%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 47 0 R 57 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930222617+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930222617+01'00') /Title (Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4375 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Sperber has so far been mainly known as a historian of 19th-century Germany, and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhineland in particular. His previous books include )] TJ ET BT 284.660 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rhineland Radicals: The Democratic Movement and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution of 1848?1849)] TJ ET BT 155.348 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 178.676 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Property and Civil Society in South-Western Germany 1820?1914)] TJ ET BT 496.976 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.976 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.976 229.161 m 513.968 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 513.968 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus well suited to write about the Rhineland?s perhaps most famous inhabitant from this period: Karl Marx, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born in Trier in 1818, a student at Mainz, and for some time a journalist in Cologne.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why should Marx?s native land and early life merit such centrality? The answer lies in the subtitle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sperber?s book: ?a nineteenth-century life?. The guiding theme and clear emphasis of Sperber?s biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the need to present Marx squarely in his historical context. The problem Sperber addresses is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name of Karl Marx has become entwined with the experience of state socialism in the 20th century. Marx )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been for over a decade alternately celebrated or condemned as the prophet of 20th-century communism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even more than 20 years after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc and the end of the Cold War, the association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Marx with the Soviet experience remains strong. Some undergraduates, encountering the subject for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first time, are even surprised to hear that Marx did not actually live in the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The roots of this problem lie in the long history of tendentious writings on Karl Marx. Especially in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1474)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 29 August, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Sperber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780871404671)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(512pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.wwnorton.com/books/Karl-Marx/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diana Siclovan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.9757 229.4755 513.9677 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8183 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically charged environment of the Cold War, one had to take sides. That either meant not giving Marx )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the history of socialist thought any serious scholarly attention, or, alternatively, treating the subject in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way compatible with the ?party line?. This led to highly teleological narratives of the ascent of Marx?s ideas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx was idealized as a person and a thinker, and those elements of his thought were highlighted that bore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most relevance to contemporary concerns. The first biography of Marx appeared two years after his death, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written by Gustav Gross in 1885. It was a rather short work, but already biased: it concentrated on Marx?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late economic writings which were first gaining a degree of attention at the time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.280 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.280 709.539 m 435.272 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 435.272 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A number of works were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published by leaders of the nascent workers? movements in Europe in the early 20th century, for example by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franz Mehring in 1918.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.004 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.004 681.027 m 161.996 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.996 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Isaiah Berlin published his Marx biography in 1939, which, given Berlin?s strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism towards communism, naturally took a more critical stance towards the protagonist.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.964 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.964 666.771 m 498.956 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 498.956 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In 1973, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David McLellan?s )] TJ ET BT 125.996 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Karl Marx: his Life and Thought)] TJ ET BT 283.676 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was first published. In its fourth edition, it has been one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most read works on Marx in English.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.996 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.996 638.259 m 256.988 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 256.988 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In 1999, Francis Wheen published an accessible account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s life that paid less attention to his ideas and more to the details of his life, and which proved very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.676 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.676 609.747 m 87.668 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What differentiates Sperber?s work from other recent Marx biographies? As McLellan and Wheen certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not idealize Marx in a plainly ideological way, Sperber?s work varies from them mostly in nuance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis. The fact that Sperber needs to highlight the point that Marx was a figure from the 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how hard it has been to shake off the contemporary associations. Sperber stresses, re-stresses, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately perhaps over-stresses that we need to understand Marx as not primarily, but exclusively a 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century figure that by no means equates to, and in fact has virtually nothing to do with, the version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism that came to be realized in the Soviet Union. As Sperber describes the purpose of the book:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The view of Marx as a contemporary whose ideas are shaping the modern world has run its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course and it is time for a new understanding of him as a figure of a past historical epoch, one )] TJ ET BT 64.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly distant from our own: the age of the French Revolution, of Hegel?s philosophy, of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early years of English industrialization and the political economy stemming from it. It might )] TJ ET BT 64.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even be that Marx is more usefully understood as a backward-looking figure, who took the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances of the first half of the nineteenth century and projected them into the future, than )] TJ ET BT 64.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a surefooted and foresighted interpreter of historical trends. Such are the premises underlying )] TJ ET BT 64.