%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150725234233+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150725234233+01'00') /Title (The Two Latin Cultures and the Foundation of Renaissance Humanism in Medieval Italy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4480 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Two Latin Cultures and the Foundation of Renaissance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Humanism in Medieval Italy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Witt?s new book serves as a prequel to his highly-praised volume, )] TJ ET BT 395.972 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Footsteps of the Ancients: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Humanism from Lovato to Bruni)] TJ ET BT 263.696 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.696 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.696 207.777 m 280.688 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.688 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If the )] TJ ET BT 312.344 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Footsteps)] TJ ET BT 359.012 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( volume located the genesis of humanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the epistolary and literary compositions of late 13th-century Padua \(whereby as a consequence the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional ?father of humanism,? Petrarch, finds his place in humanism?s third generation\), )] TJ ET BT 476.948 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures )] TJ ET BT 78.356 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addresses a broader and more fundamental question: why did Renaissance humanism begin in Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mid 13th century? His work embraces the long view, to be sure, undertaking its inquiry with the 8th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Carolingian conquest of the Lombard kingdom. It also embarks on a deep reading of the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for cultural change, expositing and analyzing source material from archives, manuscript libraries, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly monographs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Witt?s study of ?medieval Italy? focuses on the northern and central Italian peninsula, the area of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original Carolingian conquest or )] TJ ET BT 192.668 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 229.328 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; this area developed a distinct urban society, tied to yet separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from transalpine princes and emperors. The ?two Latin cultures? of the title refer to what Witt calls, first of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1485)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 26 September, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald G. Witt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521764742)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(616pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/co/academic/subjects/history/european-history-after-1450/two-latin-cultures-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation-renaissance-humanism-medieval-italy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Kircher)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.6957 208.0915 280.6877 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8180 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, the ?traditional book culture? \(p. 3\) of grammar study with the aid of ancient authors and, in the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, the legal-documentary culture fostered by notaries. If the first culture, that of the traditional book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initially flourished in cathedral schools and monasteries, an arena of clerical )] TJ ET BT 402.608 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(otium)] TJ ET BT 429.944 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the second, that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal document, came forth under the urgent deadlines of practical affairs, in the urban sweat-shops of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(litigation, run primarily by the laity. The first Latin culture prioritized grammar and then dialectic; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second Latin culture emphasized rhetoric, indeed a simplified rhetoric, one sensitive to the demands of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment. Clergy and laity assumed then, to a large degree, diverse spheres of influence, united by Latinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while devoted to different tasks. What occurred over the course of four centuries, in Witt?s analysis, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melding of interests and influence, a cross-pollination between grammatical and legal study that created the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions for Renaissance humanism: in other words, for reviving the reading and writing of classical Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in response to the ethos of 13th-century northern Italian communes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book commences with discussing how the Lombard kingdom, conquered by Charlemagne in 773, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already possessed both Latin cultures, a traditional book culture and a documentary culture. Charlemagne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage and educational reforms drew book-loving intellectuals northward of the Alps, while an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly lay notariate in Italy maintained the )] TJ ET BT 269.648 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 306.308 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s legal structure. Thus the traditional book culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in northern Italy, such as it remained, entered an extended ?conservative? period \(p. 70\), one devoted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserving texts rather than creating new ones. During the Ottonian Renaissance, the )] TJ ET BT 443.264 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 479.924 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative autonomy from imperial oversight. Urban centers developed in the 10th and 11th centuries, initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the political jurisdiction of bishops. If the Ottonians cultivated grammatical studies based on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of ancient historians and moralists, the foremost Italian teachers of the 10th century, such as Gunzo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Milan, typically applied their talents to the craft of rhetoric. The documentary culture thrived as trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(routes opened and cities grew; and since bishops often sought to employ royal notaries to protect their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, this culture became increasingly vested in the hands of the laity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relative prosperity of the 11th-century )] TJ ET BT 241.304 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 277.964 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( advanced both Latin cultures. The clerical grammar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools, often located in the cathedral chapters, created teachers of renown. Lanfranco of Pavia, on his way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to becoming Archbishop of Canterbury, helped foster a ?renaissance of dialectic? \(p. 139\), first in the )] TJ ET BT 524.240 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then in Francia. Conversely the clerical reform movement, spearheaded by Pietro Damiani, discouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reading of pagan authors, especially in logic and grammar, while developing its own arsenal of rhetorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weapons. This rhetorical focus of the reformers supported a heightened interest in legal studies; a ?legal-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical mentality? \(p. 181\), in Witt?s words, would come to dominate the )] TJ ET BT 402.308 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 438.968 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s intellectual life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a following section, entitled ?The birth of a new order? \(p. 179\), the book analyzes the Investiture struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its revolutionary effect on the society of the )] TJ ET BT 266.972 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 303.632 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Pope Gregory VII marshalled the power of urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular protest to support his reform program, with the result that town-dwelling laity grew more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent from traditional episcopal control by the early 12th century. To quote Witt?s words here: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Intellectually, with the introduction of communal institutions a new space opened up for secular lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, at least one propitious for creative thinking about law, ethics, and politics? \(p. 183\). To have this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new space opened up by one of the most strident ecclesiastical zealots in European history is just one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxes the book ponders. The war of propaganda that the Investiture struggle unleashed led to a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style of argumentation, exemplified by the writings of Placido of Nonantola, which, in its use of organized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rubrics for canonical pronouncements and patristic sources, encouraged the study of canon law as a distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic discipline. At the same time, private grammar schools emerged to prepare notaries for the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric and civil law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next section of the book accounts for the dominance of the legal-rhetorical mentality. As the communes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlarged their political sway in the )] TJ ET BT 203.324 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 239.984 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, their civic leaders employed ambitious laymen trained in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts of Roman and civil law, who created what Witt calls a second book culture, the culture of the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. The traditional book culture, adapting to the dynamic urban circumstances, provided new textbooks in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplified grammar and rhetoric for this legal training. The critical political catalyst for these developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the Peace of Constance between the Emperor Frederick I and communes in 1183, which granted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communes an almost complete autonomy. The city of Bologna both illustrated and energized this legal-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical mindset; its private schools were in the forefront of the three new disciplines: canon law, Roman )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8584 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(civil\) law, and the )] TJ ET BT 127.664 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars dictaminis)] TJ ET BT 196.004 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a streamlined form of rhetoric for the writing of public letters. Bolognese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors were able to achieve the greatest philological success of the Middle Ages, the compilation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justinian?s )] TJ ET BT 89.684 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Corpus iuris civilis)] TJ ET BT 181.700 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as well as to articulate theories about the relationships among Roman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lombard, feudal, and customary law. The skill at reconciling apparently disparate legal statutes found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruition in the field of canon law, notably in the )] TJ ET BT 264.992 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decretum)] TJ ET BT 312.308 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Graziano \(or Gratian\). Canon law was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(henceforth separated from theology, justifying, with legal logic, the papacy?s claim to spiritual preeminence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over temporal kings and princes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The private educational market, responsive to the needs and demands of a growing commercial and urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite, expanded in breadth and depth in the 12th century. It assumed an increasing share of primary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary education in the rudiments of Latin letters; and its portion of advanced education in legal studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would lead to the first )] TJ ET BT 142.340 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(studia )] TJ ET BT 174.680 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the nascent universities of the )] TJ ET BT 340.652 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 377.312 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at Bologna and Padua. Lay teachers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and scholars over the course of time became drivers of the traditional book culture in the )] TJ ET BT 462.596 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 499.256 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their clerical counterparts in Francia and Germany. While Matilda of Tuscany was an early patroness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book culture among the clergy of her court, cities such as Pisa and Bergamo sponsored their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(panegyrics and histories, often written by laymen, that mixed classical and Christian elements. Lay scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also translated medical and scientific works from Greek and Arabic sources. Yet ancient writers for the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part did not enliven the intellectual life of the 12th-century )] TJ ET BT 318.644 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 355.304 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and their relative paucity distinguished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its culture from the humanist awakening in Francia during this period. French studies of grammar and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialectic, conducted with an increasingly theoretical approach, influenced Francia?s adaptation of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisprudence after 1150.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s concluding section examines the way French learning and letters in turn affected the cultural life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 101.336 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the 13th century. By this time, the communes had gained even greater independence, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were also afflicted by antagonisms between classes, by familial vendettas, and by tensions over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopal and princely claims on their sovereignty. Provenal culture, exiled from Francia, found a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home among the )] TJ ET BT 117.008 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 153.668 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s aristocracy, where it often fueled these antagonisms. City governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronted these internal factions through legal means, sponsoring a larger class of ambitious notaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyers. This white-collar brigade required a training in Latin grammar and eventually sought to enhance its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestige by showing erudition beyond the basic )] TJ ET BT 263.660 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars dictaminis)] TJ ET BT 332.000 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. At the center of the educational whirlwind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stood Bologna, which would showcase the )] TJ ET BT 241.664 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 278.324 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s first university. At least nine other urban centers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded )] TJ ET BT 76.340 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(studia)] TJ ET BT 105.680 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, collectives of advanced students and teachers, at this time. Laity of the )] TJ ET BT 453.620 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum )] TJ ET BT 493.280 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presided over both book cultures, the traditional and the legal, by 1250.