%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141028133206+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141028133206+00'00') /Title (Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship and Authenticity in the French Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4458 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship and Authenticity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For much of the late 20th century, the political leaders of the French Revolution were discussed by major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical schools as more or less puppets ? either, in the Marxian formulation, of class interests, or, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Furetian, of unchained political discourses.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.656 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.656 207.777 m 284.648 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.648 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Fortunately for them and us, other historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands have continued to develop in other ways. Biographical interest in the Revolution?s leading figures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which generally requires depicting at least the central individual of each study as a person rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plaything of shadowy forces, was never entirely submerged even at the height of Marxist or Revisionist tides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? as the works of Norman Hampson, for example, attest.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.628 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.628 150.753 m 318.620 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.620 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More recently, one of the most stimulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands of reflection on the early period of the Revolution has come from Timothy Tackett?s work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the essentially old-regime mindset of the deputies elected to the Estates-General. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of how different men found themselves ?becoming a revolutionary?, and documented the process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through their anxious, fearful and sometimes elated correspondence and journals has already become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classic of the field.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.664 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.664 79.473 m 138.656 79.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marisa Linton?s new book is in the best traditions of such careful, detailed, biographically-conscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1478)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 September, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marisa Linton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199576302)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199576302.do#.Ui2oScakpbU)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dave Andress)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.6557 208.0915 284.6477 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.6277 151.0675 318.6197 162.9475 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.6637 79.7875 138.6557 91.6675 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7598 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluations. It stands squarely against any contention that the experiences of those caught up at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution?s heart were in any sense the simple playing-out of social or discursive formulae. It is resolutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both biographical and contextual, refracting an impressive breadth of learning about the cultures of late 18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century France down into a sharp and penetrating focus on the tiny group of men who ended by killing each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other in what she dubs the ?politicians? Terror? of 1793?4. Though it provides an exhaustive guide to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant historiography, especially in the footnotes to the first two chapters, it is also resolutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographical ? the wider narrative of events is discussed only when absolutely necessary, and a reader not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already familiar with the course of the Revolution might easily find themselves at sea. However, this is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism: to do history in proper reflective depth requires this kind of concentration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linton?s central contention is twofold ? that a series of overlapping cultural beliefs and expectations about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtue, friendship and power dominated leading revolutionaries? self-perception through these crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months; and that this combination, which would prove so toxic to them, had already begun to build in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potency from the earliest months of the Revolution. She places great emphasis on the point that at every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage individuals had to choose how to respond to circumstances and others? actions, but the picture she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembles of the constraints such men had placed on themselves poses an underlying question ? if the forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of belief and expectation acting on such individuals were so strong, to what extent, if any, were they really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free to choose other courses than the ones they took towards mutual destruction?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book begins with a carefully-argued portrait of the various dimensions of political activity required of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary leaders, explored in part through the contrasts and omissions of a dense field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Linton argues that to understand men who had been essentially thrust into public life \(rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than, as with an old-regime courtier, trained up to it from birth\), their whole experience of revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics must be embraced. Thus public discourse, however conveniently amenable to subtle analysis, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only ever be a part of the picture. She establishes persuasively that under revolutionary circumstances, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole tenor of existence became political for those who would put themselves forward as leaders. Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life did not happen merely through the making of speeches and writing of journalism; much of it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literally face-to-face, hinging on critical judgments about honesty and trustworthiness, suspicion and fear. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politicians might use private gatherings to attempt to work out their policy responses, but even there they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not necessarily be sure of the motives of those who joined them, and all signs of behind-closed-doors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing were read by others with an entrenched hostility towards forms of self-interestedness that seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indistinguishable from conspiracy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In such a pressurised context, it is a wonder that politicians did not simply give up, and one of Linton?s key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments concerns the model of virtuous conduct they embraced, and how it drove them on in the face of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility and denigration. The next stage of Linton?s text explores how the idea of public and private virtue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 18th century \(subject of a previous book\) met and collided with pre-revolutionary political realities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.612 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.612 288.627 m 556.604 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virtue had important classical and Christian roots, as well as significant anchorage in the literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychology of sentiment favoured by the pre-revolutionary generation. It balanced resistance to corruption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pursuit of public duty with openness of emotional conduct and personal authenticity. Men who believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the model of virtue \(and women too, for Madame Roland is a key witness here\) found a particular point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension around friendship ? a theme that echoes through the book. In the old-regime world of court factions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendship and patronage were an inextricable package. Knowing and liking people slid seamlessly into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancing their material interests, and expecting them to advance yours, whether as a simple exchange of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favours, or in more complex webs of ambition. The same mechanism was also at work, more alarmingly for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the virtuous, in reverse ? expressions of friendship, particularly new-found ones, came with implicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations of future usefulness and partiality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Linton develops her story into the early months of the Revolution, we see these collisions at work in new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances. While some ?patriot? nobles very visibly espoused new political rhetorics of self-sacrificing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtue and public interest, the private dimension of their existence gave cause for concern to others. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical journalist Camille Desmoulins reported in a letter to his father in September 1789 that the comte de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mirabeau had hosted him for a week, alternating between demagogic speechmaking in the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly and dinners with ?excellent wines? and a table ?laden with delicacies?, which Desmoulins )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.6117 288.9415 556.6037 300.8215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7653 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood quite clearly as ?corrupting me ... I have all the difficulty in the world in resuming afterwards my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican austerity? \(p. 64\). Dinners such as these, and more broadly the practice of elite semi-private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociability that would eventually, and in hindsight, be dubbed ?the salon?, continued and developed through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these months, as it seemed at first that men of the old order might well become the managers of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.356 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.356 738.051 m 86.348 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.348 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, by 1790 a new model was rising, taking centre-stage in a new institution, the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(club epitomised by the group formally known as the ?Society of Friends of the Constitution?: the Jacobins. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ironically, many of the first generation of Jacobin leaders were themselves nobles, working to set themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up in a political position slightly to the left of a group around the marquis de Lafayette \(and the demagogic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mirabeau\). From initially vague and overlapping circles, these groups settled out by early 1790 into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lafayette?s ?Society of 1789?, which met in private and was confined to members of the political elite, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jacobins, who from the start had opened their sessions to a public audience, and extended membership to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any patriot \(with the means to pay a substantial fee\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a sense, all that remains from this point is for Linton to perform a series of elegant variations on a theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the remaining some 200 pages of this book, because the basic mechanisms that would lead the Jacobin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement to destruction are already in place. Driven by the fear of counter-revolution, which repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifested itself in real plots and lurked perpetually behind all political calculations, succeeding waves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary politicians would bring down the men who preceded them on charges of compromise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy with the aristocratic enemy, raising the demanded standard of political and personal purity ever-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more impossibly higher, until all fell in confusion at Thermidor. But of course, setting out these events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the interwoven structures of public and private life is not a mere exercise. It highlights important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues that run counter to many of the most influential interpretations of the Revolution, and offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling account of just how thoroughly constrained the revolutionary leadership felt itself to be, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus, tragically, was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linton?s depiction of the rise and fall of the Feuillants, Girondins and assorted groups of Montagnard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobins is too fine-grained to rehearse in detail. But the underlying themes are clear. Politics retained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout these highly-pressurised years the essential contrasts between public and private that had been set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up by the model of political virtue. Each leading group had to find a way to manage, and if possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulate, the external political forces present \(up to and including violent mass insurrection\) while also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducting the business of politics, policy-making and administration at the face-to-face level. No group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever found a way to do both with unerring success. The Feuillants, last survivors of the first wave of leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobins, tried to work by asserting royal good faith and repressing unauthorised meetings and organisations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were condemned as conspirators, and found themselves pushed aside by the enormous force of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation that counter-revolution would be attacked more vigorously. The Girondins ? acquiring that name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in the latter stage of their visible existence ? were a loose coalition of men who rode the bellicose wave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the Feuillants and into power, while also taking the country into a war it proved woefully unprepared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for. Girondin political identity sat on the horns of a dilemma: believing themselves genuinely superior men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of virtue, they sought to nurture their talents and connections in private gatherings, while also engaging in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contest for public sympathies with their more radical and suspicious opponents. Those ?Montagnard? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents, amongst whom Robespierre was pre-eminent, could not accept that virtuous conduct should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include private caballing, alongside efforts to restrain popular radicalism that included accusations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyrannical ambition, made by men who seemed bent on monopolising power. Girondin attempts first to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forestall the king?s fall, then to save his life at trial, marked them out as hypocrites and traitors. And so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrived the period of ?the Terror?, when the Montagnard leadership first cast a pall of suspicion over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole country, and then, with ever-widening war rendering every confrontation a seeming matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival, tore itself to shreds in a slow-motion massacre of spiralling factional difference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet while this cold summary is in one sense merely a well-known story, Linton gives it a texture all too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often forgotten. As these political processes ground themselves out over months and years, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agonising for the participants. Even when on the offensive, Girondins and Montagnards suffered and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hesitated, sought reconciliations, struggled to find ways of not doing what rigid principles ? or was it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ripening ambition? ? drove them to do. Desmoulins was a particularly striking example of a Montagnard )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 72.3557 738.3655 86.3477 750.2455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7711 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who defamed Girondins shamelessly in print, blackening them with a potent combination of the inside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of a friend and the bold assertions of an ideological rival, and then recoiled in horror when his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words helped send men to their deaths. Robespierre stands out as a figure who at first helped place limits on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the processes of political revenge, almost single-handedly preventing the persecution of the Girondins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spreading to engulf dozens of their less-committed supporters. Yet of course it was Robespierre?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly consistent cultivation of the image of self-sacrificing virtue that positioned him to denounce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former friends ? including his old schoolmate Desmoulins ? when further rounds of political collision made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation with them impossible. How much pain that caused him may be gauged from the fact that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent several of his final months in a state of nervous collapse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.640 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.640 681.027 m 348.632 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why, then, did he do it? Why did they all do it? It is at this point that I am not sure that Linton gives us a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully compelling answer. Her title is, after all, )] TJ ET BT 256.316 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Choosing Terror)] TJ ET BT 337.328 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and her conclusions return to the matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobins? choices, in complex practical and ideological circumstances, and above all under conditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear ? fear of falling victim to the counter-revolution, but fear also, and perhaps more chillingly, of slipping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the pedestal of virtue beneath the wheels of the juggernaut their previous decisions had set in motion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, for me, poses two questions. Firstly there is the one which will perhaps always be a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological speculation: were these men, especially in the final months of the Terror, actually in a mental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state to enact something we \(or a court of law, for example\) would recognise as a free and informed choice?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 540.723 m 48.008 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One might hold up Desmoulins as an interesting example of someone who did speak out, quite clearly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Terror. He did so in terms which were themselves extreme, condemnatory, and capable of being read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a threat ? yet seemed to greet his arrest with incomprehension \(and emotional collapse\). We might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspect, as with his recoiling from the consequences of denouncing the Girondins, that he was not quite in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touch with political reality at any point in this terrible process. Other accounts make it clear that after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnation of Desmoulins, and the hero Danton alongside him, most political actors were literally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrified into public silence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second question is about the larger circles within which the political leaders moved and reacted. Twice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on her penultimate page, Linton mentions ?the Paris militants? who had helped bring the Montagnards to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, and whose ?denunciations? remained a powerful threat \(p. 288\). These slightly vague figures are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only one of the various external dimensions of the Jacobin leaders? context that would ideally merit more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration. The wider membership of the National Convention itself, while stunned into silence by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring of 1794, had not been so reticent before. The Jacobin Club passed through several significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutations of membership before becoming by that same stultifying point a refuge for provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functionaries toeing a ?Robespierrist? line. The ?Paris militants? themselves were a complex hierarchy from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the committees and clubs of neighbourhood ?Sections? to the city-wide membership of the ?Cordeliers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Club? \(which ran from Convention deputies to humble artisans\), as well as the office-holders of the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in the Commune, and a strong network of sympathisers implanted in national government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through militant influence on the War Ministry. Individuals at all these levels were living out their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and emotional dramas of aspiration and confrontation, often at a pitch little less intense than those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Linton?s chosen targets, and in similar physical proximity to them. How they shared and contributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very personal environment of Jacobin politics must have a significance which is not fully explored here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 215.091 m 48.008 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As I noted above, it is perhaps inevitable that a desire to focus on the experience of a small central group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will leave their wider contexts at times a little shadowy. Yet it may be that we will not fully understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures on Robespierre and Desmoulins, on Danton, Couthon, Vergniaud and Saint-Just and all their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factionally-varied fellows, until we have unravelled what can be said of all these layers and levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traumatic opposition. If Marisa Linton has not written the definitive text on that wider situation ? and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would need to be one much longer than this already-substantial achievement ? she has certainly taken us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much closer to recapturing the elusive human experience of her central characters. If we cannot know them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfectly as a result, we can see that they were far from unthinking puppets of class or discourse. How we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judge them as a consequence, as people, as leaders, idealists and ?terrorists?, will always be our choice.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.6397 681.3415 348.6317 693.2215 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 541.0375 48.0077 552.9175 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 215.4055 48.0077 227.2855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 6671 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example Albert Soboul, )] TJ ET BT 218.660 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The French Revolution, 1787?1799: From the Storming of the Bastille )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to Napoleon)] TJ ET BT 123.020 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1974\); Franois Furet, )] TJ ET BT 283.340 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpreting the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 451.652 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 715.299 m 118.004 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Hampson, )] TJ ET BT 158.336 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life and Opinions of Maximilien Robespierre)] TJ ET BT 397.664 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1974\); )] TJ ET BT 482.324 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Danton)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1978\); and )] TJ ET BT 166.004 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Saint-Just)] TJ ET BT 214.004 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.652 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.652 686.787 m 346.640 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Hackett, )] TJ ET BT 151.676 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Becoming a Revolutionary; the Deputies of the French National Assembly and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emergence of a Revolutionary Culture \(1789?1790\))] TJ ET BT 314.984 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1996\). For a broad multi-author )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of other recent trends in French revolutionary historiography, see the special issue of )] TJ ET BT 508.928 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 150.356 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ??89: Then and Now?, 32 \(4\), 2009.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.984 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.984 629.763 m 383.972 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marisa Linton, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Virtue in Enlightenment France)] TJ ET BT 364.340 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.000 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.000 615.507 m 520.988 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just how far the ?salon? phenomenon throughout the century had been dominated by considerations of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and prestige ? in contrast to perceptions of the gatherings as the nursery of a critical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment ? is discussed by Antoine Lilti, )] TJ ET BT 289.352 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le monde des salons; sociabilit et mondanit Paris )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(au XVIIIe sicle)] TJ ET BT 141.320 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.312 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.312 558.483 m 263.300 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Peter McPhee, )] TJ ET BT 157.328 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre; a revolutionary life)] TJ ET BT 315.644 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.948 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.948 544.227 m 491.936 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(One historian has already argued that, much earlier in the cycle of revolutionary violence, politicians )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were literally traumatized by the counter-revolutionary threat: Barry M. Shapiro, )] TJ ET BT 454.604 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Traumatic Politics: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Deputies and the King in the Early French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 344.996 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University Park, PA, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.984 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.984 501.459 m 539.972 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Haim Burstin, )] TJ ET BT 155.348 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?invention du sans-culotte; regard sur le Paris rvolutionnaire)] TJ ET BT 465.008 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2005\) for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an overview of ?militant? life, and Morris Slavin, )] TJ ET BT 304.652 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hbertistes to the Guillotine: Anatomy of a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Conspiracy? in Revolutionary France)] TJ ET BT 252.332 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baton Rouge, LA, 1994\) for an examination of how the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical Cordeliers and War Ministry leadership brought about its own destruction.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.628 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.628 444.435 m 511.616 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(OUP blog)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://blog.oup.com/2013/07/french-revolution-democracy-terror/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 389.667 m 349.304 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 352.304 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 386.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 368.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 368.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1478)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 367.161 m 328.316 367.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 342.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/70551)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.384 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://blog.oup.com/2013/07/french-revolution-democracy-terror/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 715.6135 118.0037 727.4935 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 292.6517 687.1015 346.6397 698.9815 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.9837 630.0775 383.9717 641.9575 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.9997 615.8215 520.9877 627.7015 ] >> endobj 53 0 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