%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417025014+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417025014+01'00') /Title (Inventing the Egghead: the Battle over Brainpower in American Culture) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4019 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Inventing the Egghead: the Battle over Brainpower in American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aaron Lecklider, who teaches American studies at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, proposes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand the last century of American intellectual life on its head, or at least on its side. In keeping with Antonio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gramsci?s project of looking beyond the world views of traditional intellectuals ? the ones who get paid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write and talk ? he wants to resurrect the working class?s organic intellectuals, the non-professionals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise ?brainpower? even if they?re not credited for it by snobbish conservateurs who carve out exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domains where cultural capital confers privilege upon the best and the brightest. Popular culture, Lecklider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes, has been for the last century ?a critical site in shaping American ideas about brainpower? \(p. 225\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence, he argues, is contested domain. The town has as much of it as the gown. This is a clever idea, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Lecklider, frequently original, carries it a considerable distance?sometimes farther than the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warrants. His starting ? and finishing ? point is that the charge of ?anti-intellectualism? famously and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustively leveled by Richard Hofstadter against American culture is actually self-fulfilling, for Hofstadter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his allies, failing to acknowledge that intellectual life could be conducted by non-professionals, ?opened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians to attack by ordinary women and men for attempting to preserve an elitist category, creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1486)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 26 September, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aaron Lecklider)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812244861)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/15083.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todd Gitlin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6757 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycle of misunderstanding that continues to manifest in contemporary American life? \(p. 222\). Hofstadter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from this point of view, ?bracketed off intellect from the brainpower of ordinary women and men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divorced intelligence from working-class cultural politics? \(p. 222\). By implication, it?s no wonder the left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been crammed into the margins of history. But Lecklider has prepared a clever flanking movement. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict over who is entitled to be regarded as intelligent may even culminate in a happy ending:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reclaiming the history of an organic intellectual tradition in American culture represents a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting point for envisioning intelligence as a shared commodity across social classes; wrested )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the hands of the intellectuals, there?s no telling what the brainpower of the people has the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential to accomplish \(p. 228\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lecklider begins his counter-history in the early decades of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even as managers downgraded ordinary workers, adopting Taylorist methods to ?transform? themselves into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scientists? \(p. 26\), vast numbers of working-class Americans refused to believe that managers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hired hands held a monopoly on brains and intellectual interests. Institutions including amusement parks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comic books, public lectures, and summer schools cultivated the sort of intelligence that did not need ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, might actively resist?the sort of formal education on offer in the decades before 1920, when fewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than one 18?24-year-old in 20 was enrolled in college. Brainpower, Lecklider insists, was the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class struggle. Contra Hofstadter?who looms in the shadows as Lecklider?s foil throughout, emerging as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit bte noire in the epilogue?America as a whole was not ?anti-intellectual.? Rather, at least at the turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 20th century, ?anti-intellectualism coexisted with representations of an intellectually gifted working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class? \(p. 8\). The history of intelligence in American culture, he argues, is ?tortuous?, ?considerably more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated? than the straightforward declinist narrative embraced by scholars such as Hofstadter, Lasch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis Coser, C. Wright Mills, Herbert Marcuse and?odd company on this list?Reinhold Niebuhr \(p. 224\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He does offer a good deal of evidence that brainpower was not exclusive to a single class. Lecklider is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongest when he examines union educational programs, for here he can offer not only the prospectuses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educators but testimony from women who engaged in these programs themselves. The International Ladies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garment Workers Union adopted ?Knowledge Is Power? as a slogan in the 1910s \(p. 71\), followed by ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future of the world lies in the hands of intelligent and well-informed workers? \(p. 76\). Workers? education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began with radical ideals?the residential Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers \(BMSS\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?promot[ed] workers? power in the workplace and society? \(p. 70\)?but over the years it devolved into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical coursework. Lecklider is exacting when such programs fall short of revolutionary ideals, chastising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the BMSS for ?divorcing ? classroom experiences from everyday life in the workplace, thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compartmentalizing intellectual labor as distinct from working in industry? \(p. 78\). To justify his criticism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he cites Bryn Mawr?s dean quoting one student asking ?bemusedly?, upon arriving on campus, ?Where are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the factories? \(p. 78\)? But a single remark, especially one cited by a dean, is hardly conclusive evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that conducting the school on a campus in the summer ?introduced? an ?obstacle? to the correct cultivation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of class consciousness among organic intellectuals \(p. 78\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lecklider is at pains to show that BMSS students struggled to ?resist assimilating to middle-class values and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviors ? by taking an active role in developing the BMSS curriculum and taking charge of discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the program? \(p. 81\). When the students declared their desires, they were pluralist. They wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse things. So, for example, ?Bryn Mawr?s immigrant students agitated for the admission of African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American women, a campaign that was successful by 1926? \(p. 82\). They also expressed an ?urgent wish? