%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001091023+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001091023+01'00') /Title (By-elections in British Politics, 1832-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4356 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(By-elections in British Politics, 1832-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the great interest in general election campaigns, it is surprising that by-elections have not been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priority for historians. This new edited collection fills an important historiographical gap whilst also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showcasing some of the newest and most innovative research in political and electoral history. Indeed, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not been a comprehensive work on by-elections since )] TJ ET BT 312.956 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(By-Elections in British Politics)] TJ ET BT 461.960 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a 1973 collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of essays edited by Chris Cook and John Ramsden.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.668 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.668 186.393 m 293.660 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.660 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whilst groundbreaking at the time, that volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominately focused on individual case studies with a general overview completing the chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaps. Other work has often focussed on one contest with a tendency to pinpoint what a specific by-election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented. For instance, the 1894 by-election in Sheffield Attercliffe famously convinced Ramsay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacDonald to join the Independent Labour Party and highlighted growing local disillusionment with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.012 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.012 115.113 m 103.004 115.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.004 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To an extent, then, by-elections have often been seen as stand-alone events in their own right, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with few comparative perspectives or attempts to place these contests into a wider analysis of electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is initially striking is just how comprehensive a collection this is. 11 chapters, mostly structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1476)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 September, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Otte)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Readman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843837800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=14064)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jason Parry)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.6677 186.7075 293.6597 198.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.0117 115.4275 103.0037 127.3075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7483 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically, cover the period 1832 to 1914, a transformative age in British politics. For, not only did it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompass parliamentary reform, it also witnessed the extension of the franchise and the establishment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national and local party organisations. By contrast, the earliest by-election in Cook and Ramsden?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection is the 1922 Newport contest. As such, this volume illustrates that such elections are not merely a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern phenomenon. Rather, as with general elections, by-elections were an important part of political life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and culture, ?central to the very stuff of parliamentary politics? \(p. 5\). Perhaps one explanation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative neglect of these contests is their perceived irrelevance to wider British politics. The very nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by-elections means that they can occur at any time and in any constituency. Thus, when they have occurred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in areas of the country that have not traditionally invited interest from political or electoral historians ? such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as outside of large urban areas ? it is easy to see why they have been neglected. However, as this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates, by-elections provide an excellent focal point with which to explore British politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most significant strands within this book is the idea that not only were these elections important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local events, but that they show the dominance of national issues and politics in Britain. This is in contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the variegated picture of elections and local politics that has been painted by a number of historians. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the myriad of constituency and local-based studies which have appeared since the 1960s have placed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the politics of place, highlighting regional variances and uncovering grass roots organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and campaigns. This has particularly been the case with the Labour Party, but local work on the Liberal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative parties is becoming increasingly common. By-elections, then, provide an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective with which to explore the relationship between national and local politics, and this is something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which this volume does well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction notes the ?striking? relationship between these contests and national politics and contends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this indicates that ?Victorian and Edwardian politics were more national in character than some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have suggested? \(pp. 18?19\). There is no denying that these contests were regarded as important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by national political parties. Geoffrey Hicks, for instance, argues in his chapter on the 1874 Parliament that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by-elections provided one of only a few indicators of public opinion, and shows that results were taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously by party leaders. Hicks effectively charts the changing electoral fortunes of the Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, showing how issues such as foreign policy were blamed on Liberal victories across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament. Likewise, Matthew Roberts? chapter on Unionism in the late Victorian period shows how, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the 1880s and 1890s, there was a ?heightened interest? \(p. 178\) in these elections and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although this attitude was to change in later years, by-elections remained important for the Unionists to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop their political language and identities. Similarly, Philip Salmon shows that by-elections meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters had just one vote, something which was unusual particularly before 1885, and the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?plumping? helped develop a partisanship. Following well from Salmon?s work, Angus Hawkins looks at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those MPs who had to seek re-election upon taking up certain ministerial and legal posts, 504 of which took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place between 1836 and 1886 \(p. 51\). In