%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141220165813+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141220165813+00'00') /Title (Infidel Feminism: Secularism, religion and women's emancipation, England 1830-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4169 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Infidel Feminism: Secularism, religion and women's emancipation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England 1830-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This important work is long overdue. It identifies two gaps in the existing historiography. The first is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between histories of what became known in the later 19th century as feminism, and histories of Freethought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in its more popular manifestation of Secularism; the second gap is chronological, between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of women political activists in the early 19th century, and women activists in the later 19th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 20th centuries. That past conflicts between Christians and Secularists over women?s best interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?have been almost entirely passed over in the historiography of the women?s movement? \(p. 1\) is in part a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of the sources. Most 19th-century feminists preferred to play down the contribution of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freethinking sisters to their common struggle on grounds partly of personal belief and partly because to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confront Victorian man with just one unpopular cause at a time was thought more than sufficient. Beyond a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few middle-class and literary ?honest doubters? female Freethinkers were marginalised as were all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freethinkers in most aspects of Victorian life and this has been reflected in the modern feminist narrative. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where the connection between Freethinking and feminism has been recognised, in the social thought of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Owen and, to a lesser extent, the practices of the Owenites, this has been slotted into a stubbornly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resilient narrative which sees socialism and radicalism decline after the 1840s, not to be revived until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1477)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 September, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Schwartz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719085826)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719085826)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Royle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8405 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880s when both socialism and the ?New Woman? together rose from the grave of mid-century popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.012 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.012 780.819 m 103.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Laura Schwarz bridges these gaps both skilfully and persuasively, and the challenge is now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for historians of both feminism and radicalism to take account of her insights in their future researches. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this mission, she has been aided by an increasing appreciation over the past 30 years among historians of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds of the importance of religion to their studies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.664 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.664 738.051 m 291.656 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Recognition of the centrality of religion to 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century life has brought with it the need to recognise the contribution also of irreligion and the interaction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two. This is timely, not least because, as Dr Schwartz argues in her conclusion \(pp. 219?22\), the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the relationship between secularism \(with a lower case initial letter\), religion and the position of women is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of central importance in the modern world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction to the themes of the book starts with the familiar late 18th-century feminism of Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wollstonecraft, studied most recently by Barbara Taylor )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.964 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.964 640.515 m 321.956 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.956 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but then, more importantly, Dr Schwartz goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on to develop the often-ignored history of organised Freethought throughout the 19th century, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growth of Secularism out of Owenism and Chartism, to bridge the supposed gap between early and late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century manifestations of socialism and feminism. The different religious landscapes within which women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed themselves and their identities, and the interrelationships between the religious and the Secular are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then introduced to set up the six thematic chapters that follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one introduces the women Freethinkers who broke all conventions to challenge prevailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies concerning both religion and gender roles in their day. These include some who have become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-known in feminist historiography, such as Emma Martin, an Owenite lecturer who personified the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberating doctrines of socialist-feminism, and Eliza Sharples, the formerly much-neglected radical lecturer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known as ?Isis? who co-habited with Richard Carlile, and later provided a home for the young Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradlaugh when he first left his parents.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.316 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.316 471.699 m 240.308 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.308 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Others are less well-known but still significant figures including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Owenite lecturers Margaret Chappellsmith and Eliza Macauley. Among leading Secularists of the next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation we find Harriet Law, the almost totally neglected Secularist lecturer and journalist who bestrode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1860s and 1870s like a colossus, large in courage if small in stature. One of Dr Schwartz?s many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements is to rescue Mrs Law \(and her daughter, Harriet Teresa Law\) from the enormous ignorance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posterity and from the shadow of her better-known contemporary, Annie Besant. The latter?s survival in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical public?s consciousness has been ensured by her advocacy of birth-control, her involvement in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(match girls strike, and her later adoption of Indian nationalism and theosophy, as well as by endless prurient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation about her relationship with the Secularist leader, Charles Bradlaugh. Room is also found for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women whose significance is in danger of being lost to all but specialists in the field: Kate Watts, second-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation Secularist, lecturer, writer and wife of one of the leading Secularists, Charles Watts; Alice and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hypatia, worthy daughters of Charles Bradlaugh; and Elizabeth Wolstenholme, prominent activist in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freethought causes, though never a Secularist like her free-union partner, Ben Elmy. Then there are others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with less overt connections with Freethought, especially in its Secularist