%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 43 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140730101605+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140730101605+01'00') /Title (An Environmental History of the Middle Ages: The Crucible of Nature) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4598 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(An Environmental History of the Middle Ages: The Crucible of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nature)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Aberth is fascinated by plagues as disasters, as evidenced by his series of books with titles like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From the Brink of the Apocalypse)] TJ ET BT 196.328 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\), )] TJ ET BT 237.320 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Death)] TJ ET BT 317.972 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\), and )] TJ ET BT 379.292 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plagues in World History)] TJ ET BT 502.292 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 540.284 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 540.284 222.033 m 554.276 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His latest book )] TJ ET BT 109.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Environmental History of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 329.000 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is likewise centered on the Black Death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1348?1350 as a turning point. Aberth bases his book on the contention that ?the unprecedented ecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crises of the late Middle Ages forced a radical rethinking of environmental attitudes, one that anticipates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new ecology? of today? \(p. 8\). As this statement indicates, Aberth wanted to write an intellectual history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?what medieval people )] TJ ET BT 147.656 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thought)] TJ ET BT 184.328 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( about their natural surroundings, rather than what they )] TJ ET BT 451.616 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 466.952 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to them? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(author?s emphasis, p. 10\). He argues that the Middle Ages went through four phases in attitude toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature: eschatological in the late Antique period, adversarial in the early Middle Ages, collaborative in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high Middle Ages, and a more sophisticated nuanced view of the environment that combined the adversarial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the collaborative after the Black Death. Keeping Aberth?s own aims in mind, I will evaluate how well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book succeeds as an environmental history of the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aberth makes it clear from the preface that he believes the ?environment? is the ?natural world? excluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1487)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 3 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Aberth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415779463)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415779463/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dolly Jrgensen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 540.2837 222.3475 554.2757 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7406 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humans and that urban environmental history will be excluded from his story \(p. xiv\). To match this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition, Aberth splits the environment into three aspects ? ?Air, water, earth?, ?Forest? and ?Animals? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with each aspect organized as one long chapter. This is a perplexing choice, since the effects of plague are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most acutely recorded within urban areas where people lived and Aberth wants to focus on the Black Death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as turning point. With a definition of environment limited to those things outside of humans, Aberth sets up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book with ?natural? aspects as the focus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section ?Air, water, earth? is the one that stays closest to Aberth?s stated aim of an intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. While there are some practical details about harnessing water and wind power for milling, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of the chapter is dedicated to philosophical treatises about the nature of the elements. Aberth begins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a discussion of Greek understandings of how natural elements influenced human health and the lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects of that knowledge on Arabic and western European medical thought. According to Aberth, the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages were characterized by an ?adversarial view? of nature \(p. 5\), which in this chapter is evidenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in attempts to control the weather in hagiographical literature. With the warming of the climate in the high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages, people became more optimistic about nature, moving into the third type of human-nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship, collaborative. The coming of plague in the 14th century forced a re-evaluation of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship, as ideas of man being able to affect the environment through pollution and poison became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two main shortcomings of the first section. One is that by grouping air, water, and earth into 65 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages, none of these elements get the extended treatment they deserve. Medieval environmental historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have produced much scholarship on both water and land issues )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.296 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.296 500.211 m 353.288 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.288 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, so there is certainly much more that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been said about each of these. While the grouping makes sense for Aberth?s focus on the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these elements in medicinal humor theory, it limits his ability to investigate each as environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components. The second problem is that Aberth?s timeline as sketched leaves out documents and data that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not match the author?s phases; for example, there are medieval documents claiming that urban pollution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads to health problems through air poisoning long before the plague, but these are not discussed. If they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been, Aberth may not have been able to make a claim for a radical break and reordering of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with nature that he sees with the plague.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section, ?Forests?, moves away from Aberth?s history of ideas to a history of practicalities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While he starts with a section on pre-Christian tree cults, he moves quickly to woodland management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices and the legal structures of the medieval forest, which takes up the majority of the section. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration of the English forest, particularly through the eyre courts, is discussed in great detail. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, there is a short discussion of the idea of forest and wilderness in literary and philosophical texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by a conclusion about reafforestation after the Black Death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the forestry section contains a wealth of information about medieval forests, I think it fails to live )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to Aberth?s goals on two counts. First, unlike the previous section, which makes an extended argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a qualitative change in the human-nature relationship because of the Black Death, this chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions only the regrowth of woods in England as a result of the Black Death. This extremely brief section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not nearly enough to prove a ?radical rethinking of environmental attitudes? \(p. 8\) toward the forest. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers do not get any sense that there was a shift toward the combined adversarial-collaborative relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Aberth defined in the introduction. Second, the chapter is almost exclusively based on the situation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. The vast majority of this section, from pages 97 to 123, is devoted to the English royal forest ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woodland and forests in all the other parts of Europe combined gets five pages. Considering the wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on medieval woodland and forest in other parts of Europe, including works by Chris Wickham, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Szab, Richard Keyser, and Karl Appuhn, such a narrow presentation of medieval forest is inexcusable.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 119.811 m 48.008 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section, titled ?Beasts?, covers animals, including farm livestock, pets, and hunted game. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of farm livestock does a good job of mixing philosophical treatises that dealt with questions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether or not animals had reason and/or a soul, agricultural manuals that recommended practices, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical data about livestock keeping. Aberth also provides a compelling juxtaposition of hunting romance )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.2957 500.5255 353.2877 512.4055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 120.1255 48.0077 132.0055 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8399 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus reality. The final third of this section argues that humans became closer to their animal companions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late medieval period after the Black Death, exchanging diseases and making animals partners in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bestiality and magical practices. While Aberth?s attribution of these developments to the Black Death is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely convincing, the section as a whole is probably the most aligned with writing an environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history that encompasses both ideologies and practices. Yet, even here, Aberth is very limited in what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses as ?beasts? ? he ignores non-local animals, like elephants which were put into medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(menageries or killed for ivory, and only mentions sea mammals in two sentences, despite a recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history book on medieval whaling by Vicki Szabo.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.324 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.324 695.283 m 364.316 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I applaud Aberth?s attempt to write an environmental history of the Middle Ages ? one is sorely needed ? yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I cannot help but think that this particular approach to medieval environmental history does more harm than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good. First, Aberth?s litany of facts makes the book difficult to read. The book is full of rich details about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval environment that scholars will be able to mine for their own works, which certainly makes it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable addition to scholarship; but that attention to detail has also produced an incredibly dense work that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students \(and many others\) will find difficult to make it through.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, and this is the more fundamental objection, Aberth fails to engage with the discipline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history. By saying he will limit his discussion to nature outside of humans and excluding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban sphere, he ignores the rich historiography of urban environmental history in the seminal works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Rosen, Joel Tarr and Martin Melosi, who have successfully argued for the inclusion of the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space in environmental histories.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.996 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.996 514.467 m 205.988 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 205.988 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Aberth could, of course, have justified his decision based on arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Donald Worster about the focus of environmental history )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.972 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.972 500.211 m 340.964 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.964 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but he doesn?t. In fact, Aberth does not cite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a single work of general environmental history theory ? not Donald Hughes?s )] TJ ET BT 409.952 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is Environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History?)] TJ ET BT 76.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, not William Cronon?s ?The trouble with wilderness; or, getting back to the wrong nature?, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John McNeill?s ?Observations on the nature and culture of environmental history?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.616 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.616 457.443 m 447.608 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.608 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Aberth says that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late medieval mindset anticipates today?s ?new ecology?, but he is either unaware of or uninterested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging with any environmental historian?s scholarship on what modern ecological thinking entails. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aberth?s own environmental ethos is laid out in the preface: Vermont as ?forest wilderness? is ?one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most heartening environmental success stories? \(p. xiii\), an ethos which he carries into his analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval environment. But if he had been familiar with the environmental history literature, he might not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have limited himself to wilderness and nature protection as the only environmental successes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aberth defines ?new ecology? as the ?mutual, two-way dialogue between humans and nature that drives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical change? \(p. 2\), but in the book, either mankind or nature always has the upper hand, forcing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other to move in a particular way. In his narrative, only environmental crisis brings humans to their knees; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crucible of Nature)] TJ ET BT 142.352 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the book?s subtitle is the 14th-century famine followed by plague that Aberth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims forged the modern human-nature relationship. Yet I remain unconvinced that the 14th-century events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created the radical break Aberth believes in, at least not from the evidence he presents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aberth has gathered together many interesting glimpses into the interactions between humans and nature in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval period, and although these may be useful as data points, he hasn?t woven them into a tale about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reciprocal relationship. In other words, while Aberth has written a history about some aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval environment, he hasn?t written an environmental history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 141.