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this biography \(p. xiii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sperber?s objective is to deal with the fact that ?Even after the end of most communist regimes in 1989, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of Marx as our contemporary has remained? \(p. xii\). While the associations of Marx and the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union might be waning, other presentist invocations have replaced them. It has for example become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common in popular writing on Marx to begin with the claim that his ideas need to be better understood given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(most recent )] TJ ET BT 110.336 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis of capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One novelty of Sperber?s approach is that, as a 19th-century historian, he is aware of the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical innovations in the study of this period, and takes them into account in his interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s life. Such historiographical revisions have included downplaying the effects of the industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, and highlighting that religion was much more central to the period than previously assumed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aside from the literature Sperber mentions, there has recently also been a revision of the history of socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought. Intellectual historians such as Gareth Stedman Jones, Douglas Moggach, Warren Breckman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Leopold have tried to correct the generalisations of older Marxist historiography with their detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of Marx and his contemporaries, bringing to light the complexities of their ideas in their historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.344 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.344 124.323 m 86.336 124.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.336 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gareth Stedman Jones has, for example, highlighted the deeply religious nature of early socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.688 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.688 110.067 m 87.680 110.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other novel element in Sperber?s work is its reliance on a very large collection of sources. The MEGA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Marx Engels Gesamt-Ausgabe\) project, the collected works of Marx and Engels begun in the 1920s, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrupted for decades and resumed in 1975, is finally nearing completion. 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As Sperber makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, ?This new source contains no smoking gun, no single document that completely alters existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of Marx; but it does bring to light hundred of small details that subtly change our picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him? \(p. xiv\). Additionally, Sperber has provided new translations of many key passages from Marx?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings that had previously been misunderstood due to inadequate translations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strength of Sperber?s book certainly lies in these nuances and details. It is full of highly interesting facts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anecdotes that, put together, make up a captivating account of Marx?s life. The book, which is by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way a beautifully bound edition, stands out for its accessibility, clarity and the colourful picture it paints of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its protagonist. Throughout Sperber is concerned to explain as plainly as possible Marx and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, and to present him first and foremost as an accessible and )] TJ ET BT 387.608 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(understandable)] TJ ET BT 462.272 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( person. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time he cautions against seeing him as ?one of us?. On the opposite, a central message of Sperber?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is that Marx?s times were very different from ours.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sperber is particularly concerned to reveal the truth about aspects of Marx?s life that have long been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idealized. Indeed, we learn many, perhaps surprising, things about Marx from Sperber?s book: for example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was a poor public speaker, that his courtship of his future wife was highly ?romantic? even by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary standards, and that more than the global bourgeoisie he hated the Prussian monarchy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian Tsar. The book is characterized by great frankness. Sperber wants to demystify Marx and in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do so he draws on all sorts of detailed stories and expert insights. Medical knowledge, for instance, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilized throughout the book to explain facts such as the precise nature of the skin condition that Marx )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed with age. The frank tone of the book extends to Marx?s relationship with his wife, and details )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as whether they ever used contraception are discussed. This directness is a chief virtue of the book. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a demystifying mission which does not make Marx any less interesting ? certainly an achievement which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires a greatly skilled historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into three parts, each roughly 200 pages in length. The first, ?Shaping? describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s family background and traces his life and the development of his thought up to end of the year 1846. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second, ?Stuggle?, begins with Marx?s involvement in the revolution of 1848 and follows his time in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London exile up to 1871 and the experience of the Paris commune, an event that brought Marx sudden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldwide fame. The third and final part, ?Legacy?, besides covering the last 12 years of Marx?s life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes thematic chapters that explain in more detail aspects of his thought and offers reflections on his life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first part of the book we learn about the ?society of orders? of Marx?s childhood to which he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply opposed and that came to be dissolved in the course of his life. Sperber makes clear the impact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussian rule had on the Rhineland and he explains why Karl?s father, Heinrich Marx, converted from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judaism to Protestantism in the 1810s. In the second chapter, we learn why Marx?s courtship of and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement to Jenny von Westphalen was one of the most radical aspects of his life. The early engagement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long before Marx was in a position to have a secure income, to a woman four years his senior without a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dowry, defied 19th-century conventions. Sperber convinces us that Marx and Jenny were connected by true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love, and his description of Marx?s relationship to his wife is one the highlights of the book. So much is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear: they really loved and were committed to each other. Despite their chaotic and unstable living situation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Marx?s repeated failure to stabilize the family?s finances, Jenny remained loyal to Marx. She took