manifestation, authors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondents and supporters at various times: Sophia Dobson Collet, Sara Hennell, and Harriet Martineau, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of whom influenced the founder of Secularism, George Jacob Holyoake. Finally there are the leaders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the birth-control Malthusian movement, Alice Vickery and her daughter-in-law, Bessie Drysdale. Others are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also mentioned, and still more could have been, such as Matilda Roalfe, infidel bookseller in the 1840s; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Sowden and Elizabeth Cracknell who, along with the Bradlaugh sisters and Annie Besant, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schooled by Edward Aveling at the London Hall of Science evening classes and then became science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers in the Secularist movement; Mary Reed, also educated at the Hall of Science, who became a school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manager in Poplar; Edith Vance, secretary of the National Secular Society from 1892 to 1927; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguingly-named \(or pseudo-named\) Hypatia and Martineau Pankhurst of the West Ham National Secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society \(NSS\) branch who at the NSS annual conference in 1913 moved a resolution in favour of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equalisation of the legal status of men and women ? which was already one of the objects of the NSS. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a criticism of Dr Schwarz?s admirable survey of these years it is that she has not populated it yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further with the women who were empowered by Secularism, even more than an earlier generation had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Owenism, to express themselves by their words and actions as the equals of men. Together they made up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a powerful ? if untypical ? regiment of women who stormed the establishment of Victorian England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, through the insights and attitudes gained through their commitment to Secularism and Freethought, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.0117 781.1335 103.0037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.6637 738.3655 291.6557 750.2455 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.9637 640.8295 321.9557 652.7095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.3157 472.0135 240.3077 483.8935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7846 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a profound contribution to the development of the women?s cause.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nature of this contribution is then examined in five further chapters, beginning with their conversions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freethought and what this meant for their understanding of their positions as feminists. Dr Schwartz prefers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the term ?counter-conversion? to the ?loss of faith? favoured by an earlier historiography )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.912 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.912 740.307 m 478.904 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.904 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the positive features of the process whereby women rejected much of what had been dear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and which the majority of Victorians felt to be ?natural? for them and part of their femininity. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejecting the dominant Christian narrative they were asserting their independence ? from upbringing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional expectations, authority of father or husband, and of God. The process which led them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secularism was also one that enhanced their feminism and gave them the freedom to express themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals. It was a similar psychological process which led both men and women to find in Secularism a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pathway to radical liberalism and even anarchism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads naturally to a discussion in chapter three of women?s activism within the Secularist and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freethought movements. A commitment to freedom of enquiry and expression opened the way for women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who sought a platform, whether in the lecture hall or in a periodical, where they could express themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and challenge by thought, word and deed male stereotypes of the ?proper? female role. As women they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed predominantly male audiences, and debated with male opponents. Harriet Law in particular, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annie Besant, could cause great offence with their ?unwomanly? conduct and greatly enjoyed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discomfiture that it caused. Similarly with their pens Sophia Dobson Collet \(?Panthea? of Holyoake?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reasoner)] TJ ET BT 79.340 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and Sarah Hennell trespassed into the traditional male preserves of theological writing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reason?. This very approach, however, caused a problem, for these women were unrepresentative of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex. Secularism in particular among the Freethought movements, was ? whatever the theory ? dominated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men at every level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four therefore looks at how these exceptional women worked to promote feminism within this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially friendly movement which still embodied many of the masculine assumptions of the age. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting point was that of the Owenites: that what might be deemed ?natural? is in fact the product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances ? education in all its forms. Despite many contemporary assumptions, women were religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not because it was ?in their nature? but because of a defective education. The role of Freethought was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipate women from their religion-induced ignorance. But some Freethinkers believed that even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipated women, however equal, might still be different; and some leaders, notably William Stewart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross \(?Saladin?\) exploded with frustration that the majority of women were so brain-washed by religion as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be its chief supporters and willing forgers of their own chains. Dr Schwartz is perhaps a little harsh in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labelling this ?misogyny?: Ross was deft in the uses of irony and the object of his frequent sarcasm was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman as debilitated by religion, not woman as such. In his paper, the )] TJ ET BT 375.308 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secular Review)] TJ ET BT 449.624 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(later, the )] TJ ET BT 501.608 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agnostic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 71.348 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), he was open to a wide range of authors with new ideas, such as Grant Allen, and he was supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by such advanced women as Lady Florence Dixie \(?Izra?