%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R 61 0 R 113 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930200142+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930200142+01'00') /Title (Silence: A Christian History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4472 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Silence: A Christian History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Silence speaks as a visual conceit through the serene icon of Mary Magdalene, chosen to illustrate the dust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jacket enfolding )] TJ ET BT 114.668 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silence: A Christian History)] TJ ET BT 251.000 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, foreshadowing themes in Diarmaid MacCulloch?s magisterial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. This cover details a scene of dedication, from a 14th-century fresco cycle, in the Lower Church of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basilica of San Francesco Assisi, painted by the workshop of Giotto Di Bondone, showing the Magdalene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking the hand of the basilica?s kneeling founder, Teobaldo Pontano, bishop of Assisi. In this specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, the iconography of Mary Magdalene can be read as signifying obedience to the institutional Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Rome.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 78.680 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 78.680 172.137 m 92.672 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 92.672 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More broadly, because the Magdalene was so elusively identified in Scripture she was gradually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed as an enduring devotional object onto which a succession of normative values could be projected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the Latin West, her image was reinvented from a prostitute, to a mystic sibyl, to a feminist role model. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Magdalene illustrates how tradition becomes authoritative; how revolutions are co-opted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional elites; how sexual desire becomes domesticated; how pious devotion can serve clandestine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination, and how, ultimately, forgotten pasts become improperly remembered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the past decade the phenomenon of silence has become a fertile subject of analysis frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcending disciplinary boundaries. Sara Maitland, in her review of )] TJ ET BT 369.620 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silence: A Christian History)] TJ ET BT 505.952 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1473)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 29 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diarmaid MacCulloch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846144264)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.penguin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9781846144264,00.html?strSrchSql=Silence%3A%20A%20Christian%20History/Silence_Diarmaid_MacCulloch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James G. R. Cronin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 78.6797 172.4515 92.6717 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 9622 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to classify this unclassifiable study as ?a specialist book for non-specialist readers?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.612 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.612 795.075 m 499.604 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.604 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm of studies on silence, Maitland is a fellow traveler. Her own study, )] TJ ET BT 386.624 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Book of Silence)] TJ ET BT 471.608 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has charted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural history of this phenomenon, but places a greater emphasis on solitude than MacCulloch proposes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 57.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 57.668 752.307 m 71.660 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 71.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Maitland praises MacCulloch?s study as ?highly accessible to anyone seriously interested by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent and lively writing rather than by any dumbing down?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.308 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.308 738.051 m 353.300 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.300 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Maitland?s praise is representative of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus of reviews on this publication by Diarmaid MacCulloch, Professor of the History of the Church at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, a biographer of Thomas Cranmer, and author of an acclaimed history of the Reformation. Readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquainted with MacCulloch?s opinion pieces in )] TJ ET BT 270.656 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian )] TJ ET BT 341.324 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 361.652 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET BT 427.304 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( newspapers will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar with this historian?s approach to the past as being in dialogue with the present. The past is too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently misremembered in MacCulloch?s opinion. The historian?s duty, as time?s watchdog, is to ?dig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down? to excavate cultural patterns, ?to reconstruct the crystalline structures in the actions and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronouncements of people and to explain their meaning, so far as fragile and pattern-making human beings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are capable of doing so? \(p. 2\). As a project )] TJ ET BT 246.620 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silence: A Christian History)] TJ ET BT 382.952 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( arose from his series of Gifford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lectures on Natural Theology \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 185.312 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.giffordlectures.org)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 185.312 609.747 m 332.624 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.624 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 349.616 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), hosted by the University of Edinburgh in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012, but his interest in and knowledge on sacred silence also came out in his award-winning magnum opus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Christianity)] TJ ET BT 153.032 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.032 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.032 581.235 m 170.024 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Originating as a series of public lectures on historical understandings of God, )] TJ ET BT 408.296 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silence: A Christian History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores spaces in between the academic disciplines of history, theology and philosophy by peeling back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layers to uncover Christianity?s historical formations. The work is structured as four movements, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meditations, on alternative histories of silence in Western culture. The apophatic tradition, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplative prayer, is a clearly defined thread running through this study. There is, however, another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thread worth considering, namely, a multiplicity of responses to cultural trauma. Christianity?s historicity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was conditioned by responses to specific national and personal trauma moments. Both threads will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered as running simultaneously through the narrative under review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diarmaid MacCulloch opens his study with a sweeping excursus on Christianity?s Biblical prehistory as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediated through the texts of the Jewish Old Testament \(Tanakh\). The choice of the word ?Tanakh? \(p. 8\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to classify the Old Testament, is a device obscuring the familiar so as to make it deliberately strange. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanakh?s oscillations between God?s favour, through speech, and displeasure, through silence, underscored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the covenantal relationship between the chosen people of Israel and their God.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In reading the opening section, this reviewer was reminded of the dialectical struggles postmodernist writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have identified as marking new discursive formations. For example, Roland Barthes, in his analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob?s struggle with the angel, as told in )] TJ ET BT 236.996 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Genesis)] TJ ET BT 274.988 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 32, has commented: ?By marking Jacob \(Israel\) God \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Narrative\) permits an anagogical development of meaning, creates the formal operational conditions of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ?language?, the election of Israel being its ?message?. God is a logothete, a founder of a language, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob is here a ?morpheme? of the new language?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.604 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.604 274.371 m 291.596 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the tone of New Testament silence resonates with echoes from the Tanakh, it nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly departs from its Jewish heritage in order to construct its own Christian identity. Religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities are primarily living faith communities. Luke?s Gospel opens with a usurpation of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Temple worship as signified by Zachariah the priest of the Old Covenant. 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Clearly, New Testament writers understood that there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no need to articulate the Resurrection, as they would have perceived believers to be experiencing its affects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the agency of the Spirit within their communities of faith. The centrality of this ?blank? at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity?s centre is best understood as marking a cultural delineation between Christian ?insiders? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-Christian ?outsiders? in the wider context of Hellenistic and early Imperial Mediterranean culture. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the primary silence of the Resurrection there is the silence of Apostolic Tradition, which while )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.6117 795.3895 499.6037 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 57.6677 752.6215 71.6597 764.5015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.3077 738.3655 353.2997 750.2455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 185.3117 610.0615 332.6237 621.9415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.giffordlectures.org/) >> endobj 30 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.0317 581.5495 170.0237 593.4295 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.6037 274.6855 291.5957 286.5655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.6517 148.6375 462.6437 160.5175 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 5648 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining unwritten, yet uniquely marks ways in which religious dominations, throughout history, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted to receive the annunciation of sacred words and actions through the particularity of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performances. MacCulloch acknowledges the cultural interplay, between speaking and silencing, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating in dialectical tension. It is precisely this tension which defines meaning. Ignatius of Antioch tells )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Christians of Magnesia: ?It is not the content of the Revelation but the light that reveals it; it is not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word but the living breath which makes the words heard at the same time as the silence from which it came?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 709.539 m 48.008 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The books of the Tanakh reveal, for the historian, a process of creative responses to disappointment when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophecy is refocused and national responses to God?s purposes are reconsidered. The destruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Temple in Jerusalem during the first century was a national trauma that redefined Judaism. In early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity, the closing of the scriptural canon, excluding much of the apocalyptic literature that had formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?matrix of Judaism in the time of Jesus and his first followers? \(p. 54\), can be read as a faith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community?s defensive self-preservation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period of the Church Fathers, between the second and fifth centuries, epitomised Christianity?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stabilisation of scripture and tradition. The second section of the book focuses on the formation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian monastic movement across Egypt, Turkey and Syria as set against a backdrop of this textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stabilization. Any reconstruction of this story requires facing a silence of loss through historical lacunae. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diarmaid MacCulloch estimates that ?around 85 per cent of the texts which we positively know to have once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed in the first 150 years of Christianity?s life are now lost? \(p. 42\). Beginning in the second century, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of a canon was fixed against the suppression of texts condemned as heretical by the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church. Gnosticism became the first heresy with which early Christianity had to contend, and from which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to differentiate itself. The intensity of struggles between gnostics and Catholic Christians arose from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homogeneities, which threatened to absorb, rather than any heterogeneity, which might have defined them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory belief systems. In these struggles, ?the opposing themes of silence and noise were the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a major tug of war. In favour of silence for Catholics was a twofold consideration: first silence played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant part in Jesus?s own thinking about himself. Equally important was the fact that it had become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more prominent theme in Greco-Roman philosophy and culture, without any prompting from Christians? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(57\). MacCulloch interprets mainstream Christianity?s rejection of laughter as resulting from laugher?s too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close association with gnosticism \(p. 61\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In early Christianity, the rewriting of history was associated with deliberate acts of forgetting and alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembering as ascetics and monks re-wrote their histories in order to associate their foundations with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cult of the martyrs, or heroic witnesses, for the Christian faith. In the late fourth century, the ?Cappadocian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fathers? \(Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa\) ?stabilized imperial Christianity around an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended version of the Nicene Creed and framed much of their debates in terms of negative theology? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(79\). Here, ?negative theology? denotes the ?apophatic approach to divinity which portrays what God is not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than what he is? \(p. 234\). It is precisely within ?negative theology? that Diarmaid MacCulloch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locates the positive power of silence, through contemplative traditions, running under the noise of the 16th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Reformation movements in part three of this study.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 709.8535 48.0077 721.7335 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 8179 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The histories of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation can be read as traumatic responses to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rupturing of Christendom. Diarmaid MacCulloch argues that just as Christianity?s historical consciousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responded to its Jewish heritage, similarly the consciousness of Reformation Europe was a response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval reformation prototypes. The Protestant Reformation can be read against the Byzantine Iconoclastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Controversy of the eighth and ninth centuries, but chiefly these 16th-century reformers relied on the invisible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God of the Old Testament. It is hardly surprising that reformers employed the words of the Psalmist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemning ?dumb idols? \(Psalms 31 and 115\) as justifications for their iconoclastic attacks on Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic iconography. The ?negative theology? of contemplation was not completely effaced with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissolution of the monasteries. It was partially reclaimed through radical Protestantism as exemplified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker and Anabaptist communities. During the 16th century, two Spanish Carmelite mystics, John of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cross and Teresa of Avila, came to signify the tradition of ?negative theology? within Counter-Reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tridentine Catholicism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sara Maitland argues that Diarmaid MacCulloch?s study is comprised of two separate books and this second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is telescoped into part four.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.996 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.996 585.747 m 205.988 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 205.988 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The narrative in this final part certainly takes a dark turn, as the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposes the deliberate masking of corrupt power structures by rupturing dysfunctional narratives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional abuse, anti-Semitism and slavery, and probing religion?s Nicodemism, or dissimulation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure a survival of minorities within the stream of cultural dominance, including Iberian crypto-Judaism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crypto-Christians from Asia Minor during the Middle Ages, and an Anglo-Catholic gay subculture within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Church of England during the 19th century. Rather than two books, it may be argued that MacCulloch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately orchestrated this final movement as a closing meditation on the imperative of historians to speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to power and to continuously work towards full disclosure: ?selective memory will always invite further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probing, to find the silences which still demand an ending? \(p. 216\). This closing section, bristling with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embryonic ideas, is far too rushed. The easy target of Pope Pius XII?s ?silence? of omission in failing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemn the Holocaust deserves more nuanced treatment. The reason for this pontiff?s failure to condemn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nazi regime forthrightly has been debated for half a century. His consciousness was conditioned by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defensive need to preserve the legal and the spiritual institutional identity of the Roman Catholic Church that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had by the 1930s lost the greatest part of its temporal power. Was the pontiff indifferent to the fate of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of Nazi genocide? Or was he afraid that more people would suffer if he spoke out? Many of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers relating to his controversial pontificate still remain under embargo. Any ultimate assessment of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pontiff?s responsibilities will need to confront the silence of a still-restricted record. Studies of Pope Pius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XII tend mainly to focus on his conduct as pontiff during the war years, but Thomas Merton \(too briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned throughout this study\) valued Pius XII?s condemnation of nuclear military proliferation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade after the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diarmaid MacCulloch chooses Thomas Merton, the ?unquiet? Trappist \(p. 272\), as paradigmatic of the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century?s ?democratization of spiritual exploration, centred for so long in the West on the clerical Orders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the regular life? \(p. 229\). Merton, regarded as one of the most important American Roman Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers of the 20th century, combined the rigor of New York intellectuals with the probity of the Desert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fathers. It is precisely Merton?s popularization of ?negative theology? from Evagrius, as mediated through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Cassian, to popular Catholic mystics like John of the Cross, which could have been more fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated by the author in order to underscore the apophatic heart of his study.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.276 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.276 203.091 m 433.268 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.268 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In 1966, at the height of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vietnam War, Merton engaged in ecumenical dialogue by welcoming Thich Nhat Hanh, the Vietnamese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monk, poet, and peacemaker, to speak at his abbey in Kentucky.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.620 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.620 174.579 m 362.612 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 362.612 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While Merton?s writings from the mid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s reveal ecumenical dialogue with Buddhism, Taoism and Sufism, he nevertheless undertook these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogues from the vantage point of being firmly rooted within his own Christian tradition. In this respect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his approach to ecumenical dialogue resembled that of Jesuit theologian Fr. William Johnston S. J. in post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war Japan. Thomas Merton, a convert, who had been led to Roman Catholicism through the intellect, was far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being ?anti-Modernist? \(p. 230\). If anything, his translation of the wisdom of contemplatives to late 20-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century secular culture, which he classified as the ?post-Christian era? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.264 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.264 89.043 m 394.256 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 394.256 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( approximates an experiment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Modernist theology seeking new understandings of the divine at the limits of language.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.312 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.312 74.787 m 496.304 74.787 l S endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.9957 586.0615 205.9877 597.9415 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 413.2757 203.4055 433.2677 215.2855 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.6197 174.8935 362.6117 186.7735 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.2637 89.3575 394.2557 101.2375 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.3117 75.1015 496.3037 86.9815 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R 99 0 R 101 0 R 103 0 R 105 0 R 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 10862 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the 1970s lay or new monasticism, partially inspired by Lutheran pastor and theologian Dietrich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bonhoeffer who imagined Christianity?s renewal as a re-appropriation of the Gospel?s social ethic, has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing steadily particularly in the United States of America. Any exploration of such contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to this contemplative tradition is worthy of another book. In a post 9/11 world, where religion still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters, Diarmaid MacCulloch?s magisterial study is a welcome introduction to Christianity?s counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives by sketching the possibilities such alternatives offer for the regeneration of faith communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Ludwig Jansen, )] TJ ET BT 192.656 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Magdalen: Preaching and Popular Devotion in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Later Middle Ages. )] TJ ET BT 159.344 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 2000\), p. 86.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.664 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.664 632.019 m 349.652 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sara Maitland, ? ?Silence: A Christian History?, by Diarmaid MacCulloch ? review?, )] TJ ET BT 476.948 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spectator)] TJ ET BT 543.944 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/8883821/learning-to-listen-2/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 603.507 m 371.000 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.000 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 387.992 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 10 July 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.732 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.732 603.507 m 555.728 603.507 l S BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 589.251 m 78.008 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sara Maitland, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Book of Silence.)] TJ ET BT 225.656 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.980 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.980 574.995 m 360.968 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maitland, ? ?Silence: A Christian History?, by Diarmaid MacCulloch ? review?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.624 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.624 560.739 m 503.612 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diarmaid MacCulloch, )] TJ ET BT 177.668 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years.)] TJ ET BT 462.692 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 532.227 m 118.004 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roland Barthes)] TJ ET BT 138.344 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 144.344 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The struggle with the angel: textual analysis of Genesis 32: 22?32?, in )] TJ ET BT 489.968 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Image, Music)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 70.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Text)] TJ ET BT 90.680 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Stephen Heath \(London, 1977\), p. 135.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.652 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.652 503.715 m 355.640 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Beckett, ?The words of God?, )] TJ ET BT 238.640 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 389.636 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1236152.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 475.203 m 323.336 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.336 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 340.328 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 16 April 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.396 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.396 475.203 m 530.384 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Patrick Hederman, )] TJ ET BT 185.984 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anchoring the Altar: Christianity and the Work of Art)] TJ ET BT 444.656 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2002\), p. 20; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Patrick Hederman, ?Understanding silent history of Christianity.? )] TJ ET BT 411.308 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Examiner )] TJ ET BT 486.632 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.irishexaminer.com/lifestyle/artsfilmtv/books/understanding-silent-history-of-christianity-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 432.435 m 549.992 432.435 l S BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(228303.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 418.179 m 125.024 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 128.024 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 142.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( > [accessed 16 April 2013])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.084 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.084 418.179 m 329.072 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maitland, ? ?Silence: A Christian History?, by Diarmaid MacCulloch ? review?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.624 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.624 403.923 m 503.612 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Merton, )] TJ ET BT 147.008 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cassian and the Fathers: Initiation into the Monastic Tradition)] TJ ET BT 451.700 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Patrick F. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Connell \(Louisville, KY, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.004 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.004 375.411 m 291.992 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Givey, )] TJ ET BT 131.672 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Social Thought of Thomas Merton: ?The Way of Nonviolence and Peace for the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Future)] TJ ET BT 96.680 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Winona, MN, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.996 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.996 346.899 m 266.984 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowan Williams,)] TJ ET BT 148.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( A Silent Action: Engagements with Thomas Merton)] TJ ET BT 397.676 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Louisville, KY, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.668 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.668 332.643 m 556.664 332.643 l S BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 318.387 m 84.008 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Merton, ?The root of war is fear?, in )] TJ ET BT 283.628 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Passion for Peace: Reflections on War and Nonviolence)] TJ ET BT 553.928 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited by William H. 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