doing so, Hawkins reveals that Conservative candidates were far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less likely to be defeated, showing the influence of by-elections on the composition of ministries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blaxill and Readman?s excellent chapter on Edwardian politics is the strongest proponent on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, contending that by-elections were often fought on national issues. Hence, they focus on pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups, which formed a central part of Edwardian political culture. Hundreds of these groups sprung up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the country, the largest boasting local organisations and huge propaganda circulation, whilst smaller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups could veer into the bizarre, often representing niche interests. Pressure group ?giants? such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tariff Reform and Free Trade leagues had an ideal platform from which to reinforce national debates, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the smaller and often more localised groups often had a similar impact. Such groups also play an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in Phillips Payson O?Brien?s analysis of the Bermondsey by-election of 1909. O?Brien, too, suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that national issues were at the forefront of by-election campaigns, arguing that Bermondsey provided an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to debate Lloyd George?s proposed People?s Budget.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, the link between national politics and by-elections is clear. These campaigns offered an ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment for the discussion of the latest national issues and debates, and were occasionally used to justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a certain platform. For example, during the by-elections of 1902?5, national issues such as the Education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act, tariff reform and Chinese ?slavery? became hotly debated political topics with particular contests )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7463 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost being single issue-based. The Chertsey by-election of 1904, for instance, took place at the height of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chinese ?slavery? scandal, meaning the contest was dominated by the controversial debate over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indentured Chinese labour in the South African mines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to say that locality has been forgotten in this volume. Indeed, most of the essays offer an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting perspective on the relationship between national and local politics. For instance, Ian Packer, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his contribution on land reform, rightly shows the disparity that existed between these contests, with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to influence policy making, whilst others having little impact. Gordon Pentland?s article on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?peculiarities? of Scottish by-elections highlights the regional variance of Victorian politics. Pentland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the Liberal dominance of Scottish elections, using by-elections to offer an alternative to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national narrative, showing how Liberals and Conservative candidates constructed campaigns which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by regional issues and within a Scottish framework. Similarly, Otte explores the resonance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy during by-elections. Perhaps most interesting is the assertion that imperial and naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections were often not used by Unionist candidates during campaigns in dockyards and other traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bastions of support for the party \(p. 148\). Rather, a more complicated picture is presented that suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates were conscious of the need to construct locally conscious campaigns rather than relying upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional appeals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elsewhere, in an insightful chapter Antony Taylor looks at ?radical? independent candidates at by-elections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Southwalk, Stoke-on-Trent and Manchester. In doing so, he uncovers the impact of these later and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgotten figures in the labour movement whose independence from Liberalism was influential in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing nature of working-class representation. In turn, Taylor?s comparative methodology illustrates how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the electorate and other parties reacted to these candidatures in different areas and casts an alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective on by-elections. Kathryn Rix offers a fascinating insight into party organisation in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the importance placed on by-elections and how national organisers as well as party agents saw them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This provides both an innovative way of looking at the relationship between grass roots and national politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a much-needed exploration of local Liberal and Conservative organisations. She shows that there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often a dislike of ?imported? party agents \(p. 171\), who came to run by-election campaigns, suggesting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many constituency organisations desired autonomy and did not conform to a national blueprint. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the study of by-elections is important in showcasing the activities of parties outside of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general elections ? enabling a deeper insight into the nature of constituency party organisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The influence of the ?linguistic turn? is particularly evident throughout many of the essays, the best of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilise thematic and comparative methodologies with an emphasis on how political support was constructed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pentland?s chapter, for instance, is based around the claim that parties needed to construct identities for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves which were conscious of changing political circumstances. Such an emphasis, of course, is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to the ?electoral sociology? / focus on socio-economic factors approach which defined much early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political history. This has particularly been the case in regards to the now staple debate on the decline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism and rise of Labour, which was initially marked by an overwhelming sense of inevitability. Today, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the debate is unpopular and definitely out of fashion. Historians have rightly turned to underexplored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes, including some excellent revisionist work on the Liberal and Conservative parties, as well as work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that suggests that Labour?s appeal was not easy to construct at a local level. Whilst the Hebert Gladstone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers were once frequently used with regard to the Lib-Lab pact, they have been used by contributors here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(namely Blaxill, Readman and Rix\) to emphasise and acknowledge the electoral organisation that facilitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success. Such influences can also be seen in a reappraisal of Unionism. Matthew Roberts, in particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a revisionist approach, adding to an swelling literature which questions E. H. H. Green?s contention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?crisis? of Conservatism during the late Victorian and Edwardian periods, by emphasising that the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ?architects of their own electoral fortunes? \(p. 196\). Similarly, Blaxill and Readman contend that tariff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform has masked the fact that by 1914 ?the Unionist position was one of underlying strength?, \(p. 247\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the party in an ideal position to react to the changing nature of politics and ?rise? of Labour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is hard to criticise such a strong and well-thought-out volume. One possible area where the authors could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have dedicated more attention is cross-party comparative work, particularly in regard to Labour. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Labour has often dominated political history, some interesting perspectives about how the party )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6364 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged and constructed a space for itself nationally and locally can still be revealed. This is particularly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case in regards to its organisation, localism, identity and electioneering tactics. For instance, Labour was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often effective at mimicking the electoral organisation of its rivals in the Edwardian period, and although it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was limited by organisational and financial constraints, it fully engaged in the popular politics of the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and understood the importance of elections. Those important by-elections that encouraged the formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local labour groups in the 1890s, as well as those between 1902 and 1904 which helped bolster Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1906 \(Clitheroe, Barnard Castle and Woolwich\) are notable omissions. Of course, this book covers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time period which predominately pre-dates Labour?s formation which, along with the influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?linguistic turn?, may explain why the party has not been explored to the same lengths as the Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Liberal parties. However, it would have been interesting to see new perspectives on these by-elections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as those where the party was unsuccessful, which have often been only fleetingly referred to by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians in charting the ascent of the Labour Representation Committee.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other questions regarding the relationship between candidates and locality are also raised. For instance, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain areas, such as Southend in the inter-war period, more likely to have ?celebrity? candidates? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, although ?carpetbagger? candidates are referred to, it would be interesting to explore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between candidates and their constituencies further. Did these ?carpetbagger? candidates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possess other local connections besides residence? For example, in many areas, Liberal and Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates were able to maintain strong links to local employment and industry. A contrast with general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election candidates may also have be useful in seeing the extent to which the unpredictability of by-elections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skewed the number of ?outsiders?, as well as adding to our understanding of the unique nature of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, it is impossible to be comprehensive in every regard, and these are more suggestions for future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avenues of research rather than criticisms of an excellent edited collection. Regional variances will always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persist, and election campaigns were dominated by a mixture of local and national issues. What this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us to do is to question localism, increasing our understanding of Victorian and Edwardian politics as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a complex interchange of national and local identities. By illustrating a move away from analysing elections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only through results, this is a strong collection that showcases some of the latest and innovative work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political history. Making a strong and convincing claim for the significance of by-elections, it is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important addition and therefore comes highly recommended to academics and students alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(By-Elections in British Politics)] TJ ET BT 213.020 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. Cook and J. Ramsden \(London, 1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.340 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.340 306.387 m 490.328 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Brown, ?Attercliffe, 1894: how one local Liberal Party failed to meet the challenge of Labour?,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 208.028 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14, 2, 48?77.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.356 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.356 277.875 m 330.344 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are happy with this review, and do not wish to respond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.757 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Commons)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://victoriancommons.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/by-elections-in-british-politics-1832-1914/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 196.851 m 494.672 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 497.672 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 193.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 175.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 175.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1476)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 174.345 m 328.316 174.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/62117)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://victoriancommons.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/by-elections-in-british-politics-1832-1914/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.3397 306.7015 490.3277 318.5815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.3557 278.1895 330.3437 290.0695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 197.1655 494.6717 209.0455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://victoriancommons.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/by-elections-in-british-politics-1832-1914/) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 174.6595 328.3157 186.5395 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1476) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000642 00000 n 0000005050 00000 n 0000005159 00000 n 0000005269 00000 n 0000005378 00000 n 0000008939 00000 n 0000009067 00000 n 0000009151 00000 n 0000009180 00000 n 0000009308 00000 n 0000009344 00000 n 0000009373 00000 n 0000009500 00000 n 0000009536 00000 n 0000009601 00000 n 0000017137 00000 n 0000017202 00000 n 0000024718 00000 n 0000024823 00000 n 0000031240 00000 n 0000031368 00000 n 0000031423 00000 n 0000031551 00000 n 0000031606 00000 n 0000031733 00000 n 0000031877 00000 n 0000032005 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32101 %%EOF