\), and the notoriously unconventional American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claflin sisters who would not have countenanced misogyny in any form. It was the task of women within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free thought to show that it was not inevitable that they should be the natural slaves of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indoctrination but that woman?s liberation could come through honest free thought. For some this demanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the destruction of the Bible and the superstructure of oppression built upon it; for others it meant a careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study and refutation only of parts of the Bible \(such as St Paul?s views on women\) without necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejecting the whole. This was the view expressed by, among others, Lydia Becker, but Harriet Law was of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other opinion and stoutly defended \(in order to attack\) a literal interpretation of Scripture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite such differences, though, and the consequent marginalisation by mainstream ?religious? feminists of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those feminists within the Secularist movement, both Freethinkers and feminists had much in common. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is examined in chapter five. The origins of the )] TJ ET BT 258.644 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Woman?s Journal)] TJ ET BT 385.976 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, begun by Barbara )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bodichon and Bessie Parkes in 1858, can be traced to an article written by Holyoake in 1847, and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more might have been made of that important intellectual coterie in the late 1840s which brought together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secularist Holyoake with the liberal Unitarians of W. J. Fox?s South Place chapel and the intellectuals of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashurst circle in Muswell Hill, and embraced among others J. S. Mill, F. W. Newman, Sophia Dobson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collet and Sarah Hennell, from whom emerged a galaxy of radical ideas from Mazzinian republicanism to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.9117 740.6215 478.9037 752.5015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8248 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emancipation of women.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.660 795.075 m 184.652 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One issue which drew together many Freethinking and Christian feminists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the campaign to repeal the Contagious Diseases Acts, although the social purity movement associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the later National Vigilance Association was more controversial, carrying with it the danger that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian moralism could tend towards authoritarianism. Support for votes for women, though, was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholehearted among Freethinkers, most of whom were political radicals like Harriet Law, a leading member )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Reform League and later the only female member of the International Working Men?s Association, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put there by Marx to balance the conservatism of the British trade unionists. Some Secularists, though, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart Ross, feared that to enfranchise women while they were still in the thralls of priestdom would be to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set back the cause of liberty. There was also a class edge to this: why should middle-class women get the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vote when working-class men were denied it? The violent tactics used by the suffragettes were also opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Secularist leaders as different as G. W. Foote, Bradlaugh?s successor as President of the NSS, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hypatia Bradlaugh Bonner, who sought progress by rational and peaceful means.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter looks at the most divisive issue of all ? Freethought and free love. Both Richard Carlile and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Owen had questioned the value of traditional Christian marriage in the 1830s, and Owen?s son \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably Owen himself\) had advocated birth control by mechanical means, but for most of the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years Secularism sought to demonstrate that a fairly conventional approach to morality could be maintained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the sanctions of supernatural religion. Even the notorious Knowlton Case of 1877, when Bradlaugh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Besant had championed the publication of birth-control information, was principally in defence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom of publication and with a Malthusian understanding of the origins of poverty which for Bradlaugh, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not for Besant, was only indirectly concerned with women?s rights. However, another more radical work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more overtly about sexual relationships, was to prove far more divisive. This was the )] TJ ET BT 445.292 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elements of Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science)] TJ ET BT 70.664 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(original title )] TJ ET BT 139.664 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Physical, Sexual, and Natural Religion)] TJ ET BT 326.996 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) by a young medical student, George Drysdale, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1857. It was defended by Bradlaugh but attacked by almost all the other Secularist leaders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male and female, including Harriet Law and Kate Watts. Drysdale?s rejection of the marriage bond went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the usual Freethought criticism of the subjection of women in unequal partnerships with men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to the law and not to love, and some Freethinkers were prepared to follow his arguments into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocacy of free unions and free love. In their reaction to this the more conservative Freethinkers were at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one with the mainstream of the broader feminist movement. Mary Wollstonecraft?s free union with William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Godwin and her illegitimate daughter were carefully excised from the collective memory; Charles Drysdale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Alice Vickery concealed the fact that they were not legally married; Elizabeth Wolstenholme was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressed into marrying Ben Elmy when she became pregnant, and even so Millicent Fawcett asked her to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remove herself from the suffrage movement to avoid damaging it further. Freethinkers in general were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerant of these unions, though their principles of free speech were tested when the Legitimation League, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely Secularist organisation, was formed by a group of anarchist Freethinkers in the West Riding in 1893. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Set up initially to agitate for the legal recognition of illegitimate children, it began to advocate free love. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connections between this interesting group and the publication of Havelock Ellis?s )] TJ ET BT 436.976 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual Inversion)] TJ ET BT 517.292 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added homosexuality to what most feminists and many Freethinkers already saw as a toxic mix. The strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Dr Schwartz?s argument is that she looks for no easy generalisations about which groups held which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views but she appreciates the complex cross currents involved in a discussion of the connections between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom of publication, birth control information, and women?s control over their own sexuality and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout these thematic chapters the paradoxes and contradictions are not dodged: free thinking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty/libertarianism/libertinism seldom made for tidiness. The complications are indeed wider than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of any single thesis or book, even one as well-researched as this one. Women in the Freethought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements who opposed this feminism, if they existed, are passed by with the exception of Eliza Lynn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linton; men in the movements who supported them, like Richard Pankhurst, Secularist and advocate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s enfranchisement ahead of the rest of his family, are shadows in the background; more importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those Secularist women who were not prominent but played their parts in audiences and society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memberships remain, sadly, largely hidden from this as from all other histories.