%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826201709+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826201709+01'00') /Title (The Wealth of Anglo-Saxon England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4112 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Wealth of Anglo-Saxon England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Sawyer is one of our most distinguished Anglo-Saxon or, perhaps better, Anglo-Scandinavian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. His annotated list of Anglo-Saxon charters, now revised by Susan Kelly, available online and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happily known as ?the electronic Sawyer?, remains a standard work of reference whilst his publications on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vikings in both Scandinavia and Western Europe have substantially added to our understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of these raiders and traders in the ninth, tenth and 11th centuries. Yet historians tend to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered for one piece of work, for good or ill, and in Sawyer?s case it is for his important article on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The wealth of England in the eleventh century?, first published in )] TJ ET BT 357.296 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transactions of the Royal Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society)] TJ ET BT 68.672 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1965. In it he gives what can only be called a glowing account of the Anglo-Saxon economy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eve of the Conquest, an economy with sufficient wealth in silver from the German mines in the Harz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountains, earned from the profits from an expanding wool trade with Frisia and Flanders, to support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulation of an ample coinage of high quality that stimulated the growth of exchange and therefore of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns and trade. To misuse Eileen Power?s later quotation, it was the sheep that paid for all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The influence and importance of this article should not be under-estimated. It has been cited in almost every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent publication on the Anglo-Saxon economy and in 1993 Professor Sawyer was honoured for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1480)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 September, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Sawyer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199253937)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(168pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199253937.do#.UjGAhsakrl8)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Bolton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8014 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for his other work by one of the most prestigious of all historical accolades, an invitation to deliver the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ford Lectures at Oxford. Now, 20 years later, and delayed by reasons with which we can all sympathise, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has finally published the revised version of these lectures in a short volume containing only 114 pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text, along with a valuable appendix on the mechanics of estimating the circulating volume of the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxon coinage and a useful bibliography. Its purpose is ?to explain how, on the eve of the Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest, England had become an exceptionally wealthy, highly urbanized kingdom, with a large, well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled coinage of high quality?, although compared with what or where remains one of the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties with the argument in general. A brief definition of ?wealth? is then offered, and much stress is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly placed on the study of the coinage as a principal means of determining economic performance since, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as later parliamentary petitions put it, a good and abundant coinage and a store of bullion won through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign trade were the essentials of a prosperous society.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.612 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.612 652.515 m 319.604 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having stated his purpose, Sawyer continues with an analysis of the wealth of England in the time of King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward, based on his interpretation of the data given in the Domesday surveys, and concludes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abundant coinage was the key to its economic vitality. There the follow three chapters in which he offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation for the transition from the natural economy of the fifth century to the relatively urbanized and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monetised England in the Confessor?s reign. These chapters are clearly written and completely to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s point, and the brief conclusion contains a satisfying dig at the present reviewer for his pomposity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Sawyer?s fair comment does point to a wider problem, which is whether an outsider, in the sense of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late-medieval economic historian, should use wider chronological and theoretical standards drawn from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own work and that of other medieval economic historians and modern economists to judge the prosperity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late Anglo-Saxon England, with the additional rider, prosperity relative to what, when and where?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sawyer uses J. S. Mill?s definition of wealth as ?all useful or agreeable things which possess exchangeable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value ? except those that can be obtained without labour or sacrifice?. For early rulers and noblemen, and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later churchmen, this meant treasure, gold, silver and jewels with which to reward warriors or to glorify God. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Smith, one of Mill?s antecedents, might not have agreed with this definition. He saw wealth as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annual produce of the land and labour of society, and its purpose as satisfying human needs and wants of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utility, whilst a modern definition, taken from almost any standard economics textbook, would be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abundance of items of economic value, or the state of controlling such items, mainly in the form of money, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real estate and private possessions. An individual deemed wealthy, affluent or rich is someone who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulated substantial wealth, relative to others in that society or reference group. Again, in modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic terms net wealth refers to the value of assets minus the value of liabilities at a point in time and, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Smith, it has three principal categories: personal property, including houses; monetary savings from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulation of past income; and capital wealth from income-producing assets. Modern economists also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer definitions of national wealth, measured by Gross Domestic Product \(GDP\), which is the monetary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value given to all finished goods and services offered within a specific period, usually a year. GDP includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all private and public consumption, government outlays and exports less imports during that period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.984 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.984 272.115 m 526.976 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might seem nearly impossible to apply any of these definitions of wealth to the late Anglo-Saxon economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or to calculate its GDP. Sawyer does avoid the trap of equating ?treasure? with ?wealth? but he might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a little more critical of some of the hyperbolic chronicle descriptions of the treasure laid up if not in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heaven then in minsters and monasteries. He might also have made more use of Nicholas Mayhew?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculations of GDP in 1086. These were principally made in order to measure the velocity of circulation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined as a determinant of how hard the coinage is being made to work at a given time. Mayhew argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a high )] TJ ET BT 66.680 161.