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for music appreciation \(p. 81\). Was this a fight to ?resist? middle-class acculturation, or was it an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowering affirmation of a love for music?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, as elsewhere, we see Lecklider straining as he tries to clamp the cultural life of workers into class-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle polarities. Sometimes he views it as helpful to educate well-rounded workers as opposed to equip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizers with directly usable skills; at other times, when a centralized Workers Education Bureau guided )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the American Federation of Labor promotes the decidedly reformist goal of building worker confidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus enabling workers to meet employers ?on equal footing? \(p. 88\), Lecklider is not sure whether such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts, arguably ?middle-class,? also contributed to the molding of some sort of collective working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning to African-American currents, the Harlem Renaissance, and the making of urban black identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lecklider is more interested in writers than schools or musicians. He notes that for all their antagonisms, W. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington shared a ?fundamental agreement that freedom begins in the mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that building alliances begins with expanding access to brainpower? \(p. 96\). His most interesting artifact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Claude McKay?s novel, )] TJ ET BT 163.664 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Home to Harlem )] TJ ET BT 247.316 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1928\), where dialectical possibilities of brain-brawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcendence play out in homoerotic overtones. The bookish character Ray, a Haitian waiter whom a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?repulsive? black character calls ?that theah nigger professor? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.580 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.580 640.515 m 348.572 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 348.572 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is affectionately counterposed to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bosom buddy, Harlem?s brawnier, party-going, opium-smoking, ?primitive? sailor Jake. While some play )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poker, Ray reads )] TJ ET BT 117.992 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime and Punishment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.656 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.656 612.003 m 245.648 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.648 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He quotes from Goethe?s )] TJ ET BT 373.952 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Werther.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.276 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.276 612.003 m 430.268 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.268 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But books don?t make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him ?dopey?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.672 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.672 597.747 m 112.664 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 112.664 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In McKay?s view, Ray:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt more [than Jake] and his range was wider and he could not be satisfied with the easy, simple )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things that sufficed for Jake ? he drank in moreof life than he could distill into active animal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living. Maybe that was why he felt he had to write.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.648 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.648 530.979 m 322.640 530.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lecklider reads )] TJ ET BT 111.320 494.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Home to Harlem )] TJ ET BT 194.972 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?a special form of resolution to the artificial division of mind and body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in modern black fiction? \(p. 112\). He has a point, but it would better be put without the graceless jargon in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he declares that McKay ?prioritizes queer affection? and that ?McKay?s depiction of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship highlights the boundedness of intelligence within black experiences of embodiment? \(p. 114\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The clumsiness of the abstraction is somewhat reminiscent of the passage in )] TJ ET BT 402.632 437.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The German Ideology )] TJ ET BT 510.944 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx and Engels mock the philosophers? absurd habit of disguising a fact )] TJ ET BT 392.636 422.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(?)] TJ ET BT 402.632 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cat eats the mouse?\) with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pseudo-profundity \(?Devouring of the mouse by the cat is based upon the self-consumption of nature?\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Too commonly, Lecklider?s conceptual categories are too clumsy to enfold the dynamic complexity of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting story; and so schematic as to be overwhelmed by the preoccupations of the recent past)] TJ ET BT 501.596 368.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 507.596 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most Procrustean, he stretches shreds of evidence into a shape that suits his overall argument. Loading the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shreds with significance, he tends to stretch the evidence past the breaking point. Thus, he devotes an entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter to the image of Albert Einstein and the theory of relativity after the First World War. This is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than one-tenth the entire length of the book, but what it delivers is meager. Lecklider reads relativity as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implying ?that ordinary people?s observations were always wrong? \(p. 51\), when in fact it implied that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(everyone?s)] TJ ET BT 87.992 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( everyday observations?including physicists? and capitalists??were, )] TJ ET BT 428.264 282.