignettes on the characters that passed through both their lives. In exploring these individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside Berkman and Goldman?s formative relationship, the book is often poignant, occasionally has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pace of a thriller, and is frequently funny. The tale is skilfully told, and the Avriches were lucky to have such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating figures as subjects. Ben Reitman, a doctor turned social radical and one of Goldman?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passionate dalliances, is an especially noteworthy character. Possessor of the rather unsavoury moniker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?King of the Hobos?, Reitman and Goldman?s relationship was characteristically tempestuous, meeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Reitman offered Goldman the use of his ?Hobo College? to deliver a lecture after her notoriety made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing a venue in Chicago impossible \(p. 196\). Goldman later reflected on her attraction to Reitman in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoir, )] TJ ET BT 77.348 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living My Life)] TJ ET BT 148.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, noting that he cut a dashing figure in his ?large black cowboy hat [and] flowing silk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tie?, but added that ?his fingernails, like his hair, seemed to be on strike against soap and brush? \(p. 197\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the authorities had hoped that Berkman?s anarchist convictions would wane in prison, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointed. Before his release in 1906, he told Goldman that his politics had been a source of strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during his incarceration, a ?sustaining elemental force of my every-day existence?, and that his idealism had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?crystallized into the living truth of Anarchy? \(p. 183\). While his devotion may have been unaffected by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences, Berkman?s health would never fully recover. And while both he and Goldman soon returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their propagandist activities, the time was not propitious for anarchism. The assassination of President )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKinley in 1901, by Leon Czolgosz, a Polish-American who said he was a ?disciple of Emma Goldman?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heightened suspicion of America?s anarchists. Delivering his first address to Congress the new President )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodore Roosevelt declared war on anarchism and the slack immigration laws he held responsible for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent prominence in American politics. ?We should aim to exclude absolutely not only all persons who are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known ? believers in anarchistic principles?, he said, ?but all persons ? of a low moral tendency? \(p. 167\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the stage was set for Berkman and Goldman?s deportation, this would not ultimately come until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States entered the First World War. Keen to remove anything that might hamper the war effort, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman and Goldman?s ephemeral No-Conscription League led to their imprisonment in 1917, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportation, shortly before Christmas, in 1919.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequent events tested Goldman?s redoubtable enthusiasm, and exacerbated Berkman?s endemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moroseness to the point of catastrophe. They returned to a Russia agitated by revolution, and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed to playing their part in the birth of a new society. But like Kropotkin, who left Britain once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports from his homeland filtered through, their experience of Bolshevism left a bitter taste. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissatisfaction had anarchist roots in that all three saw in Bolshevism an authoritarianism that would seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harness the power of the revolution and ensure the political dominance of a particular cadre, but Goldman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also faced an identity crisis, and deeply missed America. The suppression of the rebellion at the Kronstadt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naval base in 1921 killed any lingering faith Berkman and Goldman had in the brave new world being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created in Russia. ?The Revolution is dead; its spirit cries in the wilderness?, Berkman confided to his diary, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.6597 638.5735 169.6517 650.4535 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7927 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the white sepulcher must be unmasked ? The Bolshevik myth must be destroyed? \(p. 313\). Their remaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years were itinerant: escaping Russia for Berlin, Goldman then embarked on lengthy lecture tours in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Kingdom and Canada, and on returning to Europe settled in St. Tropez, to work on her memoir. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman lived quietly in Paris, writing for a number of radical journals and completing his primer on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchist ideas )] TJ ET BT 107.996 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Now and After: The ABC of Communist Anarchism )] TJ ET BT 356.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1929\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given Berkman?s sense for the dramatic, it is not surprising that his eventual separation from Goldman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should take the form of a bold gesture. After undergoing a series of operations for a prostate complaint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without resolution, Berkman found the pain too much, and anxious about being a burden, decided to take his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own life. On 28 June 1936, the day after Goldman?s 67th birthday, he attempted to shoot himself in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart. In an echo of his previous excursion with a revolver, it was not a clean shot. An emergency operation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to extract the bullet, which missed his heart and pierced his lung, and became lodged in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stomach. Attempts to remove it were unsuccessful, and in excruciating pain, Berkman lapsed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconsciousness dying that evening. Burying him in Nice, Goldman added an inscription to his simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorial tablet: ?His dream was a new free and beautiful world. His whole life a ceaseless struggle. