%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141002114238+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141002114238+01'00') /Title (Visions of Empire: Patriotism, Popular Culture and the City 1870-1939) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4079 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Visions of Empire: Patriotism, Popular Culture and the City 1870-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This year witnesses the publication of the 100th monograph in the )] TJ ET BT 354.320 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 462.320 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series published by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press and edited by John Mackenzie. Over the last 30 years this series has offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important investigations of imperialism in all its manifestations: from intellectual thinking about Empire, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s organisations which promoted Empire links, through to representations of Empire at international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibitions and, more recently, post-colonial studies of settler society, to name just a few. Indeed, this series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must have to be ranked as one of the most successful, measured by both its longevity and the quality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs issued. One might think that a series which is shortly to enter its fourth decade might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing signs of flagging, but is this the case? On the evidence of Beaven?s book, the answer is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly in the negative. The framework and argument offered in this book is relatively simple. Taking three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English cities located in the north, the midlands and the south, the author examines the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial identity was filtered through the prism of the ?local?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is surprising to think that this kind of approach has been relatively hard to locate to any great extent before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the study of the interplay between the urban and the imperial is still in comparative infancy. 50 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1483)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 26 September, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brad Beaven)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719078569)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719078569)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Griffiths)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8822 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years ago, in his book )] TJ ET BT 142.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Cities)] TJ ET BT 218.348 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Asa Briggs argued for the special path of urban development of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the British/British world cities he selected. Briggs showed that the nature of the local economy played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant role in influencing the trajectory of the city through the 19th century, both in terms of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations and the profile of the urban elite who governed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.292 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.292 752.307 m 321.284 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.284 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He stopped short, however, of explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressing the imperial dimension of the cities he selected. One might have thought that Briggs? study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been the prelude to multiple investigations of imperial culture in British cities, but for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason this did not happen. It might perhaps be explained by the fact that having given up their Empire by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1960s, British academia forgot about it. The Robinson-Gallagher thesis of the partition of Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in that decade put forward the view that the British were drawn in as consequence of peripheral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local crises, rather than an intentional metropolitan ?push?. The acquisition of Empire was embarrassing but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unintentional.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the work of Edward Said, post-colonial themes came to the fore. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the more conventional imperial history that was written tended to focus on the political and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic. Perhaps the most significant research in the field of imperial history to appear in the 1980s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1990s was that of Anthony Hopkins and Peter Cain, who examined the rise of what they termed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?gentlemanly capitalism? and the financing of Empire \(both formal and informal\) by the city of London, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study which chimed with the de-regulation of the Square Mile in Thatcher?s Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.628 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.628 554.979 m 453.620 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 453.620 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only really appeared here as a home to financial institutions that invested overseas. When historians wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to footnote opinions of Empire at home in the later 19th century they invariably cited Richard Price.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.292 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.292 526.467 m 528.284 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.284 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book has been widely referenced since the time of its publication, but it has to be said that its central thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of working-class indifference to Empire was in need of re-evaluation. Did this book really represent the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word on the matter? In recent years there have been a few studies which have re-ignited interest in imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and the role of the British city in imperial affairs. )] TJ ET BT 309.320 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Cities)] TJ ET BT 381.656 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Felix Driver and David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilbert, another in the Manchester series, contained work on Empire in Glasgow and London. It was not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, a book devoted solely to the British Empire. More recently still, the same series published an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited collection on Liverpool?s experience of Empire, with the essays in this volume covering both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern and modern periods.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.980 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.980 412.419 m 212.972 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 212.972 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( We should also not forget the two-volumed project led by Jay Winter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Jean Louis Robert on )] TJ ET BT 159.668 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital Cities at War)] TJ ET BT 262.688 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which focused on three European capital cities \(London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berlin and Paris\) and the impact that the First World War had on them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.308 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.308 383.907 m 389.300 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 389.300 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the 2000s the debate on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of Empire on domestic culture tended to polarise between those who thought that Empire had very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little impact on British popular culture and those who argued for a high awareness of the wider British world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 341.139 m 48.008 