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for certain purposes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong. He cites at some length a single conservative?s allegation that relativity was ?a symptom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevism in an unstable world?: the illusion of the curvature of space, wrote this worthy, Columbia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astronomer Charles Lane Poor, was what happened ?when Bolshevism enters the world of science of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course!? \(p. 59, citing an article by Poor called ?Jazz in the scientific world?\). But how representative was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poor? Lecklider ends this chapter in a conceptual blur:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though representations of Einstein failed to resolve the contradictions at stake in defining )] TJ ET BT 64.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American identities following World War I, his brainpower was used to filter these )] TJ ET BT 64.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions through a fascinating individual whose legacy was the subject of contentious )] TJ ET BT 64.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lecklider?s chapter on pictorial and literary representations during the Great Depression is his most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious and rewarding. ?Depression-era representations of intelligence within mass culture reflected a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producerist ideology that suggested brains could be trusted precisely because they were inextricable from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material production? \(p. 125\). Under the sponsorship of the New Deal?s Works Progress Administration, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.5797 640.8295 348.5717 652.7095 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.6557 612.3175 245.6477 624.1975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.2757 612.3175 430.2677 624.1975 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.6717 598.0615 112.6637 609.9415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.6477 531.2935 322.6397 543.1735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7664 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posters promoted libraries for all, not just brainiacs. If anything, the worker-hero of the 1930s was muscle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound, not effete. ?New Deal posters recast workers in the center of civic life by aligning modern machinery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the pursuit of intelligence? \(p. 143\). Meanwhile, left-wing writers heralded the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?proletarian cognoscenti? \(p. 146\), while one ahead-of-her-time novelist, Tess Slesinger, in )] TJ ET BT 475.592 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unpossessed )] TJ ET BT 99.008 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1934\), sent up radical intellectuals for their estrangement from the sweaty body)] TJ ET BT 484.268 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 490.268 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here too Lecklider might be accused of Procrustean overstretch, he does intriguingly suggest that, in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, at least, it is within same-sex relationships that body and mind best match.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What then of the explosive image of brainpower at work that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki? Images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear physicists in fiction and film are much-visited territory for scholars of Cold War culture )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.940 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.940 669.027 m 510.932 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 510.932 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps this explains why, when Lecklider turns to the aftermath of the Second World War, he dwells on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrow case: how journalists depicted the Oak Ridge, Tennessee nuclear laboratory as a nicely domesticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home town rather than the ?subversion, elitism, danger, and social transgression? \(p. 190\) far more visible in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular magazines, newsreels, and science fiction when they addressed, directly or indirectly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monstrosity of the Bomb. He pays little attention to the mad scientist so beloved of popular imagery in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankenstein tradition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, in his climactic chapter, he ushers onstage the caricature of the egghead, that sexless or effeminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archetype, weirdly subversive, contemptuous of ?the people,? a figure tailor-made to characterize Adlai )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevenson in two successive presidential elections. In popular imagery, why did the egghead loom so large, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so contemptible? Lecklider answers his own question:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cold War egghead refracted cultural fears about the challenges to the American way of life )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posed by homophile politics, antiracist social movements, and a left that refused to disappear in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of intimidation tactics, blacklists and HUAC belligerence \(p. 192\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lecklider, however, once again overplays his hand, focusing sharply, almost exclusively, on materials that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make his point. To flesh out the image of the egghead, he devotes more than a dozen pages to the exegesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two 1950s depictions of intellectuals as nave crypto-Communists in the late 1950s: a single obscure science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction story \(?The chicken and the egghead?\), written by Frank Fenton, a journeyman Hollywood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(screenwriter, and a play, )] TJ ET BT 154.640 353.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Egghead, )] TJ ET BT 224.300 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Molly Thacher Kazan, a thinly disguised defense of her husband )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elia for having ?named names??important, Lecklider insists, as ?one of the most complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the egghead in the Cold War era? \(p. 214\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But why do these particular two artifacts deserve such attention? Why not consider, say, the hapless but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endearing )] TJ ET BT 84.332 284.