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate triumph of his ideal? \(p. 388\). Two weeks later, the anarchists? red and black standard was raised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sasha and Emma )] TJ ET BT 120.344 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an immensely readable contribution to the current revival of scholarly interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchism that adds personal texture to the enduring picture of two of America?s most prominent radicals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the book?s great strength. A criticism that could be levelled is that the idiosyncrasy of Berkman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldman?s intellectual contribution to the anarchist tradition is not made clear, and neither is their relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to some of the defining theoretical disputes in 19th-century anarchism. The Avriches no doubt decided, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps wisely, that an excursus on the relative merits of communist and collectivist distribution in a post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist society would hamper the book?s impressive narrative flow. Nevertheless, issues like these were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important points of contention in anarchist milieus, and were of especial significance given the presence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an indigenous strand of individualist-anarchism in the United States. Similarly, when it is stated that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkman followed in Kropotkin?s train when writing )] TJ ET BT 292.988 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Now and After)] TJ ET BT 362.996 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?illuminating the basic principles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchism? and introducing readers ?to the promise of cooperation, mutual aid, and peace?, it is never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely apparent how these ideas denote a self-consciously different political tradition \(pp. 340?1\). On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldman?s part, her enthusiasm for Nietzsche is mentioned on several occasions, but a commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nietzschean elitism, which is certainly how she framed this intellectual debt, does not necessarily sit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortably with anarchism?s cooperative ethic. The image of both as knights-errant for the anarchist cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is pellucid, but what of their intellectual status?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be wrong to stress these quibbles. Built on extensive historical research, )] TJ ET BT 425.636 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sasha and Emma )] TJ ET BT 511.964 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging examination of two fascinating radicals, as they attempted to popularise their politics, and live by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. The exploration of press reactions to their actions and beliefs is a notable strongpoint of the research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the book also builds on an impressive scholarly career. Indeed, Paul Avrich almost singlehandedly kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in anarchist history alive in academic circles in the 1970s and 1980s, and his work remains, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the renewed attention, indispensable. With this in mind, being asked to complete his project must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed a daunting task. But in doing so, Karen Avrich has not only offered fresh insight, but left a fitting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribute to her father?s work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Avrich?s key works include: Paul Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 292.652 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Anarchists )] TJ ET BT 408.992 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1967\); Paul )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kronstadt, 1921 )] TJ ET BT 184.352 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1970\); Paul Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 357.668 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Rebels: 1600?1800 )] TJ ET BT 494.660 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1972\); )] TJ ET BT 98.348 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 302.684 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Paul Avrich \(Ithaca, N.Y, 1973\); Paul Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An American Anarchist: the Life of Voltairine de Cleyre )] TJ ET BT 336.332 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1978\); Paul Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Modern School Movement: Anarchism and Education in the United States )] TJ ET BT 444.308 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1980\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 127.676 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Haymarket Tragedy )] TJ ET BT 247.988 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1984\); Paul Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 421.304 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anarchist Portraits )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1988\); Paul Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 237.332 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacco and Vanzetti: the Anarchist Background )] TJ ET BT 465.308 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 5414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\); Paul Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 162.008 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America )] TJ ET BT 454.988 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 780.819 m 149.000 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 154.004 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Haymarket Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 271.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 209.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.316 766.563 m 364.304 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Haymarket Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 220.652 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 376.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.652 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.652 752.307 m 313.640 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avrich, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Haymarket Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 220.652 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 352?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.980 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.980 738.051 m 330.968 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emma Goldman, ?Marriage?, in )] TJ ET BT 221.984 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emma Goldman: A Documentary History of the American Years: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volume One)] TJ ET BT 123.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Candace Falk et al \(London, 2003\), pp. 269?73.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.628 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.628 709.539 m 430.616 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/09/books/review/sasha-and-emma-by-paul-avrich-and-karen-avrich.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 548.936 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/books/sasha-and-emma-the-anarchist-odyssey-of-alexander-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 612.003 m 517.580 612.003 l S BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(berkman-and-emma-goldman/421725.article)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 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