an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active interest in his work, and defended him in even the pettiest of his many disputes with political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical rivals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequent chapters address Marx?s relation to the Young Hegelians and his journalistic activity for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rheinland News)] TJ ET BT 112.352 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Sperber retells the more familiar aspects of Marx?s life, such as the beginnings of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendship with Engels, but also brings to light previously obscure issues. For instance, he rightly stresses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of Karl Grn, a character who is only very briefly treated, if not completely absent from most existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx biographies. Grn is today virtually unknown, but he was one of Marx?s most important rivals in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840s. Like Marx, he discovered socialist ideas in the early 1840s, and went on to promote them both within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the German Confederation and, following his expulsion, among the German workers in Parisian exile. It was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 7761 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of his influence among the Paris community that he increasingly came to be viewed as a rival by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx and Engels in the second half of the 1840s. They began to consciously ostracise Grn, and translated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal antipathy into philosophical attacks, most notably in the )] TJ ET BT 349.340 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(German Ideology)] TJ ET BT 433.652 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where Grn was first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denounced as a ?true? German socialist, allegedly ?backward? because of his emphasis on the humanistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content of socialism. Sperber comments on the relationship between Marx and Grn: ?The conflict between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two men arose precisely because they were so similar, because they were both seeking to occupy the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same nice in the German socialist movement: that of the theorist who could provide the missing link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between French ideas and German social conditions? \(p. 185\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sperber describes the institutionalization of the radical movement in the period before the 1848 revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Marx played a major part. It was for an institution, the Communist League, that he and Engels wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communist Manifesto)] TJ ET BT 157.352 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Sperber picks apart the elements of the )] TJ ET BT 352.976 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communist)] TJ ET BT 410.648 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manifesto)] TJ ET BT 458.648 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, today one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s most famous writings, and explains their origins in Marx?s intellectual biography up to the point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its publication in early 1848. Marx?s main project in the course of 1848?9, when he returned to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhineland from exile in Brussels, was to edit the )] TJ ET BT 270.668 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Rhineland News)] TJ ET BT 373.340 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Sperber points out that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments presented in the paper during its short existence can be described as ?downright un-Marxist?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx in this time, for example, by no means advocated class struggle, but in fact argued against it. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous scholarship, Sperber reminds us, such passages had been commonly suppressed or their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authenticity doubted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the late summer of 1849 Marx was forced to flee Germany and to go to exile in London. He remained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England until his death. But as Sperber points out, Germany remained an important focus for his political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking. He writes: ?Marx?s plans after 1859 for a political comeback were all centered on Germany, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues of German nationalism? \(p. 557\). Marx seriously considered returning there in 1861. Yet by that time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his family, and his teenage daughters in particular, had become so accustomed to life in London that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided against the move.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Never free from money problems earlier on, Marx?s financial situation in London became disastrous. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s chronic lack of funds is a topic that Sperber explores at length, providing such vivid illustrations as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story of Marx?s six-year old son protecting his father from the creditors when they turned up at their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house \(p. 256\). Little Edgar himself ultimately fell victim to the Marxs? poverty. He died aged eight in 1855, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a trauma that affected the family for years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The early period of the Marxs? life in London was also overshadowed by the birth of an illegitimate child. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their housekeeper, Helene Demuth, gave birth to a son, Frederick, in 1851. The reputed father was Marx, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the unmarried Engels claimed paternity, allegedly to save Marx?s reputation and marriage. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of Marx?s paternity is a telling example of the way his biography has been a battlefield of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests. In another recent Marx biography Paul Thomas has cast doubts on the veracity of the story. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas highlights that the story was first included in Marx biographies in the 1960s, politically highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charged times. He also points out that the account is based on one single source: a letter written by the wife )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the social democrat Karl Kautsky in 1898, who had never met Marx. It is this letter that recounted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed deathbed revelation of Engels about the true paternity of Helene Demuth?s son. No other source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever mentioned the story, and the addressee of the letter, August Bebel, never brought it up. Most notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is no evidence of such a rumour circulating around the time of Frederick Demuth?s birth itself, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s many political opponents in London would have devoured any opportunity for gossip about him.