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.976 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.976 86.787 m 429.968 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.968 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But within the confines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the evidence and the scope of one book this is a splendid contribution to scholarshipwhich leaves no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excuse for feminist historians to continue their neglect of the important contribution to the advancement of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.6597 795.3895 184.6517 807.2695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.9757 87.1015 429.9677 98.9815 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 6199 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women played by both women and men in the Freethought movements of 19th-century Britain. And there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can no longer be any reason for historians of any kind to continue to interpret the 19th-century radical story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as one of two socialisms with a liberal consensus between. The achievements of these radical women, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of the radical men in the various Secularist and Freethought movements, need to be written back into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continuous history of protest and radical organisation throughout the 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, B. Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 182.336 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eve and the New Jerusalem. Socialism and Feminism in the Nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century)] TJ ET BT 102.680 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1983\). In her final chapter, Taylor looks forward to the developments covered in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this study but without reference to already published work in the field.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.972 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.972 644.019 m 455.960 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The turning point probably came with the papers read at the History Workshop on Religion and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society in 1983, published as )] TJ ET BT 208.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disciplines of Faith: Studies in Religion, Politics and Patriarchy)] TJ ET BT 519.692 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Obelkevich, L. Roper and R Samuel \(London, 1987\). A recent contribution is )] TJ ET BT 439.304 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, Gender and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religious Cultures in Britain, 1800?1940)] TJ ET BT 263.036 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. S. Morgan and J. deVries \(Abingdon, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.336 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.336 586.995 m 554.324 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination)] TJ ET BT 361.004 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.324 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.324 572.739 m 512.312 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Martin, see the entry by B. Taylor in )] TJ ET BT 262.328 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET BT 462.332 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2004\). )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Sharples, see H. Rogers, )] TJ ET BT 203.996 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and the People. Authority, Authorship and the Radical Tradition )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Nineteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 214.676 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.996 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.996 529.971 m 359.984 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Budd, )] TJ ET BT 108.692 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Varieties of Unbelief. Atheists and Agnostics in English Society, 1850?1960)] TJ ET BT 473.024 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1977\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 104?23.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 501.459 m 174.332 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See M. Finn, )] TJ ET BT 129.020 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After Chartism. Class and Nation in English Radical Politics, 1848?1874)] TJ ET BT 482.060 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\), pp. 160?1; also E. Royle, ?Leadership and strategy in British radicalism after 1848?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hlio Osvaldo Alves. O Guardador de Rios)] TJ ET BT 272.996 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Paisana \(Minho, 2005\), pp.283?98, p. 288.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.976 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.976 458.691 m 554.972 458.691 l S BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 444.435 m 78.008 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I attempted to reach some of these women in ?Owenism and the Secularist tradition: the Huddersfield )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secular society and Sunday School?, in )] TJ ET BT 256.328 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living and Learning)] TJ ET BT 355.004 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. Chase and I. Dyck \(Aldershot, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\), pp. 199?217.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.340 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.340 401.667 m 214.328 401.667 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 386.335 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 368.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 368.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1477)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 367.161 m 328.316 367.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 342.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/47747)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.9717 644.3335 455.9597 656.2135 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.3357 587.3095 554.3237 599.1895 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.3237 573.0535 512.3117 584.9335 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.9957 530.2855 359.9837 542.1655 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.3437 501.7735 174.3317 513.6535 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.9757 459.0055 554.9717 470.8855 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 444.7495 78.0077 456.6295 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.3397 401.9815 214.3277 413.8615 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 367.4755 328.3157 379.3555 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1477) >> endobj xref 0 61 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000593 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000004896 00000 n 0000005005 00000 n 0000005115 00000 n 0000005224 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n 0000008913 00000 n 0000008997 00000 n 0000009102 00000 n 0000017560 00000 n 0000017590 00000 n 0000017717 00000 n 0000017753 00000 n 0000017783 00000 n 0000017911 00000 n 0000017947 00000 n 0000017977 00000 n 0000018105 00000 n 0000018141 00000 n 0000018171 00000 n 0000018299 00000 n 0000018335 00000 n 0000018419 00000 n 0000026318 00000 n 0000026348 00000 n 0000026476 00000 n 0000026512 00000 n 0000026603 00000 n 0000034904 00000 n 0000034934 00000 n 0000035062 00000 n 0000035098 00000 n 0000035128 00000 n 0000035254 00000 n 0000035290 00000 n 0000035430 00000 n 0000041682 00000 n 0000041810 00000 n 0000041865 00000 n 0000041993 00000 n 0000042048 00000 n 0000042176 00000 n 0000042231 00000 n 0000042359 00000 n 0000042414 00000 n 0000042542 00000 n 0000042597 00000 n 0000042725 00000 n 0000042780 00000 n 0000042906 00000 n 0000042961 00000 n 0000043089 00000 n 0000043144 00000 n 0000043272 00000 n trailer << /Size 61 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43368 %%EOF