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steering a line between these two poles, Beaven?s book is, at a number of levels, both timely and welcome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author begins his study by setting his three chosen cities, Portsmouth, Coventry and Leeds, in context; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing the imperial interests of leading local politicians in the later 19th century and the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profile of the three. He also notes a significant development in the nature of the local press at the same time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, a popular Conservatism began to celebrate the achievements of the city in areas like sport and business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then link the city?s fortunes to the wider Empire. Urban elites were therefore provided with a forum to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boost their city in a way that would not have been possible in a less democratic era \(pre-1870\) when a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staid daily press was in place. The new journalism?s role in the boosting of imperial affairs and the local role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in these events first came to the fore on the outbreak of the South African War in 1899?1902.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is evident that it was when citizens felt they were fighting for their city?s pride that they were most likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to volunteer for imperial wars. The press both created and responded to this feeling. An example of this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use by the )] TJ ET BT 103.340 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Midland Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 226.004 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(first published in 1891 and a Tory paper by 1897\) of a Coventry-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built car to travel around the city in order to proclaim the Relief of Ladysmith in 1900 to residents. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaven?s other two case examples similar processes were at work to link the imperial and the local. Greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest was shown by the press in the context of the Boer War in those men who had volunteered from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city, rather than the wider county. In a reverse process, news of city affairs was welcomed by troops in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theaters of war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the outbreak of the First World War, the immediate reaction of city papers was to look to their own )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.2917 752.6215 321.2837 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.6277 555.2935 453.6197 567.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.2917 526.7815 528.2837 538.6615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.9797 412.7335 212.9717 424.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.3077 384.2215 389.2997 396.1015 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 341.4535 48.0077 353.3335 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7529 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city?s fortunes and condition. Concerns were raised about the effect of war on the local economy. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coventry, Siegfried Bettman, a German-born Jew, naturalised as British in 1895, held the position of Mayor. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Initially praised, on the war?s outbreak, attitudes swiftly changed. Local and national papers doubted his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism and he was hounded from office by the autumn of 1914. His replacement, Councillor Pridmore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Coventry-born and the local press was confident that this fact would encourage men to enlist. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruitment drives that took place in 1914 and 1915 played on a number of ?identities? that elites felt might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trigger large-scale enlistment. Of those utilised, Beaven shows that it was invariably the idea of fighting for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?local? that saw the greatest success, although recruitment was more effective amongst the middle class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pals battalions\) than the working class. This is effectively demonstrated by means of a table on page 111. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author also notes a second factor which accounted for higher enrolment rates, namely when recruitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rallies were staged after local employers had laid large numbers of men off work. Explanations for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of recruitment often pinned blame on migrants such as the Jewish community of Leeds or militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers in Coventry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In another early chapter Beaven looks at the way that fears of London?s East End were projected onto his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen cities? slum areas. Portsmouth most closely resembled London, witnessing clerical investigation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty and degeneration and the establishment of settlements to aid the poor. This process was least in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence in Coventry ? a later 19th-century boom town which, whilst containing slum areas, did not generate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar journalistic expose. One reason for this was that, unlike London, all three provincial cities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed by an urban elite who defended the city from critics. In subsequent chapters Beaven explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of Empire Day in each city, the ways in which school children were educated in imperial values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the staging of the 1924?5 Empire Exhibition in London and the way each city made sense of that event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by stressing the ?local?. Perhaps not surprisingly, given that the city was home to the Royal Navy, it was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portsmouth that children received the largest doses of imperial education,. The education system in Coventry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Leeds tended to focus on producing disciplined children for work in the engineering or textile industries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire Day was often used in the English city context as a tool for projecting at, to use post-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parlance, the ?other?. This went to an extreme in Leeds, such that it was commonly thought to be a day for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews in the city. Lord Meath?s \(the architect of Empire Day\) vision for uniformity, as far as celebrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were concerned was thus never realised, as Empire Day was invariably adapted to the local. The case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beryl Aylward is analysed in some depth by the author. Aylward, a Coventry teacher, was suspended in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s when she objected to participating in Empire Day celebrations due to her Quaker beliefs. She was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinstated after public protest. The incident demonstrates how ?political? the celebrations had become by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-war period. It would be interesting to know if this was an isolated example, or whether this episode was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replicated in either of the other two cities. The narrative suggests it was unique.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapter Beaven turns his attentions to popular entertainments in the three cities. Theatre owners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realised that imperial events could be put ?on the bill?. Most obviously, songs and acts integrated Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into their performance. The programmes even incorporated announcements of imperial events, if news broke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out during a performance. In each city celebrations after such news often took a rather different form. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orchestration of Empire by both civic elites and the city press was a significant feature of this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions in each of the three cities having been largely conditioned by the framework of later 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic culture. Such was the nature of Empire, that important news invariably broke overnight and too early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the British morning papers to report, so it was the evening papers which first achieved a news ?scoop? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from distant areas of the British world, adding to their importance in city affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this book will surely be valuable for urban and imperial historians. It demonstrates that Empire did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean something to the working class, but only at certain times and in certain contexts. It is a study which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how regionalised England was in the period under scrutiny and, for those with an interest in the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire, how different this was to the experience of other parts of the British world \(for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australasia\), where regional differences were far less pronounced. Regionalism in England led to significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in the way imperial identity played out amongst city populations. This is therefore a rather more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle interpretation of working-class attitudes than provided by Price and it also opens up some interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines of inquiry for future researchers. Military tribunals, for example, are not covered here and might be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 5927 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigated for their local dimension. The ownership of skill was often the deciding factor in whether men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were conscripted or exempted from fighting from later 1916 up to the end of the war and definitions varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from region to region. Whilst the ?political? is not the primary focus here, it would be interesting to see how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far imperial issues were to the fore in local and national elections in these cities over the period 1870?1939. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quantitative studies of how much imperial news any particular city was getting from its press might also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken. What happened when a Conservative paper was not established in a city? Was Empire projected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in different ways as a result? This book suggests that broad, ?nationalistic? readings of Empire need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplemented by studies of the urban and rural communities that, taken as a whole, constituted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patchwork nation-state in its tangible rather than imagined form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Briggs, )] TJ ET BT 116.684 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Cities)] TJ ET BT 193.028 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harmondsworth, 1968\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.008 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.008 615.507 m 368.996 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of articles by the authors preceded this two-volume study: Anthony Hopkins and Peter Cain,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion 1688?1914)] TJ ET BT 348.344 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 371.672 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism: Crises and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deconstruction 1914-1990)] TJ ET BT 193.004 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.328 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.328 572.739 m 328.316 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Price. )] TJ ET BT 108.680 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Imperial War and the British Working Class: Working Class Attitudes and Reactions to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Boer War 1899-1902)] TJ ET BT 183.668 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1972\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.992 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.992 544.227 m 318.980 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Cites: Landscape, Display and Identity)] TJ ET BT 296.000 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. F. Driver and D. Gilbert \(Manchester, 1999\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire in One City? Liverpool?s Inconvenient Imperial Past)] TJ ET BT 357.656 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. S. Haggerty, A. Webster and N. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White \(Manchester, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.316 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.316 501.459 m 247.304 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Winter and J-L Robert, )] TJ ET BT 188.996 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital Cities at War)] TJ ET BT 292.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 298.352 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paris London Berlin. Vol. 1 )] TJ ET BT 434.696 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital Cities at War)] TJ ET BT 167.036 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 173.372 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paris, London, Berlin 1914-1919. Vol. 2)] TJ ET BT 367.712 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 373.712 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History )] TJ ET BT 466.724 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 458.691 m 118.004 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example B. Porter, )] TJ ET BT 176.672 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Absent Minded Imperialists)] TJ ET BT 330.332 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 336.668 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire Society and Culture in Britain)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2003\) and )] TJ ET BT 159.992 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At Home With the Empire: Metropolitan Culture and the Imperial World)] TJ ET BT 509.972 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall and S. O. Rose \(Cambridge, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.664 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.664 415.923 m 310.652 415.923 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 400.591 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 382.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 382.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1483)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 381.417 m 328.316 381.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 356.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/49506)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.0077 615.8215 368.9957 627.7015 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.3277 573.0535 328.3157 584.9335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.9917 544.5415 318.9797 556.4215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.3157 501.7735 247.3037 513.6535 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 459.0055 118.0037 470.8855 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6637 416.2375 310.6517 428.1175 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 381.7315 328.3157 393.6115 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1483) >> endobj xref 0 52 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004785 00000 n 0000004894 00000 n 0000005004 00000 n 0000005113 00000 n 0000008674 00000 n 0000008802 00000 n 0000008886 00000 n 0000009005 00000 n 0000017880 00000 n 0000017910 00000 n 0000018038 00000 n 0000018074 00000 n 0000018104 00000 n 0000018232 00000 n 0000018268 00000 n 0000018298 00000 n 0000018426 00000 n 0000018462 00000 n 0000018492 00000 n 0000018620 00000 n 0000018656 00000 n 0000018686 00000 n 0000018814 00000 n 0000018850 00000 n 0000018880 00000 n 0000019006 00000 n 0000019042 00000 n 0000019107 00000 n 0000026689 00000 n 0000026815 00000 n 0000032795 00000 n 0000032923 00000 n 0000032978 00000 n 0000033106 00000 n 0000033161 00000 n 0000033289 00000 n 0000033344 00000 n 0000033472 00000 n 0000033527 00000 n 0000033654 00000 n 0000033709 00000 n 0000033837 00000 n 0000033892 00000 n 0000034020 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34116 %%EOF