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.644 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.644 176.835 m 551.636 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sperber, however, defends the fact that Marx fathered the child, although, taking into account chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, he struggles to establish when the child could have been conceived \(p. 262\). Whether one believes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas? account or Sperber?s, the issue shows that details of Marx?s life remain controversial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1850s Marx mostly developed as a journalist. A fact unknown to most is that journalistic pieces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted the bulk of Marx?s writings. Among them are what are acknowledged to be his most brilliant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pieces, for example )] TJ ET BT 130.652 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte)] TJ ET BT 348.320 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in which Marx analysed Napoleon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bonaparte?s coup d?tat of December 1851. It was also in the 1850s that Marx began hoping for the advent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an economic crisis that would lead to the end of capitalism. Active political engagement meanwhile )] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.6437 177.1495 551.6357 189.0295 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 8140 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved to the background. Marx?s interest in it was only revived by Ferdinand Lassalle who visited Marx in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London in 1860, and who the following year nearly convinced him to return to Germany in order to become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in the new workers? movement there. Marx chose to remain in England and instead, from 1864, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became involved in the tedious organizational efforts of the International Working Men?s Association which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminated in the famous conflict with Mikhail Bakunin in the early 1870s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s life up to this point is recounted in the first two parts of Sperber?s book as what is a captivating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich narrative. The third part of the book which covers the last decade of Marx?s life and addresses some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overarching themes is somewhat less coherent. Some of its thematic chapters are more successful than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others. The chapter ?The theorist? that describes Marx?s confrontation with positivism in the second half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century is interesting. It was a complicated encounter and Sperber rightly stresses the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Marx remained a Hegelian even later in his life. Marx defended Hegel against Charles Darwin, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story that Marx planned to dedicate )] TJ ET BT 224.984 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital )] TJ ET BT 263.996 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Darwin is revealed as a myth. As Sperber observes, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s later economic writings had a strikingly ?Hegelian? structure. The next two chapters are less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful. A rather technical chapter that aims to provide an introduction to Marx?s economic thought is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly, and somewhat abruptly, followed by one that recapitulates his character as a private person and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assesses how far he concurred to ?Victorian views of masculinity?. It repeats much information presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier in the book and adds little to the argument. At the end of the book, in a chapter dedicated to Marx )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The icon?, Sperber explains how Marx came to be a celebrity in the last ten years of his life and where and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the term ?Marxist? originated \(Marx notably distanced himself from it\). Sperber ultimately provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short account of the events after Marx?s death in 1883 that led to his rise as a 20th-century icon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How far does Sperber succeed in de-mystifying Marx? He certainly makes a great effort to present Marx as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ordinary man. Paradoxically this results in some myth-making of his own. Sperber rightly stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s financial difficulties throughout the book and provides examples for monetary mismanagement from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually every episode of Marx?s life. Yet the point is ultimately over-stressed. What is one to take away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from knowing that Marx was extremely poor at handling money? Sperber, at one point, writes: ?The only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way one could tell from Marx?s conventional exterior that he was a radical was his chronic financial woes? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 500\). Is that a satisfying conclusion to what has been an attempt to present Marx as something other than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 20th-century icon? While it is a highly worthwhile venture to debunk Marx and to present him as a deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human character, with many contradictory traits and ordinary problems, there remains the need for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningful ?label? and an overall characterization. Future generations will not be content with knowing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx suffered from a particularly severe form of acne. It would have been interesting to know how Sperber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would present a simplified version of Marx, a new way of making sense of him in summary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This concluding thought is a minor criticism of what is otherwise an extraordinary achievement. Sperber?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book will certainly be widely read in the years to come, and generations of students will get to know Marx )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that way. This is a good thing, as Sperber succeeds in setting right many long-standing misconceptions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents a version of Marx that is appropriate to the 21st century. Those wishing to learn more about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technicalities of debates surrounding aspects of Marx?s thought will naturally not get the full story in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sperber?s biography and will need to turn to the vast specialist literature. In that sense, reading Sperber?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is like a hand-shake with Marx: it is only an introduction, but one that leaves a strong and vivid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Sperber, )] TJ ET BT 152.996 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rhineland Radicals: The Democratic Movement and the Revolution of 1848?1849 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1992\); )] TJ ET BT 173.672 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Property and Civil Society in South-Western Germany 1820?1914 )] TJ ET BT 494.972 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 109.059 m 149.000 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gustav Gross, )] TJ ET BT 135.008 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Karl Marx. Eine Studie )] TJ ET BT 250.004 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leipzig, 1885\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.656 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.656 94.803 m 381.644 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klara Zetkin,)] TJ ET BT 131.000 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Karl Marx und sein Lebenswerk )] TJ ET BT 288.656 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Elberfeld, 1913\); )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.636 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franz Mehring)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.636 80.547 m 449.288 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 452.288 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 466.280 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 472.280 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Karl Marx. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte seines Lebens)] TJ ET BT 186.656 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Berlin, 1918\); in English: Franz Mehring, )] TJ ET BT 399.980 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Karl Marx. 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