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mister Peepers, )] TJ ET BT 163.316 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bespectacled \(a sure sign of eggheadedness\) junior high school science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teacher who had a successful three-year sitcom run \(1952?5\)? Why not its complement, the long-running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Riley )] TJ ET BT 95.684 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1944?51 on radio, 1949?50 and 1953?8 on television\), in which one of the networks? few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class regulars is a lovable oaf-dope? Why not Meyer Levin?s best-selling novel of 1956, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Compulsion, )] TJ ET BT 98.024 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the Leopold-Loeb case of the two Chicago )] TJ ET BT 350.972 227.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wunderkind )] TJ ET BT 412.628 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teenagers who, transfixed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a perverse interpretation of Nietzsche, committed a murder to prove they were )] TJ ET BT 412.916 213.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bermenschen? )] TJ ET BT 493.892 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you judge these popular works, aren?t they more significant than a sci-fi story and a briefly running play?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, Lecklider does not refute Hofstadter but does sketch a counter-current open to elaboration, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens up more questions. How did it happen that ?elitism? became the )] TJ ET BT 375.644 158.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bte noire )] TJ ET BT 426.968 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the oilman scion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale man William F. Buckley, Jr., and his legions of devotees? More could be done to trace the imagery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brainpower and eggheads through the saga of American conservatism?s on-again, off-again marriage with \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace )] TJ ET BT 59.672 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lecklider\) anti-intellectual populism of the Joseph McCarthy-Richard Nixon-George Wallace-Sarah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palin sort, with the eggheads transported to Washington, where they transmogrified into the striped-pants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alger Hiss and demoniac ?pointy-headed bureaucrats?. How did the fey egghead evolve into the elitist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bogeyman: viz., the Al Gore \(Harvard ?69\) against whom George W. Bush \(Andover ?64, Yale ?68\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully presented himself in 2000 as the people?s tribune. The figures of elitist and counter-elitist in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.9397 669.3415 510.9317 681.2215 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 5387 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture amply deserve a sequel, all the way down to Sarah Palin?s failed, indeed counter-productive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasts at ?the lamestream media? who pilloried her for claiming insight into Russian policies because ?You )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can actually see Russia from land here in Alaska?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claude McKay, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Home to Harlem )] TJ ET BT 226.652 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1928\), p. 114.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.960 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.960 701.043 m 407.948 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Home to Harlem, )] TJ ET BT 150.668 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 166.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 686.787 m 237.656 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Home to Harlem, )] TJ ET BT 150.668 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 272.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 672.531 m 237.656 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Home to Harlem, )] TJ ET BT 150.668 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 259.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 658.275 m 237.656 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Home to Harlem, )] TJ ET BT 150.668 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 265.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 644.019 m 237.656 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See especially Paul Boyer, )] TJ ET BT 194.996 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(By the Bomb?s Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Atomic Age )] TJ ET BT 140.336 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.972 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.972 615.507 m 308.960 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S-USIH)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://s-usih.org/2013/07/eggheads-of-the-world-unite-you-have-nothing-to-lose-but-your-yolks.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 560.739 m 519.968 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 522.968 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 532.227 m 233.684 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.684 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LSE Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/lsereviewofbooks/2013/08/09/book-review-inventing-the-egghead-the-battle-over-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 503.715 m 534.272 503.715 l S BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brainpower-in-american-culture/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 489.459 m 190.628 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.628 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Point Magazine)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thepointmag.com/2013/reviews/watch-the-professor)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 460.947 m 342.644 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.644 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 457.615 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 439.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 439.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1486)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 438.441 m 328.316 438.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 413.464 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/63563)] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://s-usih.org/2013/07/eggheads-of-the-world-unite-you-have-nothing-to-lose-but-your-yolks.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=H-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.008 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amstdy&month=1305&week=e&msg=zPGm28fSNpWkPMlQ4wlqpg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.723 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/lsereviewofbooks/2013/08/09/book-review-inventing-the-egghead-the-battle-over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brainpower-in-american-culture/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.thepointmag.com/2013/reviews/watch-the-professor)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 353.9597 701.3575 407.9477 713.2375 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type 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