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Aberth, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague and Death in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Later Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 156.344 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2001\); )] TJ ET BT 238.004 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Death: The Great Mortality of 1348?1350: A Brief )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History with Documents)] TJ ET BT 180.680 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2005\); )] TJ ET BT 301.652 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plagues in World History)] TJ ET BT 424.652 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lanham, MD, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.300 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.300 111.315 m 560.960 111.315 l S BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 97.059 m 90.344 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For water, see especially Richard Hoffmann, ?Economic development and aquatic ecosystems in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Europe?, )] TJ ET BT 156.992 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 292.976 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 101 \(1996\), 631?69; essays in )] TJ ET BT 445.628 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working with Water in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 146.996 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Paolo Squatriti \(Leiden, 2000\); and Ellen Arnold, ?Engineering miracles: water )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.3237 695.5975 364.3157 707.4775 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.9957 514.7815 205.9877 526.6615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.9717 500.5255 340.9637 512.4055 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.6157 457.7575 447.6077 469.6375 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.2997 111.6295 560.9597 123.5095 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 97.3735 90.3437 109.2535 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 6902 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control, conversion, and the creation of a religious landscape in the medieval Ardennes?, )] TJ ET BT 493.256 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Environment )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and History)] TJ ET BT 121.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13 \(2007\), 477?502. For agriculture and the land, some examples include Petra van Dam, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Sinking peat bogs: environmental change in Holland, 1350?1550?, )] TJ ET BT 392.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Environmental History)] TJ ET BT 502.976 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 \(2001\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32?45; Lisa J. Kiser, ?The garden of St. Francis: plants, landscape, and economy in thirteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy?, )] TJ ET BT 97.340 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Environmental History)] TJ ET BT 207.668 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 \(2003\), 229?45; and Verena Winiwarter, ?Prolegomena to a history )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of soil knowledge in Europe?, in )] TJ ET BT 223.664 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soils and Societies: Perspectives from Environmental History)] TJ ET BT 520.304 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. McNeill and Verena Winiwarter \(Isle of Harris, 2006\), 177?215.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.264 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.264 709.539 m 446.252 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Wickham, )] TJ ET BT 145.676 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Power: Studies in Italian and European Social History, 400?1200)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1994\); Peter Szab, ?Sources for the historian of medieval woodland?, in )] TJ ET BT 465.620 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People and Nature )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Historical Perspective)] TJ ET BT 184.004 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jzsef Laszlovszky and Peter Szab \(Budapest, 2003\), 265?88; Richard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keyser, ?The transformation of traditional woodland management: commercial sylviculture in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Champagne?, )] TJ ET BT 179.660 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 303.656 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32 \(2009\), 353?84; and Karl Appuhn, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Forest on the Sea: Environmental Expertise in Renaissance Venice)] TJ ET BT 396.296 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, MD, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.620 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.620 624.003 m 553.616 624.003 l S BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 609.747 m 78.008 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vicki Ellen Szabo, )] TJ ET BT 157.340 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monstrous Fishes and the Mead-Dark Sea: Whaling in the Medieval North Atlantic)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leiden, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.332 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.332 581.235 m 192.320 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Rosen and Joel Tarr, ?The importance of an urban perspective in environmental history?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Urban History)] TJ ET BT 187.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 20 \(1994\), 299?310; Martin V. Melosi, ?Humans, cities, and nature: how )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do cities fit in the material world?? )] TJ ET BT 234.992 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Urban History)] TJ ET BT 357.992 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(2010\), 3?21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.312 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.312 538.467 m 497.300 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Worster, ?Doing environmental history?, in )] TJ ET BT 314.648 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Environmental History)] TJ ET BT 174.344 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Donald Worster \(Cambridge, 1988\), 289?307.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.300 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.300 509.955 m 473.288 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Hughes, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is Environmental History?)] TJ ET BT 300.668 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\); William Cronon, ?The trouble )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with wilderness; or, getting back to the wrong nature?, in )] TJ ET BT 341.312 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Place in Nature)] TJ ET BT 140.012 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. William Cronon \(New York, 1995\), 69?90; John McNeill, ?Observations on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature and culture of environmental history?, )] TJ ET BT 283.640 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET BT 377.636 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 42 \(2003\), 5?43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.956 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.956 452.931 m 516.944 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medievalists.net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/16/an-environmental-history-of-the-middle-ages-the-crucible-of-nature/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 398.163 m 560.600 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 380.575 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 362.795 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 362.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1487)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 361.401 m 328.316 361.401 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 336.424 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/66561)] TJ ET BT 34.016 307.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/16/an-environmental-history-of-the-middle-ages-the-crucible-of-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.2637 709.8535 446.2517 721.7335 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.6197 624.3175 553.6157 636.1975 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 610.0615 78.0077 621.9415 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3317 581.5495 192.3197 593.4295 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.3117 538.7815 497.2997 550.6615 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.2997 510.2695 473.2877 522.1495 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.9557 453.2455 516.9437 465.1255 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 398.4775 560.5997 410.3575 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/16/an-environmental-history-of-the-middle-ages-the-crucible-of-nature/) >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 361.7155 328.3157 373.5955 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1487) >> endobj xref 0 63 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000005309 00000 n 0000005418 00000 n 0000005528 00000 n 0000005637 00000 n 0000009198 00000 n 0000009326 00000 n 0000009410 00000 n 0000009439 00000 n 0000009567 00000 n 0000009603 00000 n 0000009694 00000 n 0000017153 00000 n 0000017183 00000 n 0000017311 00000 n 0000017347 00000 n 0000017377 00000 n 0000017503 00000 n 0000017539 00000 n 0000017658 00000 n 0000026110 00000 n 0000026140 00000 n 0000026268 00000 n 0000026304 00000 n 0000026334 00000 n 0000026462 00000 n 0000026498 00000 n 0000026528 00000 n 0000026656 00000 n 0000026692 00000 n 0000026722 00000 n 0000026850 00000 n 0000026886 00000 n 0000027014 00000 n 0000027069 00000 n 0000027194 00000 n 0000027249 00000 n 0000027389 00000 n 0000034344 00000 n 0000034472 00000 n 0000034527 00000 n 0000034655 00000 n 0000034710 00000 n 0000034836 00000 n 0000034891 00000 n 0000035019 00000 n 0000035074 00000 n 0000035202 00000 n 0000035257 00000 n 0000035385 00000 n 0000035440 00000 n 0000035568 00000 n 0000035623 00000 n 0000035750 00000 n 0000035908 00000 n 0000036036 00000 n trailer << /Size 63 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36132 %%EOF