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When practically-minded civic leaders turned to the study of antiquity in the 13th century, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to understand classical writers because of their advancements in Latin literacy; furthermore, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed the Roman political ethos of )] TJ ET BT 225.332 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(civilitas)] TJ ET BT 263.336 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to counteract the internecine strife besetting their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communes. If Bologna remained the standard-bearer of the legal-rhetorical mentality, Padua, the home of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newer )] TJ ET BT 66.332 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(studium)] TJ ET BT 104.336 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, showed a broader interest in literary studies. These studies, and its notariate, created in Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new book culture, the culture of Italian humanism, forged in the city?s struggles with the tyrant Ezzelino )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(da Romano. The Paduan Lovato de? Lovati, a lay notary and judge, initiated the new book culture by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employing a classicizing poetry and rhetoric that addressed the concerns of the secular commune.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A work of this scope and breadth leads one to inquire into the author's historical method. Witt employs, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to me, a careful logic rounded by skepticism. His book showcases an experienced, thoughtful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian at his craft, constantly alert to the limitations of his sources even as he derives the principles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes that guide his argument forward. The dominant triad of these principles is patronage, politics, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy, in particular the way their interrelation changes over time, producing what he terms the condition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Italian exceptionalism? \(pp. 1, 207\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To illustrate this interrelation for his readers, Witt makes use of categorical distinctions and antitheses: lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus clerical, book culture versus document culture, to cite the two prime examples. Yet these categories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are never programmatic. He qualifies them time and again by uncovering surprising kinships \(e.g, Damiani's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical focus\), and by conscientious references, in both text and notes, to the way that one's conclusions )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5723 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest on fragmentary and partial information: often on a scattering of manuscripts, subject to the accidents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural or human neglect. To cite one passage, in which Witt discusses the popularity of two grammar books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 11th century:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the twelfth century, although comparison of the number of manuscripts of Priscian with those of Papias )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would suggest the opposite, Priscian may already have been replaced in innovative educational institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Papias?s summary. Priscian?s is a large manuscript, laborious to copy and difficult to replace. It would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been carefully warehoused. Papias?s summary version is considerably smaller, easier to copy, and less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to be guarded in monastic libraries. Paradoxically, therefore, if in this case we accept the rule of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival of the unfittest, the smaller number of surviving Papias manuscripts could reflect the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work was more heavily used than was Priscian, both in Italy and in Francia. I see no way of moving from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this assumption, however, to a solid assessment of the extent to which the two grammars served teachers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs on either sides of the Alps \(p. 260\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, as elsewhere in the work, the conclusions are conditional, awaiting further discovery and analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They allow openings for corrobration, elaboration, and revision, for example by those studying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanges among medieval Jewish scholars throughout the peninsula, whose activity has been illuminated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the recent find of a 12th-century Torah in Bologna. Nonetheless, the range and detail of the information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Witt provides in his book are eloquently synthesized into a compelling argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would make two finishing observations on Witt?s historiographical craft. His writing has an eye for literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellence; he wants his readers to notice examples of rich, artistic compositions from the course of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four centuries: e.g., the ?Song of the Watchmen of Modena? \(p. 54\); the verses ?O Roma nobilis? \(p. 83\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Damiani?s ?De die mortis? \(p. 157\); the poetry of Mos del Brolo \(p. 300\); and Enrico of Settimello?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elegia )] TJ ET BT 68.348 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 440\). Secondly, this work offers a perspective on the Middle Ages by a scholar of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanism. As if looking out at the past from the window of the humanist Coluccio Salutati, the late 14th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Florentine chancellor, Witt has a vision for culture shaped by the processes of competition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage, and political strife. But this vision transcends the very assessment of the Middle Ages expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and again by Italian humanists themselves. Rather than looking back at a Dark Age, we see multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renaissances. If these humanists lamented a lack of classical learning prior to their time, they might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoken with accuracy of only the 12th-century )] TJ ET BT 260.300 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 296.960 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but not before it or beyond it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald G. Witt, )] TJ ET BT 143.684 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Footsteps of the Ancients: The Origins of Humanism from Lovato to Bruni)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leiden, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.332 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.332 294.387 m 192.320 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hortulus)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://hortulus-journal.com/journal/volume-8-number-1-2012/carroll/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 239.619 m 366.992 239.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.992 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 236.287 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 218.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 218.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1485)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 217.113 m 328.316 217.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 192.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/65742)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://hortulus-journal.com/journal/volume-8-number-1-2012/carroll/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3317 294.7015 192.3197 306.5815 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 239.9335 366.9917 251.8135 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://hortulus-journal.com/journal/volume-8-number-1-2012/carroll/) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 217.4275 328.3157 229.3075 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1485) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000005207 00000 n 0000005316 00000 n 0000005426 00000 n 0000005535 00000 n 0000009096 00000 n 0000009224 00000 n 0000009308 00000 n 0000009337 00000 n 0000009465 00000 n 0000009501 00000 n 0000009566 00000 n 0000017799 00000 n 0000017864 00000 n 0000026501 00000 n 0000026599 00000 n 0000032375 00000 n 0000032503 00000 n 0000032558 00000 n 0000032685 00000 n 0000032804 00000 n 0000032932 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33028 %%EOF