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(V )] TJ ET BT 78.344 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(score, as in 1086, indicates a low volume of currency in circulation, with the implication that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was holding back economic development and thus prosperity in late Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. His aim was to show that compared with the 12th and 13th centuries monetarisation was fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited in Domesday England and he presents a less rosy economic picture of England in the reign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward the Confessor than that given here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.640 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.640 103.299 m 255.632 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mayhew is able to attempt these calculations because of the greater certainty about the size of the circulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium in 1086, thanks to his own research and that of a group of distinguished numismatists, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them based at the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge. The coinage does indeed provide one of the most )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.6117 652.8295 319.6037 664.7095 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.9837 272.4295 526.9757 284.3095 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.6397 103.6135 255.6317 115.4935 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 6702 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful measures of the wealth of Anglo-Saxon England and here an outsider can perhaps take a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispassionate view of evidence and suggest that arguments based upon it may not be as convincing as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem. Sawyer certainly presents his case fairly, using the most recent estimates of the size of the circulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium provided by Martin Allen, and he now argues that the silver needed to maintain a high-quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coinage in circulation came from the profits of Anglo-German trade generally rather than the wool trade to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders specifically. That there was more coin in circulation in 1066 than there was between 1086 and 1135 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be denied but the coinage must surely be seen in relation to the size of the population and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(velocity of circulation before comparative judgements can be made.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If we accept Allen?s most recent estimates, then between 973 and 1016 the circulating medium was between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15,000 and 30,000, or 360,000 and 720,000 silver pennies, the only coins in circulation apart from some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign strays. The well-known and much debated outflow of coin to Scandinavia in both tribute and trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept it at this level between 1016 and 1042, in spite of this being the most productive period for the Harz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silver mines. In Edward the Confessor?s reign it rose slightly to between 20,000 and 50,000 and then it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fell dramatically to as little as 10-25,000 after the Conquest as the victors exported their spoils to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homelands and as England?s wealth was mobilised to fight endless campaigns in defence of Normandy. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the population of England was around 2 to 2.5 million in the late 11th century then a straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arithmetical calculation of amount of coinage per head makes these figures for the volume of coinage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulation even less impressive. Given the huge inequalities in the distribution of wealth, this is a crude way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of measuring the amount of money available for general use within the economy, but one still worth making. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between 1042 and 1066 it stood at between 3d and 8d per head of population. Comparisons with per capita )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coinage in the late 13th century may be regarded as unfair, so perhaps we should look at the late 15th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, when the population levels were not much different from those in the late eleventh century. In 1470, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even allowing for bullion famines, there were 34 silver pennies per head and when gold coins are brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the equation, as recent research has suggested they should be, the figure rises to 72d per head.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.916 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.916 455.187 m 519.908 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There will be objections to such crude comparisons, but they do need to be made. More telling are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mayhew?s calculations for the velocity of circulation in 1086 which show that it was substantially higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than in 1290, pointing to a far less monetised and commercialised society and suggesting that pre-Conquest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon society was not quite as wealthy as Sawyer would have us believe. Finally, prosperity is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always relative. Yes, England in the Confessor?s reign was better off than it had been even in the late 8th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, before the Viking incursions, and was certainly more prosperous than northern France, as Sawyer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out. But was itmore prosperous than other areas of northern Europe and especially Flanders? This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems doubtful. Anglo-Saxon studies have come a long way since J. Thorold Rogers commented wryly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two of his distinguished contemporaries:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, ladling butter from alternate tubs,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stubbs butters Freeman, Freeman butters Stubbs.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.672 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.672 250.371 m 313.664 250.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archaeologists and numismatists, art, architectural, political, legal, economic and social historians have all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined to make this one of the most compelling periods of English history to study. The recent public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the display of treasure from the Staffordshire hoard has shown the high level of public interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-Conquest England and this book provides an excellent and intelligent starting point for any study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and society in late Anglo-Saxon England. But, just as later medievalists have challenged James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell?s notion of a ?nation state? before 1066, can we plead for a greater sense of perspective on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of Anglo-Saxon England?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 62.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 62.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 62.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rotuli Parliamentorum; et et Petitiones, et Placita in Parliament, Vol. III)] TJ ET BT 482.660 62.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.9157 455.5015 519.9077 467.3815 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.6717 250.6855 313.6637 262.5655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 4324 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strachey \(London, 1767?77\), pp. 126?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.984 795.075 m 311.972 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 113.360 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Vol. I, )] TJ ET BT 461.036 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. R.H. Campbell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A.S. Skinner and W. Todd \(Indianapolis, IN, 1981\), pp. 10?12; )] TJ ET BT 370.316 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Palgrave Dictionary of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economics, vol. IV)] TJ ET BT 154.664 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Eatwell \(London, 1998\), pp. 580?2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.972 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.972 752.307 m 416.960 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Mayhew, ?Modelling medieval monetisation?, in )] TJ ET BT 317.660 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commercialising Economy: England 1086 to c. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1300)] TJ ET BT 88.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Britnell and B.M.S. Campbell \(Manchester, 1995\), pp. 65?76; J. L. Bolton, )] TJ ET BT 488.672 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval English Economy: 973?1489)] TJ ET BT 250.988 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 2012\), pp. 14?15.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.288 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.288 709.539 m 458.276 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Allen, )] TJ ET BT 113.348 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mints and Money in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 300.992 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2012\), pp. 317?45; Bolton, )] TJ ET BT 499.652 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Medieval English Economy)] TJ ET BT 213.656 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 251; P. Nightingale, ?Gold, credit and mortality: distinguishing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deflationary pressures on the late medieval English economy?, )] TJ ET BT 367.628 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review, )] TJ ET BT 498.272 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2nd series, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63, 4 \(2010\), 1?22.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.336 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.336 652.515 m 209.324 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Letters of William Stubbs)] TJ ET BT 206.696 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 212.696 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bishop of Oxford, 1825-1901)] TJ ET BT 352.028 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W.H. 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